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1.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 259-267, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543143

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes the COVID-19 infection. Spike proteins are the most important proteins found on its capsule using the host's ACE2 receptors to invade respiratory cells. The natural course of the COVID-19 infection is variable, from asymptomatic to severe and potentially fatal. A small percentage of the severely infected patients will end up in an intensive care unit for ventilatory support. Elderly male patients with pre-existing medical conditions and smokers are at a disproportionate high risk to develop severe complications. Studies have shown that deaths occur due to a dysregulated immune system that overreacts, producing a plethora of cytokines, leading to the so-called "cytokine storm" phenomenon. In this direction, many drugs that are used in the everyday practice of Rheumatologists have been used. Indeed, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-1 and IL-6 have been shown to be the pivotal cytokines expressed, and anti-cytokine treatment has been tried so far with various results. In addition, hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial drug, has been shown to reduce COVID-19 symptoms. Other drugs have also been used, such as intravenous pulses of immunoglobulins, and colchicine. Robust clinical trials are needed in order to find the suitable treatment. Current data indicate that hydroxychloroquine and cytokine targeting therapies may prove helpful in the fight of SARS-CoV-2 in appropriately selected patients.

4.
Med Hypotheses ; 153: 110622, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270617

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world with tremendous morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In-hospital treatment addresses the multifaceted nature of the illness including initial viral replication, cytokine storm, and endothelial injury with thrombosis. We identified nine reports of early treatment outcomes in COVID-19 nursing home patients. Multi-drug therapy including hydroxychloroquine with one or more anti-infectives, corticosteroids, and antithrombotic anti-blood clotting agents can be extended to seniors in the nursing home setting without hospitalization. Data from nine studies found hydroxychloroquine-based multidrug regimens were associated with a statistically significant > 60% reduction in mortality. Going forward, we conclude that early empiric treatment for the elderly with COVID-19 in the nursing home setting (or similar congregated settings with elderly residents/patients e.g. LTF or ALF) has a reasonable probability of success and acceptable safety. This group remains our highest at-risk group and warrants acute treatment focus prior to symptoms worsening. Given the rapidity and severity of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in nursing homes, in-center treatment of acute COVID-19 patients is a reasonable strategy to reduce the risks of hospitalization and death. If elderly high-risk patients in such congregated nursing home type settings are allowed to worsen with no early treatment, they may be too sick and fragile to benefit from in-hospital therapeutics and are at risk for pulmonary failure, life-ending micro-thrombi of the lungs, kidneys etc. The issue is timing of therapeutics, and we argue that early treatment before hospitalization, is the right time and can potentially save lives, especially among our higher-risk elderly populations hit hardest by severe illness and death from COVID-19. We must reiterate, we are talking about 'early' treatment before the disease is far along in the disease sequelae where the patient then needs hospitalization and aggressive interventions. We are referring to the initial days e.g. day one, post infection when symptoms emerge or there is strong clinical suspicion. This early therapeutic option deserves serious and urgent consideration by the medical establishment and respective decision-makers. Doctors must be allowed their clinical discretion in how they optimally treat their patients. Doctors must be brave and trust their skilled judgements and do all to save the lives of their patients. We therefore hypothesize that early outpatient ambulatory treatment, once initiated as soon as symptoms begin in high-risk positive persons, would significantly reduce hospitalizations and prevent deaths. Specifically, the provision of early multi-drug sequenced therapy with repurposed drugs will reduce hospitalization and death in elderly patients being cared for in long-term-care facilities. The most important implications of our hypothesis are: 1) hospitalizations and deaths would be reduced 2) transmission would be reduced due to the mitigation of symptoms and 3) recovery following infection and treatment provides for natural exposure immunity that is broad based, durable, and robust (helping towards natural immunity within the population). The end result is reduced strain on hospitals and systems that would allow for other non-COVID illnesses to receive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Nursing Homes , Outpatients
5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256661

ABSTRACT

To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with sarcoidosis from a large multicenter cohort from Southern Europe and to identify the risk factors associated with a more complicated infection. We searched for patients with sarcoidosis presenting with SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control guidelines) among those included in the SarcoGEAS Registry, a nationwide, multicenter registry of patients fulfilling the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders 1999 classification criteria for sarcoidosis. A 2:1 age-sex-matched subset of patients with sarcoidosis without SARS-CoV-2 infection was selected as control population. Forty-five patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified (28 women, mean age 55 years). Thirty-six patients presented a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and 14 were hospitalized (12 required supplemental oxygen, 2 intensive care unit admission and 1 mechanical ventilation). Four patients died due to progressive respiratory failure. Patients who required hospital admission had an older mean age (64.9 vs. 51.0 years, p = 0.006), a higher frequency of baseline comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (64% vs. 23%, p = 0.016), diabetes mellitus (43% vs. 13%, p = 0.049) and chronic liver/kidney diseases (36% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) and presented more frequently fever (79% vs. 35%, p = 0.011) and dyspnea (50% vs. 3%, p = 0.001) in comparison with patients managed at home. Age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis identified the age at diagnosis of SARS-Cov-2 infection as the only independent variable associated with hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio 1.18, 95% conficence interval 1.04-1.35). A baseline moderate/severe pulmonary impairment in function tests was associated with a higher rate of hospitalization but the difference was not statistically significant (50% vs. 23%, p = 0.219). A close monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection in elderly patients with sarcoidosis, especially in those with baseline cardiopulmonary diseases and chronic liver or renal failure, is recommended. The low frequency of severe pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis from Southern Europe may explain the weak prognostic role of baseline lung impairment in our study, in contrast to studies from other geographical areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sarcoidosis/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , France , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Sarcoidosis/mortality , Sarcoidosis/physiopathology , Sarcoidosis/therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2506, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216457

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can directly infect human kidney, thus leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Here, we perform a retrospective analysis of clinical parameters from 85 patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); moreover, kidney histopathology from six additional COVID-19 patients with post-mortem examinations was performed. We find that 27% (23/85) of patients exhibited AKI. The elderly patients and cases with comorbidities (hypertension and heart failure) are more prone to develop AKI. Haematoxylin & eosin staining shows that the kidneys from COVID-19 autopsies have moderate to severe tubular damage. In situ hybridization assays illustrate that viral RNA accumulates in tubules. Immunohistochemistry shows nucleocapsid and spike protein deposits in the tubules, and immunofluorescence double staining shows that both antigens are restricted to the angiotensin converting enzyme-II-positive tubules. SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the expression of hypoxic damage-associated molecules, including DP2 and prostaglandin D synthase in infected tubules. Moreover, it enhances CD68+ macrophages infiltration into the tubulointerstitium, and complement C5b-9 deposition on tubules is also observed. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects human kidney to mediate tubular pathogenesis and AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Tubules/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Kidney Function Tests , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Young Adult
8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(4): 375-383, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a substantial threat to the lives of the elderly, especially those with neurodegenerative diseases, and vaccination against viral infections is recognized as an effective measure to reduce mortality. However, elderly patients with neurodegenerative diseases often suffer from abnormal immune function and take multiple medications, which may complicate the role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Currently, there is no expert consensus on whether SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are suitable for patients with neurodegenerative diseases. AREAS COVERED: We searched Pubmed to conduct a systematic review of published studies, case reports, reviews, meta-analyses, and expert guidelines on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on neurodegenerative diseases and the latest developments in COVID-19 vaccines. We also summarized the interaction between vaccines and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The compatibility of future SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with neurodegenerative diseases is discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Vaccines enable the body to produce immunity by activating the body's immune response. The pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is complex, and these diseases often involve abnormal immune function, which can substantially affect the safety and effectiveness of vaccines. In short, this article provides recommendations for the use of vaccine candidates in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085038

ABSTRACT

To predict the clinical outcome of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), we examined relationships among epidemiological data, viral load, and disease severity. We examined viral loads of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in fatal (15 cases), symptomatic/survived (133 cases), and asymptomatic cases (138 cases) using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We examined 5768 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and attempted to detect the SARS-CoV-2 genome using RT-qPCR. Among them, the viral genome was detected using the method for the 370 NPS samples with a positive rate of 6.4%. A comparison of each age showed that the fatal case was higher than the survived case and asymptomatic patients. Survived cases were older than asymptomatic patients. Notably, the viral load in the fatal cases was significantly higher than in symptomatic or asymptomatic cases (p < 0.05). These results suggested that a high viral load of the SARS-CoV-2 in elderly patients at an early stage of the disease results in a poor outcome. We should, therefore, intervene early to prevent a severe stage of the disease in such cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101810, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065551

ABSTRACT

The recent global pandemic due to COVID-19 is caused by a type of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite rigorous efforts worldwide to control the spread and human to human transmission of this virus, incidence and death due to COVID-19 continue to rise. Several drugs have been tested for treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine. While a number of studies have shown that hydroxychloroquine can prolong QT interval, potentially increasing risk of ventricular arrhythmias and Torsade de Pointes, its effects on immune cell function have not been extensively examined. In the current review, an overview of coronaviruses, viral entry and pathogenicity, immunity upon coronavirus infection, and current therapy options for COVID-19 are briefly discussed. Further based on preclinical studies, we provide evidences that i) hydroxychloroquine impairs autophagy, which leads to accumulation of damaged/oxidized cytoplasmic constituents and interferes with cellular homeostasis, ii) this impaired autophagy in part reduces antigen processing and presentation to immune cells and iii) inhibition of endosome-lysosome system acidification by hydroxychloroquine not only impairs the phagocytosis process, but also potentially alters pulmonary surfactant in the lungs. Therefore, it is likely that hydroxychloroquine treatment may in fact impair host immunity in response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in elderly patients or those with co-morbidities. Further, this review provides a rationale for developing and selecting antiviral drugs and includes a brief review of traditional strategies combined with new drugs to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation/drug effects , Antiviral Agents , Autophagic Cell Death , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagic Cell Death/drug effects , Autophagic Cell Death/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects
11.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2021: 8840536, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039931

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic causing multiple fatalities and morbidities worldwide. We report a case of severe pneumonia causing acute respiratory distress syndrome due to a coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium abscessus in an elderly patient with multiple myeloma in Florida, USA. Case Presentation. An 84-year-old male with a medical history significant for multiple myeloma not in remission was sent to the emergency department to rule out COVID-19 infection prior to continuing his chemotherapy sessions. At presentation, he had nonspecific mild symptoms and an unremarkable physical examination. He had significant blood test findings including serum lactate dehydrogenase 373 U/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein 17.40 mg/l, and ferritin 415 ng/ml. Xpert-SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Chest radiograph revealed patchy areas of interstitial infiltrates in mid to lower lung zones. During his hospitalization course, his oxygenation deteriorated, requiring mechanical intubation. Repeat chest radiograph showed worsening bilateral infiltrates. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics and eventually weaned off mechanical intubation and extubated. On the 11th day of admission, he was found to be bradycardic and in shock, and he was reintubated. His labs showed worsening inflammatory markers along with kidney dysfunction to the point of requiring renal replacement therapy. He received both convalescent plasma and remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Eventually, repeat blood cultures came back positive for the growth of acid-fast beaded bacilli. While awaiting final culture and sensitivity reports, his antibiotics were upgraded to cover possible nocardia infection. Repeat blood and sputum cultures resulted in growth of AFB bacilli Mycobacterium abscessus 1 week after. Conclusions: This case report highlights the importance of keeping a broad differential and considering multiple coinfections, including atypical ones during this COVID-19 pandemic, such as the one that was discussed above, Mycobacterium abscessus, in order to provide goal-directed therapy.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(23): 24462-24474, 2020 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000738

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has developed into a global pandemic. COVID-19 poses a huge threat to health care, and the shortage of medical resources caused by COVID-19 brought serious secondary disasters to elderly cancer patients who are particularly dependent on medical resources. The clinical challenges of cancer management, including aging, immunosuppression, and comorbidities, make cancer patients more vulnerable to COVID-19 with different clinical manifestations, disease severity, and outcomes. The review comprehensively analyzed the characteristics of the cancer patients under the pandemic and concluded that cancer patients were more susceptible to COVID-19, and also concluded that they were more likely to develop poor outcomes and the severe form of the disease. Three basic management strategies have been proposed to protect susceptible elderly cancer patients, find reliable indicators to monitor the course of disease, and implement effective prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis
13.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101810, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997462

ABSTRACT

The recent global pandemic due to COVID-19 is caused by a type of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite rigorous efforts worldwide to control the spread and human to human transmission of this virus, incidence and death due to COVID-19 continue to rise. Several drugs have been tested for treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine. While a number of studies have shown that hydroxychloroquine can prolong QT interval, potentially increasing risk of ventricular arrhythmias and Torsade de Pointes, its effects on immune cell function have not been extensively examined. In the current review, an overview of coronaviruses, viral entry and pathogenicity, immunity upon coronavirus infection, and current therapy options for COVID-19 are briefly discussed. Further based on preclinical studies, we provide evidences that i) hydroxychloroquine impairs autophagy, which leads to accumulation of damaged/oxidized cytoplasmic constituents and interferes with cellular homeostasis, ii) this impaired autophagy in part reduces antigen processing and presentation to immune cells and iii) inhibition of endosome-lysosome system acidification by hydroxychloroquine not only impairs the phagocytosis process, but also potentially alters pulmonary surfactant in the lungs. Therefore, it is likely that hydroxychloroquine treatment may in fact impair host immunity in response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in elderly patients or those with co-morbidities. Further, this review provides a rationale for developing and selecting antiviral drugs and includes a brief review of traditional strategies combined with new drugs to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation/drug effects , Antiviral Agents , Autophagic Cell Death , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagic Cell Death/drug effects , Autophagic Cell Death/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 576818, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2), known as a highly contagious disease, currently affecting more than 200 countries worldwide. The main feature of SARS-CoV-2 that distinguishes it from other viruses is the speed of transmission combined with higher risk of mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). People with diabetes mellitus (DM), severe obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are more likely to get infected and are at a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. Among elderly patients who are at higher risk of death from COVID-19, 26.8% have DM. Although the reasons for this increased risk are yet to be determined, several factors may contribute to type-2 DM patients' increased susceptibility to infections. A possible factor that may play a role in increasing the risk in people affected by diabetes and/or obesity is the impaired innate and adaptive immune response, characterized by a state of chronic and low-grade inflammation that can lead to abrupt systemic metabolic alteration. SARS patients previously diagnosed with diabetes or hyperglycemia had higher mortality and morbidity rates when compared with patients who were under metabolic control. Similarly, obese individuals are at higher risk of developing complications from SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we will explore the current and evolving insights pertinent to the metabolic impact of coronavirus infections with special attention to the main pathways and mechanisms that are linked to the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Diabetes Complications , Immunity, Innate , Obesity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 7003-7007, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-923003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic gripped the globe. SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and is susceptible to all populations. Immunosuppressed patients have greater risk for opportunistic infections. However, the understanding regarding the biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 in immunosuppressed patients remains unclear. Herein, we present a case of prolonged shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in a liver transplant patient with COVID-19. A 61-year-old male post liver transplant was confirmed COVID-19 infection on day 10 of illness onset. The patient has received immunosuppressive treatment for over 11 years and has a history of hypertension for 10 years. With antiviral treatment and temporary discontinuation of tacrolimus immunosuppression, he had complete clinical symptoms relieve on day 24. However, recurrently positive tests of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were presented on day 35 and on day 39 after two consecutive negative tests. IgG antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 was positive with IgM negative on day 41. The final shedding duration lasted 52 days. Prolonged shedding of SARS-CoV-2 should be a matter of concern and might attribute to long-term immunosuppression. Therefore, dynamic surveillance and prolonged quarantine are required for immunocompromised individuals. Further data should be collected to investigate if there is a universal prolonged shedding window of SARS-CoV-2 in immunosuppressed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e383, 2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902392

ABSTRACT

Multiple neurological complications have been associated with the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This is a narrative review to gather information on all aspects of COVID-19 in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. First, the following three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the neurological complications associated with COVID-19: 1) direct invasion, 2) immune and inflammatory reaction, and 3) hypoxic brain damage by COVID-19. Next, because the elderly dementia patient population is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, we discussed risk factors and difficulties associated with cognitive disorders in this vulnerable population. We also reviewed the effects of the patient living environment in COVID-19 cases that required intensive care unit (ICU) care. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of stringent social restrictions and COVID-19 pandemic-mediated policies on dementia patients and care providers. Finally, we provided the following strategies for working with elderly dementia patients: general preventive methods; dementia care at home and nursing facilities according to the activities of daily living and dementia characteristics; ICU care after COVID-19 infection; and public health care system and government response. We propose that longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to fully examine COVID-19 associated neurological complications, such as dementia, and the efficacy of telemedicine/telehealth care programs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dementia/epidemiology , Health Services for the Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Care , Dementia/complications , Humans , Hypoxia , Immune System , Inflammation , Nursing Homes , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Preventive Medicine , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Telemedicine
17.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720968749, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894961

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. One open question is whether genetics could influence the severity of symptoms. Considering the limited data on cancer patients, we analyzed public data repositories limited to investigate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) expressions and genetic variants to identify the basis of individual susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.Gene expression and variant data were retrieved from Tissue Cancer Genome Atlas, Genotype-Tissue Expression, and gnomAD. Differences in gene expression were tested with Mann-Whitney U-test. Allele frequencies of germline variants were explored in different ethnicities, with a special focus on ACE2 variants located in the binding site to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.The analysis of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressions in healthy tissues showed a higher expression in the age class 20 to 59 years (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.0001) regardless of gender. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were more expressed in tumors from males than females (both FDR < 0.0001) and, opposite to the regulation in tissues from healthy individuals, more expressed in elderly patients (FDR = 0.005; FDR < 0.0001, respectively). ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressions were higher in cancers of elderly patients compared with healthy individuals (FDR < 0.0001). Variants were present at low frequency (range 0% to 3%) and among those with the highest frequency, the variant S19P belongs to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding site and it was exclusively present in Africans with a frequency of 0.2%.The mechanisms of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 regulation could be targeted for preventive and therapeutic purposes in the whole population and especially in cancer patients.Further studies are needed to show a direct correlation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressions in cancer patients and the incidence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neoplasms/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Databases, Genetic , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/genetics , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(14)2020 10 13.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The course of COVID-19 may be particularly long-lasting in elderly patients. Caring for patients with dementia suffering from COVID-19 is challenging due to unclear symptom presentation, delirium, and maintaining isolation procedures. CASE PRESENTATION: A man in his sixties with dementia, hospitalised in a psychogeriatric ward, presented with mild upper respiratory tract symptoms and recovered within 24 hours. Ten days later he developed more severe symptoms. PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Over the following two months his clinical state fluctuated, from almost symptom-free days to being bedridden and assessed as potentially terminal. After the initial positive test, he had three consecutive negative tests, before he again tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Uncertainty as to whether the patient remained contagious resulted in isolation of the patient for over two months. INTERPRETATION: PCR testing of SARS-CoV-2 does not differentiate between intact virus and remnants thereof, and patients may test positive for a long time. This along with a fluctuating clinical course makes it difficult for clinicians to decide when to end isolation of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dementia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dementia/complications , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Time Factors
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 110-114, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Verify the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and obesity in elderly patients infected by new coronavirus. The patients developed severe symptoms and were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) to receive invasive ventilation due to diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study composed of elderly (age ≥ 60 years) admitted to the ICU. Were collected demographic (sex, age), anthropometric data, presence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, lung, neurological and oncological diseases), severity score in ICU (SAPS III), PaO2/FiO2 ratio, analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum dosage of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25 OHD) in the first day of hospitalization to identify elderly with hypovitaminosis D (low values < 30 ng/mL). The diagnosis of obesity in elderly was determined by calculating the body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2. RESULTS: A total of 176 elderly met the inclusion criteria. 54% were elderly men and mean age of 72.9 ± 9.1 years. The median BMI was 30.5 (28.1-33) kg/m2 with 68.7% having a nutritional diagnosis of obesity and 15.3% had BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (72.2%) and diabetes (40.9%). Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D with values of 25 OHD <30 ng/mL, < 20 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL was 93.8%, 65.9% and 21% respectively. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (<30 ng/mL) in obese elderly was 94.2%. There was a negative and significant bivariate correlation between BMI and levels of 25 OHD (r = - 0.15; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Hypovitaminosis D and obesity in elderly have a high prevalence in critically ill patients in ICU infected by the new coronavirus. Laboratory investigation of vitamin D becomes important, especially in obese elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
20.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(12): 2695-2701, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection incidence is higher in the elderly patients. Pre-existing geriatric conditions such as comorbidity and frailty seem related to worse hospital outcomes. AIMS: To assess the role of nutritional status as an independent prognostic factor for in-hospital death in elderly patients. METHODS: Consecutive elderly patients (age > 65 years) hospitalized for novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were enrolled. Demographics, laboratory and comorbidity data were collected. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses to evaluate predictors for in-hospital death were performed. RESULTS: One hundred and nine hospitalized elderly patients (54 male) were consecutively enrolled. At univariate analysis, age (HR 1.045 [CI 1.008-1.082]), cognitive impairment (HR 1.949 [CI 1.045-3.364]), C-reactive protein (HR 1.004 [CI 1.011-1.078]), lactate dehydrogenases (HR 1.003 [CI 1.001-1.004]) and GNRI moderate-severe risk category (HR 8.571 [CI 1.096-67.031]) were risk factors for in-hospital death, while albumin (HR 0.809 [CI 0.822-0.964]), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.996 [CI 0.993-0.999]) and body mass index (HR 0.875 [CI 0.782-0.979]) were protective factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a significative higher survival in patients without GNRI moderate or severe risk category (p = 0.0013). At multivariate analysis, PaO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.993 [CI 0.987-0.999], p = 0.046) and GNRI moderate-severe risk category (HR 9.285 [1.183-72.879], p = 0.034) were independently associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: Nutritional status assessed by GNRI is a significative predictor of survival in elderly patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The association between GNRI and PaO2/FiO2 ratio is a good prognostic model these patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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