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1.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 274-281, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136336

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted cardiovascular care during the spring of 2020 in Europe. Our study analyzed the clinical profile, COVID-19 impact, and 30-day prognosis of invasively managed patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to a historical cohort.All invasively managed ACS patients from March 1st to April 30th, 2020 were compared to a cohort from the same timeframe of 2019 (n = 316). COVID-19 confirmed cases were defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (CoV+). The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality and multivariable predictors of this outcome.A 40.4% reduction in ACS patients was noted (198 cases in 2019 to 118 in 2020), and 11% of 2020 ACS patients were CoV+. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. There were significantly more in-hospital patients with ACS (15.3% versus 6.1%, P = 0.007), and fewer patients were found to have a culprit lesion (58.5% versus 74.2%, P = 0.004) in 2020 compared to 2019. Thirty-day mortality in 2020 (7%) was not different from that in 2019 (4.2%), P = 0.294, but it was significantly higher in CoV+ patients (23.1%) compared to that in negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (CoV-) patients (5%), P = 0.047, in the 2020 group. In the multivariate analysis, CoV+ was an independent mortality predictor (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 1.48-64.78), along with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.97), P = 0.0006.This study found increased 30-day mortality of invasively managed CoV+ ACS patients compared to that of CoV- patients during the 2020 COVID-19 spring outbreak. In the multivariable analysis, a SARS-CoV-2 positive test was independently associated with 30-day mortality. Further investigations of the underlying physiopathological relations between COVID-19 and ACS are warranted.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Spain , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate
2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20448, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004917

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute coronary syndromes and on the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact among patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as well as to investigate whether there were patient-related reasons related to COVID-19 for delaying first medical contact. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the Geneva University Hospitals for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) during the first COVID-19 wave were compared with a control group consisting of all ACS patients who underwent PCI during the same period in 2019 and those treated in the period immediately preceding the pandemic. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact in the setting of STEMI between the COVID-19 period and the control period. Secondary outcome measures were the difference in ACS incidence and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients’ decisions to call the emergency services, assessed using a questionnaire. Delay from symptom onset to first medical contact was longer among patients suffering from STEMI in the COVID-19 period compared with the control period (112 min vs 60 min, p = 0.049). The incidence rate of ACS was lower during the COVID-19 period (incidence rate ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.449–0.905). ACS patients delayed their call to the emergency services mainly because of fear of contracting or spreading COVID-19 following hospital admission, as well as of adding burden to the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: We observed prolonged delays from symptom onset to first medical contact and a decline in overall ACS incidence during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a higher threshold to call for help among ACS patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood
3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(11): 869-873, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810031

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to verify the impact on the number and characteristics of coronary invasive procedures for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of two hub centers with cardiac catheterization facilities, during the first month of lockdown following the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Procedural data of ACS patients admitted between 10 March and 10 April 2020 were compared with those of the same period of 2019. RESULTS: We observed a 23.4% reduction in ACS admissions during 2020, with a decrease for both ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (-5.6%) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (-34.5%), albeit not statistically significant (P = 0.2). During the first 15 days of the examined periods, the reduction in ACS admissions reached 52.5% (-25% for STEMI and -70.3% for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, P = 0.04). Among STEMI patients, the rate of those with a time delay from symptoms onset longer than 180 min was significantly higher during the lockdown period (P = 0.01). Radiograph exposure (P = 0.01) was higher in STEMI patients treated in 2020 with a slightly higher amount of contrast medium (P = 0.1) and number of stents implanted (P = 0.1), whereas the number of treated vessels was reduced (P = 0.03). Percutaneous coronary intervention procedural success and in-hospital mortality were not different between the two groups and in STEMI patients (P NS for all). CONCLUSION: During the early phase, the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a lower rate of admissions for ACS, with a substantial impact on the time delay presentation of STEMI patients, but apparently without affecting the in-hospital outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
4.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110125, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665482

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily a respiratory pathogen and its clinical manifestations are dominated by respiratory symptoms, the most severe of which is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, COVID-19 is increasingly recognized to cause an overwhelming inflammatory response and cytokine storm leading to end organ damage. End organ damage to heart is one of the most severe complications of COVID-19 that increases the risk of death. We proposed a two-fold mechanism responsible for causing acute coronary events in patients with COVID-19 infection: Cytokine storm leading to rapid onset formation of new coronary plaques along with destabilization of pre-existing plaques and direct myocardial injury secondary to acute systemic viral infection. A well-coordinated immune response is the first line innate immunity against a viral infection. However, an uncoordinated response and hypersecretion of cytokines and chemokines lead to immune related damage to the human body. Human Coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes infiltration of inflammatory cells that cause excessive production of cytokines, proteases, coagulation factors, oxygen radicals and vasoactive molecules causing endothelial damage, disruption of fibrous cap and initiation of formation of thrombus. Systemic viral infections also cause vasoconstriction leading to narrowing of vascular lumen and stimulation of platelet activation via shear stress. The resultant cytokine storm causes secretion of hypercoagulable tissue factor without consequential increase in counter-regulatory pathways such as AT-III, activated protein C and plasminogen activator type 1. Lastly, influx of CD4+ T-cells in cardiac vasculature results in an increased production of cytokines that stimulate smooth muscle cells to migrate into the intima and generate collagen and other fibrous products leading to advancement of fatty streaks to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Direct myocardial damage and cytokine storm leading to destabilization of pre-existing plaques and accelerated formation of new plaques are the two instigating mechanisms for acute coronary syndromes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Models, Cardiovascular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Chemokines/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/physiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/etiology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/physiopathology , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasoconstriction , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/immunology
5.
Lancet ; 396(10248): 381-389, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic have reported a substantial drop in the number of patients attending the emergency department with acute coronary syndromes and a reduced number of cardiac procedures. We aimed to understand the scale, nature, and duration of changes to admissions for different types of acute coronary syndrome in England and to evaluate whether in-hospital management of patients has been affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on hospital admissions in England for types of acute coronary syndrome from Jan 1, 2019, to May 24, 2020, that were recorded in the Secondary Uses Service Admitted Patient Care database. Admissions were classified as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), myocardial infarction of unknown type, or other acute coronary syndromes (including unstable angina). We identified revascularisation procedures undertaken during these admissions (ie, coronary angiography without percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery). We calculated the numbers of weekly admissions and procedures undertaken; percentage reductions in weekly admissions and across subgroups were also calculated, with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome declined from mid-February, 2020, falling from a 2019 baseline rate of 3017 admissions per week to 1813 per week by the end of March, 2020, a reduction of 40% (95% CI 37-43). This decline was partly reversed during April and May, 2020, such that by the last week of May, 2020, there were 2522 admissions, representing a 16% (95% CI 13-20) reduction from baseline. During the period of declining admissions, there were reductions in the numbers of admissions for all types of acute coronary syndrome, including both STEMI and NSTEMI, but relative and absolute reductions were larger for NSTEMI, with 1267 admissions per week in 2019 and 733 per week by the end of March, 2020, a percent reduction of 42% (95% CI 38-46). In parallel, reductions were recorded in the number of PCI procedures for patients with both STEMI (438 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 346 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 21%, 95% CI 12-29) and NSTEMI (383 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 240 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 37%, 29-45). The median length of stay among patients with acute coronary syndrome fell from 4 days (IQR 2-9) in 2019 to 3 days (1-5) by the end of March, 2020. INTERPRETATION: Compared with the weekly average in 2019, there was a substantial reduction in the weekly numbers of patients with acute coronary syndrome who were admitted to hospital in England by the end of March, 2020, which had been partly reversed by the end of May, 2020. The reduced number of admissions during this period is likely to have resulted in increases in out-of-hospital deaths and long-term complications of myocardial infarction and missed opportunities to offer secondary prevention treatment for patients with coronary heart disease. The full extent of the effect of COVID-19 on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome will continue to be assessed by updating these analyses. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Public Health England, Health Data Research UK, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angina, Unstable/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , England/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014780, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638263

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in severe psychological, social, and economic stress in people's lives. It is not known whether the stress of the pandemic is associated with an increase in the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy. Objective: To determine the incidence and outcomes of stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study at cardiac catheterization laboratories with primary percutaneous coronary intervention capability at 2 hospitals in the Cleveland Clinic health system in Northeast Ohio examined the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy (also known as Takotsubo syndrome) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary arteriography. Patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 1 and April 30, 2020, were compared with 4 control groups of patients with acute coronary syndrome presenting prior to the pandemic across 4 distinct timelines: March to April 2018, January to February 2019, March to April 2019, and January to February 2020. Data were analyzed in May 2020. Exposures: Patients were divided into 5 groups based on the date of their clinical presentation in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of stress cardiomyopathy. Results: Among 1914 patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome, 1656 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 67 [59-74]; 1094 [66.1%] men) presented during the pre-COVID-19 period (390 patients in March-April 2018, 309 patients in January-February 2019, 679 patients in March-April 2019, and 278 patients in January-February 2020), and 258 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 67 [57-75]; 175 [67.8%] men) presented during the COVID-19 pandemic period (ie, March-April 2020). There was a significant increase in the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 period, with a total of 20 patients with stress cardiomyopathy (incidence proportion, 7.8%), compared with prepandemic timelines, which ranged from 5 to 12 patients with stress cardiomyopathy (incidence proportion range, 1.5%-1.8%). The rate ratio comparing the COVID-19 pandemic period to the combined prepandemic period was 4.58 (95% CI, 4.11-5.11; P < .001). All patients during the COVID-19 pandemic had negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test results for COVID-19. Patients with stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 pandemic had a longer median (interquartile range) hospital length of stay compared with those hospitalized in the prepandemic period (COVID-19 period: 8 [6-9] days; March-April 2018: 4 [3-4] days; January-February 2019: 5 [3-6] days; March-April 2019: 4 [4-8] days; January-February: 5 [4-5] days; P = .006). There were no significant differences between the COVID-19 period and the overall pre-COVID-19 period in mortality (1 patient [5.0%] vs 1 patient [3.6%], respectively; P = .81) or 30-day rehospitalization (4 patients [22.2%] vs 6 patients [21.4%], respectively; P = .90). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that there was a significant increase in the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with prepandemic periods.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001672, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-250633

ABSTRACT

We continue to learn about cardiac involvement in patients with COVID-19. These patients can develop acute coronary syndrome and severe myocarditis with a reduced ejection fraction. We describe two critically ill COVID-19 patients who developed ST elevation that resolved on repeat ECG without any intervention. LEARNING POINT: ST elevation may occur in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

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