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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(5): e2868, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795027

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a health threat worldwide and has been declared global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Possible transmission routes, including respiratory droplets, close contact, and aerosol propagation, have put plastic and reconstructive healthcare professionals at high risk, especially during surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to summarize and share our experience of infection control measures and corresponding outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Infection control measures, including workflow optimization, useful epidemiologic survey methods, and personal full protective clothing, were discussed. Characteristics and outcomes of emergency cases and elective cases under local and general anesthesia during the COVID-19 pandemic were summarized. RESULTS: A hierarchy of interventions were applied mainly from 4 aspects. First, administration control and online consultation significantly decreased patient attendance. Second, a triage workflow was established to identify high-/low-risk patients, with clinical manifestations (fever, fatigue, cough, nasal discharge, etc), epidemiologic survey, blood test, chest computed tomographic scan, and coronavirus test if necessary. Third, strict environmental control was adopted using increasing ventilation, isolated room for inpatients, etc. Fourth, proper rotation of healthcare staff was ensured to reduce workload and minimize possible contact. A total of 904 emergency interventions, 2561 local anesthesia, and 570 general anesthesia were performed during this period, and none of the cases/healthcare professionals were found to be infected. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience could help global plastic and reconstructive healthcare professionals to get better preparation and continue to give qualified medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proper adjustments should be taken according to their own clinical settings.

2.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(3): 178-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747156

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - has resulted in a global pandemic. The associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a high number of death worldwide. Observational studies and case reports have provided insights that older age and the presence of chronic diseases is frequently associated with a higher COVID-19 severity. These individuals also seem to have a higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19. In this review we provide insights into the impact chronic diseases associated with the cardiovascular system, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease might have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Additionally we review recommendations and guidance's of international scientific associations and discuss which key learnings might be of importance for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Heart , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S85-S89, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726837

ABSTRACT

Synergistic associations between infection and nutrition are well known. Impact of nutrition interventions on the outcomes have been scientifically assessed and reported. The role of nutrition in limiting the infection related morbidity and mortality does not appear to be a debatable question but nutrition interventions do not appear to be an essential part of current COVID-19 management strategies. Given the nature of pandemic and lack of organism-specific evidence, variability in nutrition interventions and lack of nutrition interventions is not unexpected. However, delay in realization of the crucial need of nutrition interventions to limit the immediate and long term outcomes at personal and community level may aggravate health related issues that can have long term impact on quality of life and economy. Due to existing undernutrition and lack of nutrition related awareness and competence, need for timely and appropriate interventions is much more critical for developing countries. This manuscript highlights the need and feasibility of various nutrition interventions to assure optimum quality of life during and after COVID-19 pandemic. Available evidence provides enough guidance for nutrition interventions that are safe and promise to accrue various degrees of benefits with almost no likelihood of harm. Nutrition interventions suggested by author are: 1) population level efforts for promoting better use of existing resources; 2) quicker augmentation of nutrition status of high risk people and non-hospitalized cases by use of supplement and individualized guidance and 3) nutritional support of sever case by timely and adequate enteral and parenteral feeding.

4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 670-674, 2020 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721670

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease Pandemic 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), started in December 2019 in China. SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted by droplet infection. After an incubation period of 1-14 days, COVID-19 shows a mild course in 80 % of observed cases and a severe course in 20 %, with a lethality rate of 0.3-5.8 %. Elderly people and people with underlying diseases have a higher risk of severe courses with mandatory ventilation. So far there are neither effective drugs nor vaccinations available, so only public health interventions such as physical distancing and hygiene measures on the one hand and targeted testing followed by isolation and quarantine measures on the other hand are available. China has shown that maximum use of these measures can control the epidemic. The further course and also the consequences for the global economy cannot be clearly predicted at present.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e598-e609, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A rapidly increasing number of serological surveys for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported worldwide. We aimed to synthesise, combine, and assess this large corpus of data. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and five preprint servers for articles published in English between Dec 1, 2019, and Dec 22, 2020. Studies evaluating SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in humans after the first identified case in the area were included. Studies that only reported serological responses among patients with COVID-19, those using known infection status samples, or any animal experiments were all excluded. All data used for analysis were extracted from included papers. Study quality was assessed using a standardised scale. We estimated age-specific, sex-specific, and race-specific seroprevalence by WHO regions and subpopulations with different levels of exposures, and the ratio of serology-identified infections to virologically confirmed cases. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020198253. FINDINGS: 16 506 studies were identified in the initial search, 2523 were assessed for eligibility after removal of duplicates and inappropriate titles and abstracts, and 404 serological studies (representing tests in 5 168 360 individuals) were included in the meta-analysis. In the 82 studies of higher quality, close contacts (18·0%, 95% CI 15·7-20·3) and high-risk health-care workers (17·1%, 9·9-24·4) had higher seroprevalence than did low-risk health-care workers (4·2%, 1·5-6·9) and the general population (8·0%, 6·8-9·2). The heterogeneity between included studies was high, with an overall I2 of 99·9% (p<0·0001). Seroprevalence varied greatly across WHO regions, with the lowest seroprevalence of general populations in the Western Pacific region (1·7%, 95% CI 0·0-5·0). The pooled infection-to-case ratio was similar between the region of the Americas (6·9, 95% CI 2·7-17·3) and the European region (8·4, 6·5-10·7), but higher in India (56·5, 28·5-112·0), the only country in the South-East Asia region with data. INTERPRETATION: Antibody-mediated herd immunity is far from being reached in most settings. Estimates of the ratio of serologically detected infections per virologically confirmed cases across WHO regions can help provide insights into the true proportion of the population infected from routine confirmation data. FUNDING: National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, Key Emergency Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee, Program of Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader, National Science and Technology Major project of China, the US National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 83-91, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) occurs in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Risks and outcomes remain poorly understood. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to 5 Johns Hopkins hospitals was conducted between March and August 2020. CAPA was defined using composite clinical criteria. Fine and Gray competing risks regression was used to analyze clinical outcomes and, multilevel mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression was used to compare longitudinal disease severity scores. RESULTS: In the cohort of 396 people, 39 met criteria for CAPA. Patients with CAPA were more likely than those without CAPA to have underlying pulmonary vascular disease (41% vs 21.6%, respectively; P = .01), liver disease (35.9% vs 18.2%; P = .02), coagulopathy (51.3% vs 33.1%; P = .03), solid tumors (25.6% vs 10.9%; P = .02), multiple myeloma (5.1% vs 0.3%; P = .03), and corticosteroid exposure during the index admission (66.7% vs 42.6%; P = .005), and had lower body mass indexes (median, 26.6 vs 29.9 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]; P = .04). Patients with CAPA had worse outcomes, as measured by ordinal severity of disease scores, requiring longer time to improvement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.081.091.1; P < .001), and advancing in severity almost twice as quickly (subhazard ratio, 1.31.82.5; P < .001). They were intubated twice as long as those without CAPA (subhazard ratio, 0.40.50.6; P < .001) and had longer hospital stays (median [interquartile range], 41.1 [20.5-72.4) vs 18.5 [10.7-31.8] days; P < .001). CONCLUSION: CAPA is associated with poor outcomes. Attention to preventive measures (screening and/or prophylaxis) is warranted in people with high risk of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2257-2264, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global vaccine development efforts have been accelerated in response to the devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We evaluated the impact of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination campaign on reducing incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. METHODS: We developed an agent-based model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and parameterized it with US demographics and age-specific COVID-19 outcomes. Healthcare workers and high-risk individuals were prioritized for vaccination, whereas children under 18 years of age were not vaccinated. We considered a vaccine efficacy of 95% against disease following 2 doses administered 21 days apart achieving 40% vaccine coverage of the overall population within 284 days. We varied vaccine efficacy against infection and specified 10% preexisting population immunity for the base-case scenario. The model was calibrated to an effective reproduction number of 1.2, accounting for current nonpharmaceutical interventions in the United States. RESULTS: Vaccination reduced the overall attack rate to 4.6% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 4.3%-5.0%) from 9.0% (95% CrI: 8.4%-9.4%) without vaccination, over 300 days. The highest relative reduction (54%-62%) was observed among individuals aged 65 and older. Vaccination markedly reduced adverse outcomes, with non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations, ICU hospitalizations, and deaths decreasing by 63.5% (95% CrI: 60.3%-66.7%), 65.6% (95% CrI: 62.2%-68.6%), and 69.3% (95% CrI: 65.5%-73.1%), respectively, across the same period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that vaccination can have a substantial impact on mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks, even with limited protection against infection. However, continued compliance with nonpharmaceutical interventions is essential to achieve this impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
10.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211013262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic poses unique challenges to healthcare delivery. To limit the exposure of providers and patients to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages providers to use telehealth platforms whenever possible. Given the maternal mortality crisis in the United States and the compounding 2019 coronavirus disease public health emergency, continued access to quality preconception, prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby. OBJECTIVE: This commentary explores unique opportunities to optimize virtual obstetric care for low-risk and high-risk mothers at each stage of pregnancy. METHODS: In this review paper, we present evidence-based literature and tools from first-hand experience implementing telemedicine in obstetric care clinics during the pandemic. RESULTS: Using the best evidence-based practices with telemedicine, health care providers can deliver care in the safest, most respectful, and appropriate way possible while providing the critical support necessary in pregnancy. In reviewing the literature, several studies endorse the implementation of specific tools outlined in this article, to facilitate the implementation of telemedicine. From a quality improvement standpoint, evidence-based telemedicine provides a solution for overburdened healthcare systems, greater confidentiality for obstetric services, and a personalized avenue for health care providers to meet maternal health needs in the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, continued access to quality prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vital Signs
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(1): 269-281, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591653

ABSTRACT

The immune system plays a crucial role in the response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with significant differences among patients. The study investigated the relationships between lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and disease outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The measurements of peripheral blood lymphocytes subsets and cytokine levels were performed by flow cytometry for 57 COVID-19 patients. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the severity of the disease (nonsevere vs. severe). Total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients and statistical differences were found among different severity of illness and survival states (P ˂ 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in severe and death groups and negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets counts. The percentages of Th17 in the peripheral blood of patients were higher than those of healthy controls whereas the percentages of Th2 were lower. For the severe cases, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of IL-6 was the largest among all the immune parameters (0.964; 95% confidence interval: 0.927-1.000, P < 0.0001). In addition, the preoperative IL-6 concentration of 77.38 pg/ml was the optimal cutoff value (sensitivity: 84.6%, specificity: 100%). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC curves, IL-6 > 106.44 pg/ml and CD8+ T cell counts <150 cells/µl were found to be associated with mortality. Measuring the immune parameters and defining a risk threshold can segregate patients who develop a severe disease from those with a mild pathology. The identification of these parameters may help clinicians to predict the outcome of the patients with high risk of unfavorable progress of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Africa, Northern , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Stem Cell Investig ; 7: 11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579497

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented with debilitating respiratory consequences especially more pronounced in high risk individuals. Individuals with underlying systemic diseases are more prone and vulnerable to suffer severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. The pathophysiological changes identified cytokine storm mechanism for out setting the series of adverse clinical conditions. Thereby, associating it with high mortality rates. This warrants urgent consideration of divergent modalities such as the cellular therapy. Cellular therapy (CT) is a new medical paradigm wherein cellular material is administered to patients for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have yielded the most promising results among stromal vascular fraction (SVF); placental cells; natural killer (NK) cell and platelet lysate respectively. Following the administration of the CT as per preferred route, these play pivotal role in modifying the microenvironment of the lung tissue with their distinct sets of mechanism. Evidences have shown how their immunomodulatory action repairs and prevents lung injury which in turn improvise the compliance of lungs. In this review article we have discussed these emerging novel approaches and their target step serving as a ray of hope to combat severe form of COVID-19. Currently these aren't approved for preventing or treating COVID-19 cases, however clinical trials are afoot to dispense the utmost understanding in terms of efficacy and safety concerns.

13.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(5): 1230-1239, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575510

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the association between dementia and mortality among older adults with COVID-19. To do so, we conducted a search of 7 databases for relevant full-text articles. A cohort study and case-control study were included. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the pooled odds ratio with a random-effects model. We identified studies that reported mortality among older adults with dementia and non-dementia who have COVID-19. The pooled mortality rates of dementia and non-dementia older adults infected with COVID-19 were 39% (95% CI: 0.23-0.54%, I2 = 83.48%) and 20% (95% CI: 0.16-0.25%, I2 = 83.48%), respectively. Overall, dementia was the main factor influencing poor health outcomes and high rates of mortality in older adults with COVID-19 infection (odds ratio 2.96; 95% CI 2.00-4.38, I2 = 29.7%), respectively. Our results show that older adults with dementia with COVID-19 infection have a higher risk of mortality compared with older adults without dementia. This current study further highlights the need to provide focused care to the older adults with dementia or cognitive impairment who have COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2045-2054, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunity after dengue virus (DENV) infection has been suggested to cross-protect from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality. METHODS: We tested whether serologically proven prior DENV infection diagnosed in September-October 2019, before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinically apparent COVID-19 over the next 13 months in a population-based cohort in Amazonian Brazil. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of infection and disease, adjusting for potential individual and household-level confounders. Virus genomes from 14 local SARS-CoV-2 isolates were obtained using whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found in 37.0% of 1285 cohort participants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.3% to 39.7%) in 2019, with 10.4 (95% CI: 6.7-15.5) seroconversion events per 100 person-years during the follow-up. In 2020, 35.2% of the participants (95% CI: 32.6% to 37.8%) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 57.1% of the 448 SARS-CoV-2 seropositives (95% CI: 52.4% to 61.8%) reported clinical manifestations at the time of infection. Participants aged >60 years were twice more likely to have symptomatic COVID-19 than children under 5 years. Locally circulating SARS-CoV-2 isolates were assigned to the B.1.1.33 lineage. Contrary to the cross-protection hypothesis, prior DENV infection was associated with twice the risk of clinically apparent COVID-19 upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, with P values between .025 and .039 after adjustment for identified confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher risk of clinically apparent COVID-19 among individuals with prior dengue has important public health implications for communities sequentially exposed to DENV and SARS-CoV-2 epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2073-2082, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses an urgent need for the development of effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We first tested SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell (CοV-2-ST) immunity and expansion in unexposed donors, COVID-19-infected individuals (convalescent), asymptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive subjects, vaccinated individuals, non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized patients, and ICU patients who either recovered and were discharged (ICU recovered) or had a prolonged stay and/or died (ICU critical). CoV-2-STs were generated from all types of donors and underwent phenotypic and functional assessment. RESULTS: We demonstrate causal relationship between the expansion of endogenous CoV-2-STs and the disease outcome; insufficient expansion of circulating CoV-2-STs identified hospitalized patients at high risk for an adverse outcome. CoV-2-STs with a similarly functional and non-alloreactive, albeit highly cytotoxic, profile against SARS-CoV-2 could be expanded from both convalescent and vaccinated donors generating clinical-scale, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell products with functional activity against both the unmutated virus and its B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. In contrast, critical COVID-19 patient-originating CoV-2-STs failed to expand, recapitulating the in vivo failure of CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity to control the infection. CoV-2-STs generated from asymptomatic PCR-positive individuals presented only weak responses, whereas their counterparts originating from exposed to other seasonal coronaviruses subjects failed to kill the virus, thus disempowering the hypothesis of protective cross-immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we provide evidence on risk stratification of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the feasibility of generating powerful CoV-2-ST products from both convalescent and vaccinated donors as an "off-the shelf" T-cell immunotherapy for high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , T-Lymphocytes
16.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 998-1008, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify the potential for and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: Symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis in whom PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at delivery using maternal serum and at least one of the biological samples: cord blood (CB), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS) of the neonate. The association of parameters with maternal, AF and/or CB positivity and the influence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in AF and/or CB on neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Overall 73.4% (80/109) were admitted in hospital due to COVID-19, 22.9% needed intensive care and there were four maternal deaths. Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 14.7% of maternal blood, 13.9% of AF, 6.7% of CB, 2.1% of colostrum and 3.7% of OPS samples. The interval between COVID-19 symptoms and delivery was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the maternal blood (p = 0.002) and in the AF and/or CB (p = 0.049). Maternal viremia was associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in AF and/or CB (p = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the compartments was not associated with neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission is possible in pregnant women with COVID-19 and a shorter interval between maternal symptoms and delivery is an influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Colostrum/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
CJC Open ; 3(10): 1217-1220, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on cardiac surgery patients. Significant reductions in access to surgical treatment have forced surgeons to prioritise patients and follow strict COVID-19 protocols to protect surgeons, staff, and patients. Adult cardiac surgery and the COVID-19 pandemic: aggressive infection mitigation strategies are necessary in the operating room and surgical recovery. Nosocomial infections among cardiac surgery patients have been reported and are associated with a high mortality rate. As a COVID-19 tertiary care centre and a tertiary cardiac centre, we tried to balance the need to operate on urgent cardiac cases while protecting patients and staff from COVID-19. METHODS: During the first wave of the pandemic, we performed 579 surgeries. We report findings from an outbreak of 4 nosocomial infections. RESULTS: All patients tested negative within 24 hours of surgery or admission. Three patients were positive after surgery, suggesting an overall nosocomial rate during the first wave of 0.5% (3/579). One patient admitted for evaluation tested positive during mass screening. Two of the 4 patients died after respiratory complications. No health care worker (HCW) or family member with direct contact with these patients tested positive for COVID-19. Nosocomial COVID-19 infection is uncommon when adhering to safety protocols. Although uncommon, the mortality rate is high (50%) in our series. CONCLUSIONS: As widespread vaccination of HCWs and high-risk individuals susceptible to COVID-19 is in progress, we suggest that cardiac surgery patients, when feasible, be vaccinated before surgery given this could prevent excess mortality, protect HCWs and reduce resource use.


CONTEXTE: La pandémie de COVID-19 a eu des répercussions importantes sur les patients en chirurgie cardiaque. Les réductions importantes de l'accès aux traitements chirurgicaux ont obligé les chirurgiens à classer les patients par ordre de priorité et à suivre des protocoles COVID-19 rigoureux pour protéger les chirurgiens, le personnel et les patients. En ce qui a trait à la chirurgie cardiaque chez les adultes pendant la pandémie de COVID-19, des stratégies énergiques d'atténuation des infections sont nécessaires en salle d'opération et pendant la convalescence. Des infections nosocomiales ont été signalées chez des patients de chirurgie cardiaque; elles sont associées à un taux de mortalité élevé. Comme notre centre de soins tertiaires traite à la fois des patients atteints de troubles cardiaques et des patients atteints de la COVID-19, nous avons essayé de trouver un équilibre entre la nécessité d'effectuer les opérations cardiaques urgentes et la protection des patients et du personnel contre la COVID-19. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Pendant la première vague de la pandémie, nous avons effectué 579 interventions chirurgicales. Nous rapportons les résultats d'une éclosion de quatre infections nosocomiales. RÉSULTATS: Tous les patients ont obtenu un résultat négatif au test de dépistage dans les 24 heures suivant l'intervention ou l'admission. Trois patients ont obtenu un résultat positif à ce test après l'intervention, ce qui indique un taux global d'infection nosocomiale de 0,5 % (3 / 579) au cours de la première vague. Un patient admis pour évaluation a obtenu un résultat positif au moment du dépistage de masse. Deux des quatre patients sont morts après des complications respiratoires. Aucun travailleur de la santé ou membre de la famille ayant eu un contact direct avec ces patients n'a obtenu un résultat positif au test de dépistage de la COVID-19. L'infection nosocomiale à la COVID-19 est rare quand les protocoles de sécurité sont respectés. Mais même si elle est peu fréquente, le taux de mortalité associé est élevé (50 %) dans notre série. CONCLUSIONS: Alors que la vaccination généralisée des travailleurs de la santé et des personnes à haut risque vulnérables à la COVID-19 est en cours, nous suggérons que les patients en chirurgie cardiaque soient vaccinés avant l'opération, si possible, car cela pourrait prévenir la surmortalité, protéger les travailleurs de la santé et réduire l'utilisation des ressources.

18.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e28309, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our clinical trial of a mobile exercise intervention for adults 18 to 65 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurred during COVID-19 social distancing restrictions, prompting us to test web-based recruitment methods previously underexplored for this demographic. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives for this study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and cost of using social media news feed advertisements, a clinic-based approach method, and web-based snowball sampling to reach inadequately active adults with T1D and (2) compare characteristics of enrollees against normative data. METHODS: Participants were recruited between November 2019 and August 2020. In method #1, Facebook and Instagram news feed advertisements ran for five 1-to-8-day windows targeting adults (18 to 64 years old) in the greater New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut, areas with one or more diabetes-related profile interest. If interested, participants completed a webform so that the research team could contact them for eligibility screening. In method #2, patients 18 to 24 years old with T1D were approached in person at clinical visits in November and December 2019. Those who were interested immediately completed eligibility screening. Older patients could not be approached due to clinic restrictions. In method #3, snowball sampling was conducted by physically active individuals with T1D contacting their peers on Facebook and via email for 48 days, with details to contact the research staff to express interest and complete eligibility screening. Other methods referred participants to the study similarly to snowball sampling. RESULTS: In method #1, advertisements were displayed to 11,738 unique viewers and attracted 274 clickers (2.33%); 20 participants from this group (7.3%) volunteered, of whom 8 (40%) were eligible. Costs averaged US $1.20 per click and US $95.88 per eligible volunteer. Men had lower click rates than women (1.71% vs 3.17%; P<.001), but their responsiveness and eligibility rates did not differ. In method #2, we approached 40 patients; 32 of these patients (80%) inquired about the study, of whom 20 (63%) volunteered, and 2 of these volunteers (10%) were eligible. Costs including personnel for in-person approaches averaged US $21.01 per inquirer and US $479.79 per eligible volunteer. In method #3, snowball sampling generated 13 inquirers; 12 of these inquirers (92%) volunteered, of whom 8 (67%) were eligible. Incremental costs to attract inquirers were negligible, and total costs averaged US $20.59 per eligible volunteer. Other methods yielded 7 inquirers; 5 of these inquirers (71%) volunteered, of whom 2 (40%) were eligible. Incremental costs to attract inquirers were negligible, and total costs averaged US $34.94 per eligible volunteer. Demographic overrepresentations emerged in the overall cohort (ie, optimal glycemic control, obesity, and low exercise), among those recruited by news feed advertisements (ie, obesity and older age), and among those recruited by snowball sampling (ie, optimal glycemic control and low exercise). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based advertising and recruitment strategies are a promising means to attract adults with T1D to clinical trials and exercise interventions, with costs comparing favorably to prior trials despite targeting an uncommon condition (ie, T1D) and commitment to an intervention. These strategies should be tailored in future studies to increase access to higher-risk participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04204733; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04204733.

19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3611-3623, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526425

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in December 2019, more than 51 million cases had been reported globally. We aimed to identify the risk factors for in-hospital fatal outcome and severe pneumonia of this disease. This is a retrospective, multicentre study, which included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes (died or discharged) hospitalized between 1 January and 4 March 2020 in Wuhan. Of all 665 patients included, 70 died and 595 discharged (including 333 mild and 262 severe cases). Underlying comorbidity was more commonly observed among deaths (72.9%) than mild (26.4%) and severe (61.5%) survivors, with hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular as dominant diseases. Fever and cough were the primary clinical magnifications. Older age (≥65 years) (OR = 3.174, 95% CI = 1.356-7.755), diabetes (OR = 2.540, 95% CI = 0.995-6.377), dyspnoea (OR = 7.478, 95% CI = 3.031-19.528), respiratory failure (OR = 10.528, 95% CI = 4.484-25.829), acute cardiac injury (OR = 25.103, 95% CI = 9.057-76.590) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 7.308, 95% CI = 1.501-46.348) were associated with in-hospital fatal outcome. In addition, older age (OR = 2.149, 95% CI = 1.424-3.248), diabetes (OR = 3.951, 95% CI = 2.077-7.788), cardiovascular disease (OR = 3.414, 95% CI = 1.432-8.799), nervous system disease (OR = 4.125, 95% CI = 1.252-18.681), dyspnoea (OR = 31.944, 95% CI = 18.877-92.741), achieving highest in-hospital temperature of >39.0°C (OR = 37.450, 95% CI = 7.402-683.403) and longer onset of illness to diagnosis (≥9 days) were statistically associated with higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. In conclusion, the potential risk factors forolder age, diabetes, dyspnoea, respiratory failure, acute cardiac injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , China/epidemiology , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
20.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3456-3461, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical centers across the country have had to rapidly adapt clinician staffing strategies to accommodate large influxes of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the adaptations and staffing strategies that US academic medical centers employed in the inpatient setting early in the spread of COVID-19, and to assess whether those changes were sustained during the first phase of the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey assessing organization-level, team-level, and clinician-level inpatient workforce adaptations. PARTICIPANTS: Hospital medicine leadership at 27 academic medical centers in the USA. KEY RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 36 centers responded to the survey (75%). Widespread practices included frequent staffing reassessment, organization-level changes such as geographic cohorting and redeployment of non-hospitalists, and exempting high-risk healthcare workers from direct care of patients with COVID-19. Several practices were implemented but discontinued, such as reduction of non-essential services, indicating that they were less sustainable for large centers. CONCLUSION: These findings provide guidance for inpatient leaders seeking to identify sustainable practices for COVID-19 inpatient workforce planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inpatients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
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