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1.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1637-1645, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab in adult patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with both hypoxia and systemic inflammation. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. Those trial participants with hypoxia (oxygen saturation <92% on air or requiring oxygen therapy) and evidence of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥75 mg/L) were eligible for random assignment in a 1:1 ratio to usual standard of care alone versus usual standard of care plus tocilizumab at a dose of 400 mg-800 mg (depending on weight) given intravenously. A second dose could be given 12-24 h later if the patient's condition had not improved. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936). FINDINGS: Between April 23, 2020, and Jan 24, 2021, 4116 adults of 21 550 patients enrolled into the RECOVERY trial were included in the assessment of tocilizumab, including 3385 (82%) patients receiving systemic corticosteroids. Overall, 621 (31%) of the 2022 patients allocated tocilizumab and 729 (35%) of the 2094 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·85; 95% CI 0·76-0·94; p=0·0028). Consistent results were seen in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including those receiving systemic corticosteroids. Patients allocated to tocilizumab were more likely to be discharged from hospital within 28 days (57% vs 50%; rate ratio 1·22; 1·12-1·33; p<0·0001). Among those not receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline, patients allocated tocilizumab were less likely to reach the composite endpoint of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (35% vs 42%; risk ratio 0·84; 95% CI 0·77-0·92; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised COVID-19 patients with hypoxia and systemic inflammation, tocilizumab improved survival and other clinical outcomes. These benefits were seen regardless of the amount of respiratory support and were additional to the benefits of systemic corticosteroids. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Bias , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Heart-Lung Machine/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(1): 399-407, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor baricitinib may block viral entry into pneumocytes and prevent cytokine storm in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. We aimed to assess whether baricitinib improved pulmonary function in patients treated with high-dose corticosteroids for moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62). The primary end point was the change in oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2)/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients requiring supplemental oxygen at discharge and 1 month later. Statistics were adjusted by the inverse propensity score weighting (IPSW). RESULTS: A greater improvement in SpO2/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge was observed in the BCT-CS vs CS group (mean differences adjusted for IPSW, 49; 95% CI: 22, 77; P < 0.001). A higher proportion of patients required supplemental oxygen both at discharge (62.0% vs 25.8%; reduction of the risk by 82%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.001) and 1 month later (28.0% vs 12.9%, reduction of the risk by 69%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.86; P = 0.024) in the CS vs BCT-CS group. CONCLUSIONS: . In patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia a combination of baricitinib with corticosteroids was associated with greater improvement in pulmonary function when compared with corticosteroids alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance, ENCEPP (EUPAS34966, http://www.encepp.eu/encepp/viewResource.htm? id = 34967).


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endothelium, Vascular , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 267, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here we report the first case series of 7 children diagnosed with MIS-C in Qatar. METHODS: Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients admitted to Sidra Medicine, Qatar from June to October 2020, who met the WHO case definition for MIS-C were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean age in our case series was 5.6 years, of which 71.4% were males. All patients were previously healthy but had a history of COVID-19 infection. Fever, rash, vomiting and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms (70-100%). The average hospitalization was 12.9 days with no case fatalities. Laboratory findings included lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia in most patients, as well as evidence of coagulopathy and elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, ferritin and procalcitonin. Many patients (71.4%) required inotropic support in intensive care, while only one required respiratory support. Although all patients had elevated cardiac biomarkers, cardiovascular involvement was observed in 42.9% of patients with one patient developing a giant coronary aneurysm. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and 86% of patients received corticosteroids, with two patients requiring treatment with IL-1 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Our report is one of the first reports on MIS-C from Asia. Although clinical features and outcomes are not significantly different from those reported elsewhere, lack of case fatalities in our cohort may indicate that early recognition and prompt medical attention is necessary for a favorable outcome in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Healthcare
5.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 387-394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited treatment options for postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD). Olfactory training has recently been used in clinical practice, but no medical treatment is widely accepted. Although there is weak evidence for their value, some physicians use oral corticosteroids as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare combined oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training with olfactory training alone in the management of PIOD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 131 patients with PIOD over a 2-year period before the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-eight patients who were treated with oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training (group A) were compared with 53 patients who were treated with olfactory training only (group B). Olfactory function was evaluated with "Sniffin' Sticks" at baseline and 2, 8, and 16 weeks after initial assessment. Patients who improved after steroid treatment underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses, skin prick tests, lung spirometry, and sputum eosinophil assessment. RESULTS: Oral steroids improved 19.23% of patients (n = 15) of group A. History, clinical evaluation, imaging, and laboratory tests identified an inflammatory background in half of them (n = 8). The remaining 7 had no findings of nasal inflammation, and all had a short history of olfactory dysfunction. Both groups significantly improved in olfactory testing results at the end of the olfactory training scheme without significant difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of improved patients after oral methylprednisolone was relatively low to suggest it as first-line treatment. Half of the improved patients had an underlying upper airway inflammatory condition not related to the infection that caused the acute loss of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(8): 1145-1150, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids among older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia requiring oxygen. METHODS: We used routine care data from 36 hospitals in France and Luxembourg to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids with at least 0.4 mg/kg/day equivalent prednisone (treatment group) versus standard of care (control group). Participants were adults aged 80 years or older with PCR-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or CT scan images typical of COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring oxygen ≥3 L/min, and with an inflammatory syndrome (C-reactive protein ≥40 mg/L). The primary outcome was overall survival at day 14. In our main analysis, characteristics of patients at baseline (i.e. time when patients met all inclusion criteria) were balanced by using propensity-score inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: Among the 267 patients included in the analysis, 98 were assigned to the treatment group. Their median age was 86 years (interquartile range 83-90 years) and 95% had a SARS-CoV-2 PCR-confirmed diagnosis. In total, 43/98 (43.9%) patients in the treatment group and 84/166 (50.6%) in the control group died before day 14 (weighted hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.99). The treatment and control groups did not differ significantly for the proportion of patients discharged to home/rehabilitation at day 14 (weighted relative risk 1.12, 95% CI 0.68-1.82). Twenty-two (16.7%) patients receiving corticosteroids developed adverse events, but only 11 (6.4%) from the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids were associated with a significant increase in the overall survival at day 14 of patients aged 80 years and older hospitalized for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prednisone/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Luxembourg/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(3): 790-793, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256886

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroid use is increasing worldwide as recent studies confer survival benefit of corticosteroids in the management of patients with severe COVID-19. Strongyloides and amebic infections are neglected diseases that can progress to catastrophic complications in patients exposed to corticosteroids, even with short treatment courses. To prevent lethal outcomes, clinicians should be aware of the threat these two parasitic infections pose to at-risk patients receiving corticosteroids, especially in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Parasitic Diseases/etiology , Parasitic Diseases/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/classification , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Parasitic Diseases/classification , Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Prospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 506, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for this disease. However, there is limited literature on the appropriate timing of corticosteroid administration to obtain the best possible patient outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients with severe COVID-19 who received corticosteroid treatment from March 2 to June 30, 2020 in seven tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We analyzed the patient demographics, characteristics, and clinical outcomes according to the timing of steroid use. Twenty-two patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled, and they were all treated with corticosteroids. RESULTS: Of the 22 patients who received corticosteroids, 12 patients (55%) were treated within 10 days from diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics. The initial PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 168.75. The overall case fatality rate was 25%. The mean time from diagnosis to steroid use was 4.08 days and the treatment duration was 14 days in the early use group, while those in the late use group were 12.80 days and 18.50 days, respectively. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio, C-reactive protein level, and cycle threshold value improved over time in both groups. In the early use group, the time from onset of symptoms to discharge (32.4 days vs. 60.0 days, P = 0.030), time from diagnosis to discharge (27.8 days vs. 57.4 days, P = 0.024), and hospital stay (26.0 days vs. 53.9 days, P = 0.033) were shortened. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe COVID-19, early use of corticosteroids showed favorable clinical outcomes which were related to a reduction in the length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10727, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238019

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial, especially in mild to severe patients who do not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, many factors remain unclear regarding the appropriate use of corticosteroids for COVID-19. In this context, this multicenter, retrospective, propensity score-matched study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 ranging in the degree of severity from mild to critically-ill disease. This multicenter, retrospective study enrolled consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients diagnosed January-April 2020 across 30 institutions in Japan. Clinical outcomes were compared for COVID-19 patients who received or did not receive corticosteroids, after adjusting for propensity scores. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improvement on a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15. Of 1092 COVID-19 patients analyzed, 118 patients were assigned to either the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid group, after propensity score matching. At baseline, most patients did not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation (85.6% corticosteroid group vs. 89.8% non-corticosteroid group). The odds of improvement in a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15 was significantly lower for the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (OR, 0.611; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.388-0.962; p = 0.034). The time to improvement in radiological findings was significantly shorter in the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.758; 95% CI, 1.323-2.337; p < 0.001), regardless of baseline clinical status. The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was shorter in corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (HR, 1.466; 95% CI, 0.841-2.554; p = 0.177). Of the 106 patients who received methylprednisolone, the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the pulse/semi-pulse versus standard dose group (HR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.347-5.950; p = 0.006). In conclusion, corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not improve clinical status on Day 15, but reduced the time to improvement in radiological findings for all patients regardless of disease severity and also reduced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who required intubation.Trial registration: This study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry on April 21, 2020 (ID: UMIN000040211).


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25719, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid treatment is an effective and common therapeutic strategy for various inflammatory lung pathologies and may be an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature was to investigate the clinical outcomes associated with corticosteroid treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, medRxiv, Web of Science, and Scopus databases through March 10, 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of corticosteroid therapies for COVID-19 treatment. Outcomes of interest were mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, serious adverse events (SAEs), and superinfection. RESULTS: A total of 7737 patients from 8 RCTs were included in the quantitative meta-analysis, of which 2795 (36.1%) patients received corticosteroids plus standard of care (SOC) while 4942 (63.9%) patients received placebo and/or SOC alone. The odds of mortality were significantly lower in patients that received corticosteroids as compared to SOC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76; 0.95], P = .003). Corticosteroid treatment reduced the odds of a need for mechanical ventilation as compared to SOC (OR = 0.76 [95% CI: 0.59; 0.97], P = .030). There was no significant difference between the corticosteroid and SOC groups with regards to SAEs and superinfections. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroid treatment can reduce the odds for mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Odds Ratio , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Scand J Pain ; 21(4): 804-808, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Targeted corticosteroid injections (CSI) are one of the treatments that can provide pain relief and thereby, enhance quality of life in patients with chronic pain. Corticosteroids (CS) are known to impair immune response. The objective was to evaluate the risk of developing post-procedural infection within 4 weeks of receiving depot CSI for chronic pain as part of on going quality improvement project. We hypothesised that interventional treatment with depot steroids will not cause a significant increase in clinical infection in the first 4 weeks. METHODS: Telephone follow-up was performed as a part of prospective longitudinal audit in a cohort of patients who received interventional treatment for chronic pain at a multidisciplinary pain medicine centre based at a university teaching hospital. Patients who received interventional treatment in the management of chronic pain under a single physician between October 2019 and December 2020 were followed up over telephone as part of on going longitudinal audits. Data was collected on any infection within 4 and 12 weeks of receiving the intervention. Outcomes collected included type of intervention, dose of depot steroids and pain relief obtained at 12 weeks following intervention. RESULTS: Over a 15 month period, 261 patients received pain interventions with depot CS. There was no loss to follow-up. Nine patients reported an infection within 4 weeks of receiving depot steroids (9/261, 3.4%). None of the patients tested positive for Covid-19. Eight patients (8/261, 3%) reported an infection between 5 and 12 weeks following the corticosteroid intervention. Although none of the patients tested positive for Covid-19, two patients presented with clinical and radiological features suggestive of Covid-19. Durable analgesia was reported by 51% (133/261) and clinically significant analgesia by 30% (78/261) at 12 weeks following the intervention. Failure rate was 19% (50/261). CONCLUSIONS: Pain medicine interventions with depot steroids do not appear to overtly increase the risk for Covid-19 infection in the midst of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 183, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Choosing a safe disease modifying therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic is challenging. This case series study was conducted to determine the incidence rate and the course of Covid-19 infection in MS/NMOSD patients treated with Rituximab. METHODS: In this study, we designed a web-based questionnaire. Baseline information such as patient- reported walking disability, total number of Rituximab infusions received, delayed injections, occurrence of any relapse, and the use of corticosteroids during the pandemic were collected. Also, information regarding the Covid-19 pandemic such as adherence to self-isolation, any recent exposure to an infected individual and the presence of suggestive symptoms were collected. In case of positive test results, patients were grouped into 2 categories; mild to moderate and seriously ill and outcomes were evaluated as favorable (improved/ discharged) and unfavorable (expired). RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-eight patients with Multiple Sclerosis were enrolled in this study, 9 of the subjects (3.4%) were confirmed positive for Covid-19, five of which required hospitalizations (55.5%), two patients required ICU admission (22.2%) and 2 two patients died (22.2%). None of these patients ever mentioned using corticosteroids during the pandemic. In comparison to MS patients who were not receiving disease modifying therapy (DMT), our study indicated a higher incidence of Covid-19 infection, higher ratio of serious illness and a higher fatality ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab seems not to be safe enough during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Rituximab/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Male , Recurrence , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global challenge. Corticosteroids constitute a group of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs that are widely used in the treatment of COVID-19. Comprehensive reviews investigating the comparative proportion and efficacy of corticosteroid use are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials to evaluate the proportion and efficacy of corticosteroid use for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of research articles, including observational studies and clinical trials, by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and China Academic Journal Network Publishing databases. Patients treated between December 1, 2019, and January 1, 2021, were included. The outcome measures were the proportion of patients treated with corticosteroids, viral clearance and mortality. The effect size with the associated 95% confidence interval is reported as the weighted mean difference for continuous outcomes and the odds ratio for dichotomous outcomes. RESULTS: Fifty-two trials involving 15710 patients were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the proportion of COVID-19 patients who received corticosteroids was significantly lower than that of patients who did not receive corticosteroids (35.19% vs. 64.49%). In addition, our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the proportions of severe and nonsevere cases treated with corticosteroids (27.91% vs. 20.91%). We also performed subgroup analyses stratified by whether patients stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) and found that the proportion of patients who received corticosteroids was significantly higher among those who stayed in the ICU than among those who did not. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that corticosteroid treatment significantly delayed the viral clearance time. Finally, our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 between patients who died and those who survived. This result indicates that mortality is not correlated with corticosteroid therapy. CONCLUSION: The proportion of COVID-19 patients who received corticosteroids was significantly lower than that of patients who did not receive corticosteroids. Corticosteroid use in subjects with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections delayed viral clearance and did not convincingly improve survival; therefore, corticosteroids should be used with extreme caution in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1817-1823, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196512

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids reduce mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the response seems to vary according to the level of respiratory support needed. This retrospective cohort study included COVID-19 patients with oxygen saturation (SatO2 ) in room air <92% admitted between March 3 and April 30, 2020. Following the interim protocol, patients could receive dexamethasone or methylprednisolone, and were classified according to oxygen requirements. The primary endpoint was admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or mortality. Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazards analyses were used. Of the 115 patients included, 38 received corticosteroids. Among requiring high-flow, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) > 0.40, the hazard ratio (HR) for death or ICU admission, between the corticosteroids and non-corticosteroids group, was 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.4), p = .002, and for patients requiring low-flow oxygen, the HR was 0.70 (95% CI 0.13-3.8), p = .68. Significant differences were also observed when all patients were analyzed together. A significant reduction in mortality and ICU admission frequency was observed among patients requiring high-flow oxygen or NIV, but not among those requiring low-flow oxygen. Better targeting of COVID-19 patients is needed for the beneficial use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spain
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 166(1): 183-185, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181047

ABSTRACT

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) management frequently comprises conservative treatment, including a combination of topical and oral corticosteroids (OCSs). However, in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, providers may have been reluctant to prescribe OCSs out of possible concern for an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 or developing more severe COVID-19 symptoms. This study thus sought to explore the association between the use of OCSs and the development of COVID-19 in patients with CRS. We found no statistically significant difference in the rates of patients with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 who underwent an OCS treatment regimen compared to those who did not, both within 28 days (P = .389) and 14 days (P = .676) prior to the COVID-19 test. Given OCSs are often a major component of medical management of CRS, this study proves helpful in counseling patients on risks of steroid use in CRS treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/etiology , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications
16.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(2): e381-e387, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of biological agents in the treatment of severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to assess the current application, outcomes, and adverse effects in patients who are followed up in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational, descriptive, medical records review study was performed on patients with MIS-C admitted to the PICU between September 1 and November 1, 2020. Through medical records review, we confirmed that patients were positive for current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection or for COVID-19 exposure history within the 4 weeks before the onset of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients with severe MIS-C were included (21 male) with a median age of 9 years. The most common signs and symptoms during disease course were fever (100%) and abdominal pain (75.5%). Clinical features of 63.6% patients were consistent with Kawasaki disease/Kawasaki disease shock syndrome, and 36.4% were consistent with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome. Myocardial dysfunction and/or coronary artery abnormalities were detected in 18 patients during the PICU stay. Intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were given to 33 patients. Anakinra was administered to 23 patients (69.6%). There was a significant increase in lymphocyte and platelet counts and a significant decrease in ferritin, B-type natriuretic peptide, and troponin levels at the end of the first week of treatment in patients who were given biological therapy. Two patients were switched to tocilizumab because of an insufficient response to anakinra. The mortality rate of MIS-C patients admitted in PICU was 6.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Management of systemic inflammation and shock is important to decrease mortality and the development of persistent cardiac dysfunction in MIS-C. The aggressive treatment approach, including biological agents, may be required in patients with severe symptoms and cardiac dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biological Factors , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 337, 2021 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although almost a year has passed since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and promising reports of vaccines have been presented, we still have a long way until these measures are available for all. Furthermore, the most appropriate corticosteroid and dose in the treatment of COVID-19 have remained uncertain. We conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of methylprednisolone treatment versus dexamethasone for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this prospective triple-blinded randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 86 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from August to November 2020, in Shiraz, Iran. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day; intervention group) or dexamethasone (6 mg/day; control group). Data were assessed based on a 9-point WHO ordinal scale extending from uninfected (point 0) to death (point 8). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups on admission. However, the intervention group demonstrated significantly better clinical status compared to the control group at day 5 (4.02 vs. 5.21, p = 0.002) and day 10 (2.90 vs. 4.71, p = 0.001) of admission. There was also a significant difference in the overall mean score between the intervention group and the control group, (3.909 vs. 4.873 respectively, p = 0.004). The mean length of hospital stay was 7.43 ± 3.64 and 10.52 ± 5.47 days in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). The need for a ventilator was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (18.2% vs 38.1% p = 0.040). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized hypoxic COVID-19 patients, methylprednisolone demonstrated better results compared to dexamethasone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with IRCT.IR (08/04/2020-No. IRCT20200204046369N1 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
18.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic agent for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The RECOVERY (Randomised Trials in COVID-19 Therapy) trial provided data on the mortality benefits of corticosteroids. The study aimed to determine the association between corticosteroid use on mortality and infection rates and to define subgroups who may benefit from corticosteroids in a real-world setting. METHODS: Clinical data were extracted that included demographic, laboratory data and details of the therapy, including the administration of corticosteroids, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and anticoagulation. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation. Outcomes were compared in patients who did and did not receive corticosteroids using the multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: 4313 patients were hospitalised with COVID-19 during the study period, of whom 1270 died (29.4%). When administered within the first 7 days after admission, corticosteroids were associated with reduced mortality (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97, p=0.03) and decreased transfers to the ICU (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.11, p=0.02). This mortality benefit was particularly impressive in younger patients (<65 years of age), females and those with elevated inflammatory markers, defined as C reactive protein ≥150 mg/L (p≤0.05), interleukin-6 ≥20 pg/mL (p≤0.05) or D-dimer ≥2.0 µg/L (p≤0.05). Therapy was safe with similar rates of bacteraemia and fungaemia in corticosteroid-treated and non-corticosteroid-treated patients. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia, corticosteroid use within the first 7 days of admission decreased mortality and ICU admissions with no associated increase in bacteraemia or fungaemia.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Survival Rate
19.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(6): 1660-1667, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162547

ABSTRACT

The most beneficial effect of corticosteroid therapy in COVID-19 patients has been shown in subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), corresponding to a score of 6 on the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI). The aim of this observational, single-center, prospective study was to assess the association between corticosteroids and hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who did not receive IMV (OSCI 3-5). Included were 1,311 COVID-19 patients admitted to nonintensive care wards, and they were divided in two cohorts: (i) 480 patients who received corticosteroid therapy and (ii) 831 patients who did not. The median daily dose was of 8 mg of dexamethasone or equivalent, with a mean therapy duration of 5 (3-9) days. The indication to administer or withhold corticosteroids was given by the treating physician. In-hospital mortality was similar between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounders (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-1.34, P = 0.74). There was also no difference in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (ORadj 0.81, 95% CI, 0.56-1.17, P = 0.26). COVID-19 patients with noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) had a lower risk for ICU admission if they received steroid therapy (ORadj 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.94, P = 0.03). In conclusion, corticosteroids were overall not associated with a difference in hospital mortality for patients with COVID-19 with OSCI 3-5. In the subgroup of patients with NIMV (OSCI 5), corticosteroids reduced ICU admission, whereas the effect on mortality requires further studies.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154827

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic had caused significant morbidity and mortality, with over a million deaths recorded to date. Mortality recorded among severe-critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) has been significantly high, especially in most COVID-19 epicenters. Reports on the unique clinical characteristics and outcomes from the ICU admissions are on-going with isolated studies in Africa. This study was a retrospective single-centre study involving all polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of the department of medicine and therapeutics, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, over the period of 13th April - 28th June 2020. Twenty-two (22) patients in total fulfilled the inclusion criteria and are included in this report. Patients' socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory parameters outcomes as well as treatment modalities employed were extracted from their respective medical records and analyzed using STATA version 14. Dyspnoea, fever and cough were most common associated symptoms. The mean duration of admission at the ICU was 4.1 ± 3.0 days with five deaths (22.7%). About 91% (20/22) had at least one comorbidity with hypertension as the most prevalent. The median oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) level was significantly higher in persons with only COVID-19 pneumonia compared to those with complicated respiratory failure (p<0.001). Six (27.3%) out of the 22 patients had non-invasive ventilation, with only 1/22 (4.5%) receiving mechanical ventilation. Although non-significant, the mean duration of ICU stay was relatively shorter in patients who received therapeutic doses of anticoagulation (p=0.32). Duration of treatment with methylprednisolone was significantly associated with patient outcomes (p=0.04) and serum ferritin levels had a tendency to negatively affect outcome (p=0.06). Clearly there are still no specific targeted medications for COVID-19 treatment, except for empirically symptoms-guided treatments and management of mild to critically ill patients. Early use of systemic corticosteroids for severe to critically ill patients in the ICU using S/F ratio and CRP levels may improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Ghana , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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