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1.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 610-617, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555470

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of direct renin inhibitor aliskiren for the treatment of severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension. Methods: The antihypertensive effects and safety of aliskiren was retrospectively analyzed in three severe and one critical COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Results: Four patients, two males and two females, with an average age of 78 years (66-87 years), were referred to hospital mainly because of respiratory symptoms. Three were diagnosed by positive novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) nucleic acid or antibody, and the critical patient with cardiac insufficiency was clinically determined. Two patients were treated with calcium channel antagonist (CCB), one with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and one with angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist (ARB). After admission, ACEI and ARB were discontinued, one patient with heart failure was treated by aliskiren combined with diuretic.Three patients were treated with aliskiren combined with CCB among whom two withdrew CCB due to low blood pressure after 1 to 2 weeks. Based on comprehensive treatment including antiviral and oxygenation treatment, blood pressure was satisfactorily controlled by aliskiren after three to four weeks without serious adverse events. All patients were finally discharged. Conclusion: Our preliminary clinical data shows that antihypertensive effect of aliskiren is satisfactory and safe for severe COVID-19 patients complicated with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renin/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 863-872, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 entry in human cells depends on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which can be upregulated by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We aimed to test our hypothesis that discontinuation of chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) mitigates the course o\f recent-onset COVID-19. METHODS: ACEI-COVID was a parallel group, randomised, controlled, open-label trial done at 35 centres in Austria and Germany. Patients aged 18 years and older were enrolled if they presented with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and were chronically treated with ACEIs or ARBs. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to discontinuation or continuation of RAS inhibition for 30 days. Primary outcome was the maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score within 30 days, where death was scored with the maximum achievable SOFA score. Secondary endpoints were area under the death-adjusted SOFA score (AUCSOFA), mean SOFA score, admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and death. Analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04353596. FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2020, and Jan 20, 2021, 204 patients (median age 75 years [IQR 66-80], 37% females) were randomly assigned to discontinue (n=104) or continue (n=100) RAS inhibition. Within 30 days, eight (8%) of 104 died in the discontinuation group and 12 (12%) of 100 patients died in the continuation group (p=0·42). There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between the discontinuation and continuation group (median [IQR] maximum SOFA score 0·00 (0·00-2·00) vs 1·00 (0·00-3·00); p=0·12). Discontinuation was associated with a significantly lower AUCSOFA (0·00 [0·00-9·25] vs 3·50 [0·00-23·50]; p=0·040), mean SOFA score (0·00 [0·00-0·31] vs 0·12 [0·00-0·78]; p=0·040), and 30-day SOFA score (0·00 [10-90th percentile, 0·00-1·20] vs 0·00 [0·00-24·00]; p=0·023). At 30 days, 11 (11%) in the discontinuation group and 23 (23%) in the continuation group had signs of organ dysfunction (SOFA score ≥1) or were dead (p=0·017). There were no significant differences for mechanical ventilation (10 (10%) vs 8 (8%), p=0·87) and admission to intensive care unit (20 [19%] vs 18 [18%], p=0·96) between the discontinuation and continuation group. INTERPRETATION: Discontinuation of RAS-inhibition in COVID-19 had no significant effect on the maximum severity of COVID-19 but may lead to a faster and better recovery. The decision to continue or discontinue should be made on an individual basis, considering the risk profile, the indication for RAS inhibition, and the availability of alternative therapies and outpatient monitoring options. FUNDING: Austrian Science Fund and German Center for Cardiovascular Research.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
3.
Am Heart J ; 240: 46-57, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are known to impact the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The association between chronic therapy with these medications and infection risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the association between prior ACEI or ARB therapy and SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with hypertension in the U.S. Veteran's Affairs health system. METHODS: We compared the odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection among three groups: patients treated with ACEI, treated with ARB, or treated with alternate first-line anti-hypertensives without ACEI/ARB. We excluded patients with alternate indications for ACEI or ARB therapy. We performed an augmented inverse propensity weighted analysis with adjustment for demographics, region, comorbidities, vitals, and laboratory values. RESULTS: Among 1,724,723 patients with treated hypertension, 659,180 were treated with ACEI, 310,651 with ARB, and 754,892 with neither. Before weighting, patients treated with ACEI or ARB were more likely to be diabetic and use more anti-hypertensives. There were 13,278 SARS-CoV-2 infections (0.8%) between February 12, 2020 and August 19, 2020. Patients treated with ACEI had lower odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89-0.97) while those treated with ARB had similar odds (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96-1.07) compared with patients treated with alternate first-line anti-hypertensives without ACEI/ARB. In falsification analyses, patients on ACEI did not have a difference in their odds of unrelated outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the safety of continuing ACEI and ARB therapy. The association between ACEI therapy and lower odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Aged , Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Confidence Intervals , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Propensity Score , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veterans/statistics & numerical data
4.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 286-292, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hypertension and pre-existing use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonias. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and pre-existing use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 103 COVID-19 and 91 non-COVID-19 hospitalized viral pneumonia patients were enrolled. Hypertension and CAD were more common in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than in patients with COVID-19 (39.6% vs 22.3%, respectively, p=0.012 and 24.2% vs 4.9%, respectively, p<0.001). In our study, 2.9% and 6.8% of patients with COVID-19 were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively, whereas 13.2% and 19.8% of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively (p=0.009 and p=0.013). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001) was prominent in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia compared with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study results indicate that hypertension and CAD are more common among patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of ACEIs and ARBs use was not higher in patients with COVID-19. Our results support that the use of ACEIs and ARBs do not play a specific role in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(9): 2841-2850, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246659

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted life throughout the world. Newly developed vaccines promise relief to people who live in high-income countries, although vaccines and expensive new treatments are unlikely to arrive in time to help people who live in low-and middle-income countries. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Several widely available drugs like statins, ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have immunometabolic activities that (among other things) maintain or restore endothelial cell function. For this reason, we undertook an observational study in four Belgian hospitals to determine whether in-hospital treatment with these drugs could improve survival in 959 COVID-19 patients. We found that treatment with statins and ACEIs/ARBs reduced 28-day mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Moreover, combination treatment with these drugs resulted in a 3-fold reduction in the odds of hospital mortality (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.17-0.69). These findings were in general agreement with other published studies. Additional observational studies and clinical trials are needed to convincingly show that in-hospital treatment with statins, ACEIs/ARBs, and especially their combination saves lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Belgium/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 647319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238868

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is spreading globally with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2 serving as the entry point of SARS-CoV-2 virus. This raised concerns how ACE2 and the Renin-Angiotensin (Ang)-System (RAS) are to be dealt with given their roles in hypertension and their involvement in COVID-19's morbidity and mortality. Specifically, increased ACE2 expression in response to treatment with ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs) might theoretically increase COVID-19 risk by increasing SARS-CoV-2 binding sites. However, ACE2 is part of the protective counter-regulatory ACE2-Ang1-7-MasR axis, which opposes the classical ACE-AngII-AT1R regulatory axis. We used Gitelman's and Bartter's syndromes (GS/BS) patients, rare genetic tubulopathies that have endogenously increased levels of ACE2, to explore these issues. Specifically, 128 genetically confirmed GS/BS patients, living in Lombardia, Emilia Romagna and Veneto, the Northern Italy hot spots for COVID-19, were surveyed via telephone survey regarding COVID-19. The survey found no COVID-19 infection and absence of COVID-19 symptoms in any patient. Comparison analysis with the prevalence of COVID-19 in those regions showed statistical significance (p < 0.01). The results of the study strongly suggest that increased ACE2 does not increase risk of COVID-19 and that ACEi and ARBs by blocking excessive AT1R-mediated Ang II activation might favor the increase of ACE2-derived Ang 1-7. GS/BS patients' increased ACE2 and Ang 1-7 levels and their characteristic chronic metabolic alkalosis suggest a mechanism similar to that of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine effect on ACE2 glycosylation alteration with resulting SARS-COV-2 binding inhibition and blockage/inhibition of viral entry. Studies from our laboratory are ongoing to explore GS/BS ACE2 glycosylation and other potential beneficial effects of BS/GS. Importantly, the absence of frank COVID-19 or of COVID-19 symptoms in the BS/GS patients cohort, given no direct ascertainment of COVID-19 status, suggest that elevated ACE2 levels as found in GS/BS patients at a minimum render COVID-19 infection asymptomatic and thus that COVID-19 symptoms are driven by ACE2 levels.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 609857, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226973

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) share a target receptor with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The use of ACEIs/ARBs may cause angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor upregulation, facilitating the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. There is concern that the use of ACEIs/ARBs could increase the risks of severe COVID-19 and mortality. The impact of discontinuing these drugs in patients with COVID-19 remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between the use of ACEIs/ARBs and the risks of mortality and severe disease in patients with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and MedRxiv.org from December 1, 2019, to June 20, 2020. We also identified additional citations by manually searching the reference lists of eligible articles. Forty-two observational studies including 63,893 participants were included. We found that the use of ACEIs/ARBs was not significantly associated with a reduction in the relative risk of all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.75-1.00; I 2 = 57%, p = 0.05]. We found no significant reduction in the risk of severe disease in the ACEI subgroup (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88-1.02, I 2 = 50%, p = 0.18), the ARB subgroup (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.94-1.13, I 2 = 62%, p = 0.48), or the ACEI/ARB subgroup (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.65-1.08, I 2 = 67%, p = 0.16). Moreover, seven studies showed no significant difference in the duration of hospitalization between the two groups (mean difference = 0.33, 95% CI = -1.75 to 2.40, p = 0.76). In conclusion, the use of ACEIs/ARBs appears to not have a significant effect on mortality, disease severity, or duration of hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, there is no support for the cessation of treatment with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4598-4607, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205938

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Antihypertensive drugs have been implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity, but estimated associations may be susceptible to bias. We aimed to evaluate antihypertensive medications and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality, accounting for healthcare-seeking behaviour. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted including 16 866 COVID-19 cases and 70 137 matched controls from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We evaluated all-cause mortality among COVID-19 cases. Exposures were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (B), calcium-channel blockers (C), thiazide diuretics (D) and other antihypertensive drugs (O). Analyses were adjusted for covariates and consultation frequency. RESULTS: ACEIs were associated with lower odds of COVID-19 diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.88) as were ARBs (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.95) with little attenuation from adjustment for consultation frequency. C and D were also associated with lower odds of COVID-19 diagnosis. Increased odds of COVID-19 for B (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.12-1.26) were attenuated after adjustment for consultation frequency (AOR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95-1.08). Patients treated with ACEIs or ARBs had similar odds of mortality (AOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.83-1.20) to patients treated with classes B, C, D or O or patients receiving no antihypertensive therapy (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that antihypertensive therapy is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis or mortality; most classes of antihypertensive therapy showed negative associations with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201474

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) in humans. ACE-2 is a type I transmembrane metallocarboxypeptidase expressed in vascular endothelial cells, alveolar type 2 lung epithelial cells, renal tubular epithelium, Leydig cells in testes and gastrointestinal tract. ACE2 mediates the interaction between host cells and SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. However, ACE2 is not only a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, but it has also an important homeostatic function regulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is pivotal for both the cardiovascular and immune systems. Therefore, ACE2 is the key link between SARS-CoV-2 infection, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and immune response. Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 seems to be tightly associated with ACE2 availability, which in turn is determined by genetics, age, gender and comorbidities. Severe COVID-19 is due to an uncontrolled and excessive immune response, which leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure. In spite of a lower ACE2 expression on cells surface, patients with CVDs have a higher COVID-19 mortality rate, which is likely driven by the imbalance between ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) protein (which is required for cleavage of ACE-2 ectodomain resulting in increased ACE2 shedding), and TMPRSS2 (which is required for spike glycoprotein priming). To date, ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) treatment interruption in patients with chronic comorbidities appears unjustified. The rollout of COVID-19 vaccines provides opportunities to study the effects of different COVID-19 vaccines on ACE2 in patients on treatment with ACEi/ARB.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
10.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(8): 1009-1014, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195632

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the leading player of the protective renin-angiotensin system (RAS) pathway but also the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RAS inhibitors seemed to interfere with the ACE2 receptor, and their safety was addressed in COVID-19 patients. Pedrosa et al. (Clin. Sci. (Lond.) (2021), 135, 465-481) showed in rats that captopril and candesartan up-regulated ACE2 expression and the protective RAS pathway in lung tissue. In culture of pneumocytes, the captopril/candesartan-induced ACE2 up-regulation was associated with inhibition of ADAM17 activity, counterbalancing increased ACE2 expression, which was associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 spike protein entry. If confirmed in humans, these results could become the pathophysiological background for justifying RAS inhibitors as cornerstone cardiovascular protectives even during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Benzimidazoles , Biphenyl Compounds , Captopril/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rats , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tetrazoles
11.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(4): 436-443, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, affecting 1.39 billion people. This review discusses recent literature regarding the global burden of HTN and emerging concepts in prevalence, treatment, and control in different regions around the globe. RECENT FINDINGS: Community-based interventions and telemedicine may be useful in increasing access to care and identifying/assisting patients with HTN, especially in populations with geographical and economic barriers to healthcare. Home blood pressure monitoring is beneficial for HTN control in diverse regions. Polypills have proven benefits to decrease HTN and CVD risk. Continuation of treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers in high risk COVID-19 patients appears appropriate. SUMMARY: Extensive research demonstrates that early screening/treatment, lifestyle modification, and pharmacotherapy are essential to control HTN worldwide. This review highlights recent research and novel concepts on effective interventions being used globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(4): 330-340, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175476

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with hypertension infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at increased risk of acute lung injury. However, it is still not clear whether this increased risk is related to the usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We collected medical records of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China), and evaluated the potential impact of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. A total of 30 hypertensive COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of which 17 were classified as non-ARB group and the remaining 13 as ARB group based on the antihypertensive therapies they received. Compared with the non-ARB group, patients in the ARB group had a lower proportion of severe cases and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as shortened length of hospital stay, and manifested favorable results in most of the laboratory testing. Viral loads in the ARB group were lower than those in the non-ARB group throughout the disease course. No significant difference in the time of seroconversion or antibody levels was observed between the two groups. The median levels of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2) in serum and urine samples were similar in both groups, and there were no significant correlations between serum sACE2 and biomarkers of disease severity. Transcriptional analysis showed 125 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in oxygen transport, bicarbonate transport, and blood coagulation. Our results suggest that ARB usage is not associated with aggravation of COVID-19. These findings support the maintenance of ARB treatment in hypertensive patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Viral Load , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transcriptome
13.
Medwave ; 21(2): e8105, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This living systematic review aims to provide a timely, rigorous, and continuously updated summary of the evidence available on the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: We conducted searches in PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), grey literature and in a centralized repository in L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence), which retrieves articles from multiple sources such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, among other pre-print and protocols repositories. In response to the COVID-19 emergency, L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) was adapted to expand the range of evidence and customized to group all COVID-19 evidence in one place on a daily search basis. The search covered a period of time up to July 31, 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES AND METHODS: We adapted an already published standard protocol for multiple parallel living systematic reviews to this question's specificities. We included randomized trials evaluating the effect of either suspension or indication of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers as monotherapy, or in combination versus placebo or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. We searched for randomized trials evaluating the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers versus placebo or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. Two reviewers independently screened each study for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We pooled the results using meta-analysis and applied the GRADE system to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. We will resubmit results every time the conclusions change or whenever there are substantial updates. RESULTS: We screened 772 records, but none was considered for eligibility. We identified 55 ongoing studies, including 41 randomized trials evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers for patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a randomized clinical trial meeting our inclusion criteria, and hence there is no evidence for supporting the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. A substantial number of ongoing studies would provide valuable evidence to inform researchers and decision-makers in the near future. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020182495. PROTOCOL PREPRINT DOI: 10.31219/osf.io/vp9nj.


OBJETIVO: Esta revisión sistemática viva tiene como objetivo proporcionar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre el rol de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (iECA) y los bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina II (ARA-II) en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. FUENTES DE DATOS: Realizamos búsquedas en PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), literatura gris y en el repositorio centralizado L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) que recupera artículos de múltiples fuentes como PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, entre otros repositorios de preprints y protocolos. En respuesta a la emergencia de COVID-19, L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) se adaptó para ampliar el rango de información que cubre y se personalizó para agrupar toda la evidencia en torno a COVID-19 en un solo lugar, en una base de búsqueda diaria. La búsqueda cubrió el período hasta el 31 de julio de 2020. CRITERIOS DE ELEGIBILIDAD PARA LA SELECCIÓN DE ESTUDIOS Y MÉTODOS: Adaptamos un protocolo común ya publicado para múltiples revisiones sistemáticas vivas paralelas a las especificidades de esta pregunta. Se incluyeron ensayos aleatorizados que evaluaban el efecto de la suspensión o la indicación de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina o bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina II, como monoterapia o en combinación, versus placebo o ningún tratamiento, en pacientes con COVID-19. Se buscaron ensayos aleatorizados que evaluaran el efecto de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina/bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina II versus placebo o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con COVID-19. Dos revisores examinaron de forma independiente la elegibilidad de cada estudio, extrajeron los datos y evaluaron el riesgo de sesgo. Los resultados se agruparon mediante un metanálisis y se aplicó GRADE para evaluar la certeza de la evidencia para cada resultado. Cada vez que cambien las conclusiones o hayan actualizaciones sustanciales, volveremos a enviar un reporte. RESULTADOS: Analizamos 772 artículos, pero ninguno cumplió con los criterios de inclusión. Identificamos 55 estudios en curso, incluidos 41 ensayos aleatorizados que evaluaban inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina/bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina II para pacientes con COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: No encontramos ningún ensayo clínico aleatorizado que cumpliera con nuestros criterios de inclusión y, por lo tanto, no hay pruebas que respalden el papel de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina y los bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina II en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. Identificamos un número considerable de estudios en curso que podría proporcionar evidencia valiosa para informar a los investigadores y a los responsables de la toma de decisiones en un futuro próximo.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design
14.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13429, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) use prior to hospitalization on clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. DESIGN: An observational retrospective cohort study from 178 hospitals from a large health system across the United States.  Patient population: Hospitalized patients (n=2726) with confirmed COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and April 1, 2020. Main outcome(s) and measure(s): Outcomes during hospitalization, including disease severity by level of care, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilator (MV) use, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital death. Patient demographics and comorbidities were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 2,726 patients were included in the analysis. Three hundred ninety-eight (14.6%) patients were taking an ACEI, while 352 (12.9%) patients were taking an ARB prior to hospitalization. After adjusting for comorbidities, age, renal function, and severity of illness based on level of care, ACEI prior to admission was independently associated with decreased need for MV (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, p value 0.003) and mortality (OR 0.45, p value <0.001). Similarly, patients who took ARBs were less likely to require MV when compared to the non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade (RAASb) group (7.4% vs 12.2%, p value 0.009, respectively). ARB prior to admission was also independently associated with decreased need for MV (OR 0.46, p value 0.001) and mortality (OR 0.66, p value 0.017) compared to the non-RAASb group. CONCLUSION: Taking ACEIs and ARBs prior to admission for COVID-19 was independently associated with decreased need for mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248652, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have reported the association between the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB) medications and the occurrence or severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Published results are inconclusive, possibly due to differences in participant comorbidities and sociodemographic backgrounds. Since ACEI and ARB are frequently used anti-hypertension medications, we aim to determine whether the use of ACEI and ARB is associated with the occurrence and severity of COVID-19 in a large study of US Veterans with hypertension. METHODS: Data were collected from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Corporate Data Warehouse (VA-COVID-19 Shared Data Resource) between February 28, 2020 and August 18, 2020. Using data from 228,722 Veterans with a history of hypertension who received COVID-19 testing at the VA, we investigated whether the use of ACEI or ARB over the two years prior to the index date was associated with increased odds of (1) a positive COVID-19 test, and (2) a severe outcome (hospitalization, mortality, and use of intensive care unit (ICU) and/or mechanical ventilation) among COVID-19-positive patients. We used logistic regression with and without propensity score weighting (PSW) to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the association between ACEI/ARB use and a positive COVID-19 test result. The association between medication use and COVID-19 outcome severity was examined using multinomial logistic regression comparing participants who were not hospitalized to participants who were hospitalized, were admitted to the ICU, used a mechanical ventilator, or died. All models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including demographics (age, sex, race, ethnicity), selected comorbidities, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). RESULTS: The use of ACEI significantly decreased the odds of a positive COVID-19 test among Veterans with hypertension (OR = 0.917, (0.887, 0.948) and OR = 0.926, (0.894, 0.958) with PSW). The use of ACEI, but not of ARB, was also associated with significantly increased odds of using mechanical ventilators (OR = 1.265, (1.010, 1.584) and OR = 1.210, (1.053, 1.39) with PSW) among all COVID-19 inpatients compared to outpatients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of Veterans with hypertension, ACEI was significantly associated with decreased odds of testing positive for COVID-19. With the exception of the association of ACEI with a small non-clinically-important increase in the odds of using mechanical ventilators, neither ACEI nor ARB was found to be associated with clinical severity or mortality among COVID-19-positive Veterans. The results of this study need further corroboration and validation in other cohort samples outside the VA.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136505

ABSTRACT

The most severe clinical manifestations of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are due to an unbalanced immune response and a pro-thrombotic hemostatic disturbance, with arterial hypertension or diabetes as acknowledged risk factors. While waiting for a specific treatment, the clinical management of hospitalized patients is still a matter of debate, and the effectiveness of treatments to manage clinical manifestations and comorbidities has been questioned. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of the clinical management of arterial hypertension, inflammation and thrombosis on the survival of COVID-19 patients. The Spanish cohorts included in this observational retrospective study are from HM Hospitales (2035 patients) and from Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (72 patients). Kaplan Meier survival curves, Cox regression and propensity score matching analyses were employed, considering demographic variables, comorbidities and treatment arms (when opportune) as covariates. The management of arterial hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is not detrimental, as was initially reported, and neither was the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). On the contrary, our analysis shows that the use on itself of corticosteroids is not beneficial. Importantly, the management of COVID-19 patients with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as an anticoagulant significantly improves the survival of hospitalized patients. These results delineate the current treatment options under debate, supporting the effectiveness of thrombosis prophylaxis on COVID-19 patients as a first-line treatment without the need for compromising the treatment of comorbidities, while suggesting cautiousness when administering corticosteroids.

17.
Clin Ther ; 43(4): e97-e110, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131194

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Due to the affinity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 for the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been a major concern for clinicians during the 2020 pandemic. Meta-analyses have affirmed that these agents do not worsen clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. To date, only a limited number of studies have directly evaluated the safety of inpatient prescription of ACE inhibitors/ARBs during acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of inpatient provision of ACE inhibitors/ARBs on morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. Relationships were explored by using linear and logistic regression. FINDINGS: A total of 612 adult patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 151 (24.7%) patients were established on ACE inhibitors/ARBs. Despite correction for known confounders, discontinuation of ACE inhibitors/ARBs was highly predictive of worsened outcomes in COVID-19. The proportion of doses omitted in the hospital was significantly associated with increased mortality (OR, 9.59; 95% CI, 2.55-36.09; P < 0.001), maximum National Early Warning Score 2 (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.27-2.17; P < 0.001), maximum oxygen requirements (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.83-4.91; P < 0.001), and maximum C-reactive protein concentration (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.06-3.17; P = 0.030). IMPLICATIONS: Our data show a strong association between missed ACE inhibitor/ARB doses with increased morbidity and mortality. The available evidence supports continuation of currently accepted practice surrounding ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy in acute illness, which is to limit drug omission to established acute contraindications, to actively monitor such decisions, and to restart therapy as soon as it is safe to do so. (Clin Ther. 2021;43:e97-e110) © 2021 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Retrospective Studies
18.
Health Care Manag Sci ; 24(2): 339-355, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130838

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an international effort to develop and repurpose medications and procedures to effectively combat the disease. Several groups have focused on the potential treatment utility of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) for hypertensive COVID-19 patients, with inconclusive evidence thus far. We couple electronic medical record (EMR) and registry data of 3,643 patients from Spain, Italy, Germany, Ecuador, and the US with a machine learning framework to personalize the prescription of ACEIs and ARBs to hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Our approach leverages clinical and demographic information to identify hospitalized individuals whose probability of mortality or morbidity can decrease by prescribing this class of drugs. In particular, the algorithm proposes increasing ACEI/ARBs prescriptions for patients with cardiovascular disease and decreasing prescriptions for those with low oxygen saturation at admission. We show that personalized recommendations can improve patient outcomes by 1.0% compared to the standard of care when applied to external populations. We develop an interactive interface for our algorithm, providing physicians with an actionable tool to easily assess treatment alternatives and inform clinical decisions. This work offers the first personalized recommendation system to accurately evaluate the efficacy and risks of prescribing ACEIs and ARBs to hypertensive COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aged , Algorithms , Ecuador , Electronic Health Records , Europe , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Biomedicines ; 9(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125506

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has transfixed the medical world. COVID-19 symptoms vary from mild to severe and underlying chronic conditions such as pulmonary/cardiovascular disease and diabetes induce excessive inflammatory responses to COVID-19 and these underlying chronic diseases are mediated by endothelial dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of death in COVID-19 patients, but coagulation induced by excessive inflammation, thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also induce death by multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. These associations imply that maintaining endothelial integrity is crucial for favorable prognoses with COVID-19 and therapeutic intervention to support this may be beneficial. Here, we summarize the extent of heart injuries, ischemic stroke and hemorrhage, acute kidney injury, and liver injury caused by immune-mediated endothelial dysfunction that result in the phenomenon of multi-organ dysfunction seen in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the potential therapeutic effect of angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors that improve endothelial dysfunction as well as the bradykinin storm are discussed.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5012, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117654

ABSTRACT

The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the treatment of COVID-19 are highly debated. This study was aimed to assess aggregated risk by investigating the association of ACEIs/ARBs users against non-users of ACEIs/ARBs with the risk of mortality or severe clinical manifestations or magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity in COVID-19 patients. Systematic literature search was carried out in different databases for eligible studies. The pooled relative risks (RRs) were measured using RevMan software where P<0.05 was set as statistical significance. In total, 10 studies were included in this analysis. After pooled estimation, it was demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 positive patients taking ACEIs/ARBs were not associated with an increased risk of mortality compared to those not taking ACEIs/ARBs (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.64-1.23; P=0.48). Furthermore, the risk of composite severe clinical manifestations was not significantly different between the positive patients with or without ACEIs/ARBs users (RR 1.29; 95% CI 0.81-2.04; P=0.28). There was no risk difference for SARS-CoV-2 test positivity in patients with or without ACEIs/ARBs users (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.95-1.05; P=0.91). These findings may augment current professional society guidelines for not discontinuing ACEIs/ARBs in treating COVID-19 patients where it is clinically indicated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
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