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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to fight the influenza epidemic and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which represent a major public issue. The objective was to investigate the adherence of heads of French emergency departments (ED) and nursing departments on a potential vaccination campaign of healthcare workers (HCW) and patients in ED. METHOD: In February 2021, ED and nursing department heads were asked to answer a national survey. It included 24 questions designed to cover some dimensions, including characteristics of the hospital and emergency departments (ED) and questions on vaccination. RESULTS: 414 responses out of 800 questionnaires (51.8%) were collected. Scores out of 10 were, respectively, 7 (6-8) and 8 (6-9) for vaccination against influenza and COVID-19 for HCW and 2 (2-3) and 2 (2-4) for ED patients (H = 989.3; p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression found that the existence of a vaccine program in the hospital and the use of point of care influenza PCR in ED were positively associated with the acceptance of influenza vaccination campaign for HCW (p = 0.003) and patients (p = 0.015). Factors limiting adherence to a vaccination program of HCW and patients were lack of medical staff (p = 0.041 for HCW and p < 0.0001 for patients), overcrowded ED (p < 0.001), and the inability to follow up with patients after the ED visit (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: There have been many missed opportunities for influenza vaccination, and there is pressure to vaccinate against COVID-19 as soon as possible. Vaccination campaigns in ED could help to improve vaccination coverage. ED staff are more likely to vaccinate HCW than patients. There are factors that support the implementation of such programs, which can be grouped into a culture of diagnosis, control, and prevention of viral infectious diseases within the hospital and ED. On the other hand, there are limiting factors, such as overcrowding and lack of personnel.

2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2099-2106, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092067

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died.Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good. What is Known: • Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a common cause of consultation at the emergency department, and young infants have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections (SBI). • The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to young infants with FWS in the emergency department. management of those children is a challenge because information about bacterial coinfection and prognosis is scarce. What is New: • SARS-CoV-2 infection should be ruled out in young infants (< 90 days of age) with FWS in areas with community transmission. • Bacterial coinfection rarely coexists in those infants. • Inflammatory markers were not increased in children without bacterial coinfection. • Outcome is good in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3268-3272, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059403

ABSTRACT

Current diagnostic standards involve severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), but saliva is an attractive and noninvasive option for diagnosis. The objectives were to determine the performance of saliva in comparison with NPS for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and to compare the optimized home brew reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a commercial RT-PCR. Paired NPS and saliva specimens were prospectively collected and tested by RT-PCR from patients presenting at an emergency room with signs and symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease-2019. A total of 348 samples from 174 patients were tested by RT-PCR assays. Among 174 patients with symptoms, 63 (36%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive in NPS using the optimized home-brew PCR. Of these 63 patients, 61 (98%) were also positive in saliva. An additional positive SARS-CoV-2 saliva was detected in a patient with pneumonia. Kappa Cohen's coefficient agreement between NPS and saliva was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.99). Median Ct values in NPS versus saliva were 18.88 (interquartile range [IQR], 15.60-23.58; range, 11.97-38.10) versus 26.10 (IQR, 22.75-30.06; range, 13.78-39.22), respectively (p < .0001). The optimized home-brew RT-PCR demonstrated higher analytical and clinical sensitivity compared with the commercial RT-PCR assay. A high sensitivity (98%) and agreement (kappa 0.96) in saliva samples compared to NPS was demonstrated when using an optimized home-brew PCR even when the viral load in saliva was lower than in NPS. This noninvasive sample is easy to collect, requires less consumable and avoids discomfort to patients. Importantly, self-collection of saliva can diminish exposure to healthcare personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
4.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 113, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) diagnosis currently requires quite a long time span. A quicker and more efficient diagnostic tool in emergency departments could improve management during this global crisis. Our main goal was assessing the accuracy of artificial intelligence in predicting the results of RT-PCR for SARS-COV-2, using basic information at hand in all emergency departments. METHODS: This is a retrospective study carried out between February 22, 2020 and March 16, 2020 in one of the main hospitals in Milan, Italy. We screened for eligibility all patients admitted with influenza-like symptoms tested for SARS-COV-2. Patients under 12 years old and patients in whom the leukocyte formula was not performed in the ED were excluded. Input data through artificial intelligence were made up of a combination of clinical, radiological and routine laboratory data upon hospital admission. Different Machine Learning algorithms available on WEKA data mining software and on Semeion Research Centre depository were trained using both the Training and Testing and the K-fold cross-validation protocol. RESULTS: Among 199 patients subject to study (median [interquartile range] age 65 [46-78] years; 127 [63.8%] men), 124 [62.3%] resulted positive to SARS-COV-2. The best Machine Learning System reached an accuracy of 91.4% with 94.1% sensitivity and 88.7% specificity. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that properly trained artificial intelligence algorithms may be able to predict correct results in RT-PCR for SARS-COV-2, using basic clinical data. If confirmed, on a larger-scale study, this approach could have important clinical and organizational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Machine Learning , Software , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(3): 030402, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709641

ABSTRACT

After December 2019 outbreak in China, the novel Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has very quickly overflowed worldwide. Infection causes a clinical syndrome encompassing a wide range of clinical features, from asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic course to acute respiratory distress and death. In a very recent work we preliminarily observed that several laboratory tests have been shown as characteristically altered in COVID-19. We aimed to use the Corona score, a validated point-based algorithm to predict the likelihood of COVID-19 infection in patients presenting at the Emergency rooms. This approach combines chest images-relative score and several laboratory parameters to classify emergency room patients. Corona score accuracy was satisfactory, increasing the detection of positive patients' rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Negative Results , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards
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