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BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 174, 2021 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388755


BACKGROUND: Further understanding of the distribution and changing characteristics of dental diseases is of great significance for all dental emergency centers for strengthening the medical staff's treatment knowledge abilities and effective use of emergency resources in the face of public health emergencies involving highly infectious respiratory diseases. METHODS: The medical records of 4158 dental emergency patients in 2019 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into pre-SARS-COV-2 group and SARS-COV-2 group according to time. The demographic data, date and time, diagnosis, and treatment methods of the two groups were statistically described, and the chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences. The medical records of 4158 dental emergency patients during the same period of two years in 2019 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into SARS-COV-2 pre-group and SARS-COV-2 group according to time. The demographic data, date and time, diagnosis and treatment methods of the two groups were statistically described, and the chi-square test was used to determine the differences. RESULTS: During the SARS-COV-2 pandemic, the number of dental emergency visits increased by 29.7%. During the pandemic, males (n = 286, 58.1%) were more likely to visit dental emergency centers for trauma than females (n = 206, 41.9%) (P < 0.05); females (n = 242, 60.8%) were more likely to visit dental emergency centers for acute gingivitis and acute pericoronitis than males (n = 156, 39.2%) (P < 0.05). A major change in diagnosis was related to acute pulpitis (K04.0) and acute apical periodontitis (K04.4), which increased by 9.2%; acute gingivitis (K05.0) and acute pericoronitis (K05.2) increased by 3.5%; open wound of the lip and oral cavity (S01.5) decreased by 17.9%; other conditions (non-emergency diseases) increased by 6.8%, compared with the pre-SARS-COV-2 period. Among the treatment modalities, during the pre-SARS-COV-2 period, 304 patients (17.7%) received a prescription for antibiotics and analgesics, and 1485 (86.5%) received a prescription for local treatment. During the SARS-COV-2 period, 958 (39.2%) received a prescription for antibiotics and analgesics, and 1636 (67.0%) received a prescription for local treatment. CONCLUSION: SARS-COV-2 pandemic led to changes in the characteristics of dental emergency patients. Trauma, acute pulpitis, and acute periodontitis are the leading reasons patients refer to dental emergency centers. Dental emergency centers should optimize treatment procedures, optimize the staff, and reasonably allocate materials according to the changes to improve the on-site treatment capacity and provide adequate dental emergency care.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
J Clin Nurs ; 29(23-24): 4827-4833, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780951


AIM: Using an integrated model of health literacy, we discuss the importance of health literacy among foreign domestic workers in the provision of informal caregiving during outbreaks of communicable diseases. COVID-19 pandemic is used as an example. BACKGROUND: Adequate health literacy in the population is known to be important for the prevention of communicable diseases. Foreign domestic workers, a group of marginalised caregivers in private households, are generally presumed to have limited health literacy because of numerous socio-cultural disadvantages. To date, there is limited evidence that these informal healthcare providers receive support from community-based nurses. DESIGN: A discursive paper. CONCLUSION: Foreign domestic workers, with varying levels of health literacy, may be viewed either as a resource to break the chain of infection or as a potential reservoir of communicable diseases in the community. Meanwhile, restrictions imposed in response to diseases transmissions (e.g. stay-at-home measures for COVID-19) may directly exacerbate the social support received by these foreign domestic works and their ability to access health-related information. There are also concerns about their ability to appraise and evaluate information related to communicable diseases at a time when fake news and misinformation are being disseminated through social media. Language and cultural barriers are important issues that need to be addressed to ensure that foreign domestic workers are in a position to follow public health recommendations. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses hold an important position in empowering foreign domestic workers with adequate health literacy, by engaging groups of foreign domestic workers in the community and their consulates in planning educational programmes and effectively disseminating information. At a time of global pandemic, an assessment of the health literacy levels of foreign domestic workers in places like Hong Kong is urgently required.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Communication , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Health Status , Hong Kong , Humans , Language , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
Stroke ; 51(6): 1891-1895, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-26794


Background and Purpose- Hyperacute assessment and management of patients with stroke, termed code stroke, is a time-sensitive and high-stakes clinical scenario. In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the ability to deliver timely and efficacious care must be balanced with the risk of infectious exposure to the clinical team. Furthermore, rapid and effective stroke care remains paramount to achieve maximal functional recovery for those needing admission and to triage care appropriately for those who may be presenting with neurological symptoms but have an alternative diagnosis. Methods- Available resources, COVID-19-specific infection prevention and control recommendations, and expert consensus were used to identify clinical screening criteria for patients and provide the required nuanced considerations for the healthcare team, thereby modifying the conventional code stroke processes to achieve a protected designation. Results- A protected code stroke algorithm was developed. Features specific to prenotification and clinical status of the patient were used to define precode screening. These include primary infectious symptoms, clinical, and examination features. A focused framework was then developed with regard to a protected code stroke. We outline the specifics of personal protective equipment use and considerations thereof including aspects of crisis resource management impacting team role designation and human performance factors during a protected code stroke. Conclusions- We introduce the concept of a protected code stroke during a pandemic, as in the case of COVID-19, and provide a framework for key considerations including screening, personal protective equipment, and crisis resource management. These considerations and suggested algorithms can be utilized and adapted for local practice.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Triage/methods , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications