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1.
Bone Jt Open ; 2(4): 216-226, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172854

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary objective was to determine the incidence of COVID-19 infection and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery during the global pandemic. Secondary objectives were to determine if there was a change in infection and complication profile with changes introduced in practice. METHODS: This UK-based multicentre retrospective national audit studied foot and ankle patients who underwent surgery between 13 January and 31 July 2020, examining time periods pre-UK national lockdown, during lockdown (23 March to 11 May 2020), and post-lockdown. All adult patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery in an operating theatre during the study period were included. A total of 43 centres in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland participated. Variables recorded included demographic data, surgical data, comorbidity data, COVID-19 and mortality rates, complications, and infection rates. RESULTS: A total of 6,644 patients were included. Of the operated patients, 0.52% (n = 35) contracted COVID-19. The overall all-cause 30-day mortality rate was 0.41%, however in patients who contracted COVID-19, the mortality rate was 25.71% (n = 9); this was significantly higher for patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery (75%, n = 3 deaths). Matching for age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, and comorbidities, the odds ratio of mortality with COVID-19 infection was 11.71 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 88.74; p = 0.017). There were no differences in surgical complications or infection rates prior to or after lockdown, and among patients with and without COVID-19 infection. After lockdown the COVID-19 infection rate was 0.15% and no patient died of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection was rare in foot and ankle patients even at the peak of lockdown. However, there was a significant mortality rate in those who contracted COVID-19. Overall surgical complications and postoperative infection rates remained unchanged during the period of this audit. Patients and treating medical personnel should be aware of the risks to enable informed decisions. Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2021;2(4):216-226.

2.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 28(2): 205-216, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160174

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This paper details the impact of COVID-19 on foot and ankle activity in the UK. It describes regional variations and COVID-19 infection rate in patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery before, during and after the first national lock-down. PATIENTS & METHODS: This was a multicentre, retrospective, UK-based, national audit on foot and ankle patients who underwent surgery between 13th January and 31st July 2020. Data was examined pre- UK national lockdown, during lockdown (23rd March to 11th May 2020) and post-lockdown. All adult patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery in an operating theatre during the study period included from 43 participating centres in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Regional, demographic and COVID-19 related data were captured. RESULTS: 6644 patients were included. In total 0.53% of operated patients contracted COVID-19 (n = 35). The rate of COVID-19 infection was highest during lockdown (2.11%, n = 16) and lowest after lockdown (0.16%, n = 3). Overall mean activity during lockdown was 24.44% of pre-lockdown activity with decreases in trauma, diabetic and elective foot and ankle surgery; the change in elective surgery was most marked with only 1.73% activity during lock down and 10.72% activity post lockdown as compared to pre-lockdown. There was marked regional variation in numbers of cases performed, but the proportion of decrease in cases during and after lockdown was comparable between all regions. There was also a significant difference between rates of COVID-19 and timing of peak, cumulative COVID-19 infections between regions with the highest rate noted in South East England (3.21%). The overall national peak infection rate was 1.37%, occurring during the final week of lockdown. General anaesthetic remained the most common method of anaesthesia for foot and ankle surgery, although a significant increase in regional anaesthesia was witnessed in the lock-down and post-lockdown periods. CONCLUSIONS: National surgical activity reduced significantly for all cases across the country during lockdown with only a slow subsequent increase in elective activity. The COVID-19 infection rate and peaks differed significantly across the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Ankle/surgery , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 16: 285-291, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093089

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a paradigm shift in clinical practice, particularly in ways in which healthcare is accessed by patients and delivered by healthcare practitioners. Many of these changes have been serially modified in adaptation to growing service demands and department provision capacity. We evaluated the impact of the pandemic on the foot and ankle service at our trauma unit, assessing whether these adaptations to practice were justifiable, successful and sustainable for the future. This was a single-centre, retrospective cohort study analysing the patient care pathway from admission to discharge, for two pre-defined timeframes: Phase 0 (pre-lockdown phase) and Phase 1 (lockdown phase). Patients were split into stable and unstable injuries depending on their fracture pattern. The follow-up modality and duration were evaluated. Trauma throughput for the equivalent timeframe in 2019 was also analysed for comparison. There were 106 unstable fractures and 100 stable fractures in 2020.78 interventional procedures were performed on 72 patients with unstable fractures in Phase-1. Close contact casting was performed on 13 patients at presentation in the ED. Selective patients underwent partial fixation in theatre, which still provided adequate stability. 35% of patients with a stable fracture were discharged directly from the ED with written advice from a review letter. The treatment modality in selective patients, particularly the vulnerable should be carefully assessed. Interventions performed at presentation often negate the need for admission. Partial fixation reduces intraoperative time and surgical insult. Integrating telemedicine into the care pathway, particularly for stable ankle fractures reduces the need for physician-patient contact and eases follow-up burden. Many of our recommended changes are easily replicated in other clinical settings. Should these adaptations demonstrate long-term sustainability, it is likely they will remain incorporated into future clinical practice.

5.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066937

ABSTRACT

Reactive arthritis (ReA) is typically preceded by sexually transmitted disease or gastrointestinal infection. An association has also been reported with bacterial and viral respiratory infections. Herein, we report the first case of ReA after the he severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This male patient is in his 50s who was admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia. On the second day of admission, SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive from nasopharyngeal swab specimen. Despite starting standard dose of favipiravir, his respiratory condition deteriorated during hospitalisation. On the fourth hospital day, he developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and was intubated. On day 11, he was successfully extubated, subsequently completing a 14-day course of favipiravir. On day 21, 1 day after starting physical therapy, he developed acute bilateral arthritis in his ankles, with mild enthesitis in his right Achilles tendon, without rash, conjunctivitis, or preceding diarrhoea or urethritis. Arthrocentesis of his left ankle revealed mild inflammatory fluid without monosodium urate or calcium pyrophosphate crystals. Culture of synovial fluid was negative. Plain X-rays of his ankles and feet showed no erosive changes or enthesophytes. Tests for syphilis, HIV, anti-streptolysin O (ASO), Mycoplasma, Chlamydia pneumoniae, antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and Human Leukocyte Antigen-B27 (HLA-B27) were negative. Gonococcal and Chlamydia trachomatis urine PCR were also negative. He was diagnosed with ReA. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)s and intra-articular corticosteroid injection resulted in moderate improvement.


Subject(s)
Ankle Joint/diagnostic imaging , Arthritis, Reactive/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Reactive/drug therapy , Arthritis, Reactive/etiology , Arthrocentesis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Injections, Intra-Articular , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prohibitins , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Foot (Edinb) ; 46: 101772, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: COVID-19 has had a significant impact on orthopaedic surgery globally. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on foot and ankle trauma in a major trauma centre. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of prospectively collected data was performed. All foot and ankle trauma patients over a 33 week period (1st December 2019-16th July 2020) were analysed. All patients with trauma classified by the AO/OTA as occurring at locations 43 and 81-88 were included. RESULTS: Over the 33 weeks analysed, there was a total of 1661 trauma cases performed; of these, only 230 (13.85%) were foot and ankle trauma cases. As percentage of cases during each period of lockdown, foot and ankle made up 15.20% (147 out of 967) pre-lockdown, 8.81% (17 out of 193) during lockdown and 13.17% (66 out of 501) post lockdown. This difference was statistically significant (p < .001). The most significant change in trauma management was the treatment of malleolar fractures. Further analysis showed that during the lockdown period 29 foot and ankle fractures were treated the same and 13 were treated differently, (i.e. 31% of fractures were treated conservatively, when the consultants preferred practice would have been surgical intervention). Of the 13 patients, 3 have had surgical management since lockdown has been eased. CONCLUSION: It is evident that the trauma case activity within foot and ankle was significantly reduced during the COVID-19 period. The consequences of change in management were mitigated due to a reduction in case load.


Subject(s)
Ankle Injuries/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Foot Injuries/surgery , Health Care Rationing , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Foot Ankle Int ; 42(3): 320-328, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A lack of access to care is predictably associated with negative outcomes in foot and ankle surgery. Despite recent advances in telecommunication technologies, the field of orthopedics has been slow to adopt these resources in offsetting barriers to care. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced departments to change their clinical approach, lending unprecedented opportunity to better understand how telehealth may bridge this care gap in foot and ankle practices. The purpose of this study was to assess patient-reported outcomes of telemedicine encounters, including comfort and patient satisfaction. Our hypothesis was that patients would be significantly less satisfied with telemedicine when compared with in-office appointments for all nonemergency visit types. METHODS: Telemedicine satisfaction was assessed via phone survey with a modified 1 to 5 Likert scale. Patients who had completed a telemedicine visit between April 13, 2020, and June 19, 2020, were eligible to participate. Patient demographics were recorded, and data were analyzed using paired and independent t tests for parametric continuous data and Fisher's exact and chi-square tests for noncontinuous data. A total of 216 patients completed the telemedicine questionnaire. RESULTS: The overall mean satisfaction for telemedicine visits (4.7) was significantly lower than that for in-office visits (4.9) (P < .001). However, the majority (90.3%) of patients reported they would use telemedicine again in the future. When compared, patients seeking fracture care had significantly higher telemedicine satisfaction (4.9, n = 38) than those receiving nonfracture care (4.6, n = 178) (P = .001), and those greater than 50 miles from the clinic had higher satisfaction (5.0, n = 14) than patients living within 50 miles of the clinic (4.7, n = 202) (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Patients were more satisfied with their in-office clinic visit than telemedicine, although the vast majority of patients endorsed a willingness to utilize telemedicine in the future. Patients with trauma and greater barriers to foot and ankle care were more satisfied with their telemedicine visits. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective cohort study.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Ankle Joint , Foot Joints , Orthopedics , Patient Satisfaction , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Middle Aged , Musculoskeletal Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Int Orthop ; 45(9): 2395-2400, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704650

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emphasised the need to minimise hospital admissions and utilisation of healthcare resources. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of an outpatient surgery protocol for acute closed ankle fractures. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 262 patients underwent outpatient surgery for their closed ankle fractures at our level-1 trauma centre. A total of 196 patients met our inclusion criteria and were ultimately included in the final analysis. Our primary outcomes' measures included post-operative admission to the emergency department within 30 days after surgery and unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days after surgery. Our secondary outcome measure included the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) within 12 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (16.3%) had an unplanned emergency department visit within 30 days of fracture fixation and two patients (1.0%) required hospital readmission within 30 days of their surgery. Sixteen patients (8.2%) developed SSI, which included 11 (5.6%) superficial and five (2.6%) deep infections. CONCLUSION: Strategic outpatient management of acute closed ankle fractures is associated with acceptable rates of unplanned emergency department visits, hospital readmissions, and SSIs. In the context of the recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, outpatient management of these injuries may aide in the mitigation of nosocomial infections and the preservation of finite healthcare resources.


Subject(s)
Ankle Fractures , COVID-19 , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Ankle Fractures/epidemiology , Ankle Fractures/surgery , Delivery of Health Care , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arch Bone Jt Surg ; 8(Suppl 1): 281-285, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691086

ABSTRACT

To reduce the risk of spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the emerging protocols are advising for less physician-patient contact, shortening the contact time, and keeping a safe distance. It is recommended that unnecessary casting be avoided in the events that alternative methods can be applied such as in stable ankle fractures, and hindfoot/midfoot/forefoot injuries. Fiberglass casts are suboptimal because they require a follow up for cast removal while a conventional plaster cast is amenable to self-removal by submerging in water and cutting the cotton bandages with scissors. At present, only fiberglass casts are widely available to allow waterproof casting. To reduce the contact time during casting, a custom-made 3D printed casts/splints can be ordered remotely which reduces the number of visits and shortens the contact time while it allows for self-removal by the patient. The cast is printed after the limb is 3D scanned in 5-10 seconds using the commercially available 3D scanners. In contrast to the conventional casting, a 3D printed cast/splint is washable which is an advantage during an infectious crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

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