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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 622-629, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological assays detecting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are being widely deployed in studies and clinical practice. However, the duration and effectiveness of the protection conferred by the immune response remains to be assessed in population-based samples. To estimate the incidence of newly acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections in seropositive individuals as compared to seronegative controls, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal matched study. METHODS: A seroprevalence survey including a representative sample of the population was conducted in Geneva, Switzerland, between April and June 2020, immediately after the first pandemic wave. Seropositive participants were matched one-to-two to seronegative controls, using a propensity-score including age, gender, immunodeficiency, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and education level. Each individual was linked to a state-registry of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our primary outcome was confirmed infections occurring from serological status assessment to the end of the second pandemic wave (January 2021). RESULTS: Among 8344 serosurvey participants, 498 seropositive individuals were selected and matched with 996 seronegative controls. After a mean follow-up of 35.6 (standard deviation [SD] 3.2) weeks, 7 out of 498 (1.4%) seropositive subjects had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, of whom 5 (1.0%) were classified as reinfections. In contrast, the infection rate was higher in seronegative individuals (15.5%, 154/996) during a similar follow-up period (mean 34.7 [SD 3.2] weeks), corresponding to a 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86%- 98%, P < .001) reduction in the hazard of having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test for seropositives. CONCLUSIONS: Seroconversion after SARS-CoV-2 infection confers protection against reinfection lasting at least 8 months. These findings could help global health authorities establishing priority for vaccine allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Reinfection , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
3.
Vox Sang ; 117(2): 185-192, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Passive immunization using investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is a promising therapeutic strategy and could improve outcome if transfused early and contain high levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We report the management of a national CCP collection and distribution program in Israel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1 April 2020 to 15 January 2021, 4020 volunteer donors donated 5221 CCP units and 837 (20.8%) donors donated more than once. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay method (Abbott). A statistical model based on repeated IgG tests in sequential donations was created to predict the time of antibody decline below sample/cut-off (S/CO) level of 4.0. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of CCP donors suffered a mild disease or were asymptomatic. Older donors had higher antibody levels. Higher antibody levels (S/CO ≥4) were detected in 35.2% of the donors. Low positive (S/CO ≥1.4-3.99) were found in 37%, and 27.8% had undetectable antibodies (S/CO ≤1.4). The model predicted decrease antibody thresholds of 0.55%/day since the first CCP donation, providing guidance for the effective timing of future collections from donors with high antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: An efficient CCP collection and distribution program was achieved, based on performing initial and repeated plasma collections, preferably from donors with higher antibody levels, and only antibody-rich units were supplied for therapeutic use. The inventory met the quantity and quality standards of the authorities, enabled to respond to the growing demand of the medical system and provide a product that may contribute to improve prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Israel , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet ; 397(10289): 2049-2059, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients with COVID-19 have been treated with plasma containing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]) is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. The trial is underway at 177 NHS hospitals from across the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either usual care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus high-titre convalescent plasma (convalescent plasma group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, 50189673, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04381936. FINDINGS: Between May 28, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 11558 (71%) of 16287 patients enrolled in RECOVERY were eligible to receive convalescent plasma and were assigned to either the convalescent plasma group or the usual care group. There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups: 1399 (24%) of 5795 patients in the convalescent plasma group and 1408 (24%) of 5763 patients in the usual care group died within 28 days (rate ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·93-1·07; p=0·95). The 28-day mortality rate ratio was similar in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including in those patients without detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at randomisation. Allocation to convalescent plasma had no significant effect on the proportion of patients discharged from hospital within 28 days (3832 [66%] patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 3822 [66%] patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·94-1·03; p=0·57). Among those not on invasive mechanical ventilation at randomisation, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients meeting the composite endpoint of progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death (1568 [29%] of 5493 patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 1568 [29%] of 5448 patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·93-1·05; p=0·79). INTERPRETATION: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19, high-titre convalescent plasma did not improve survival or other prespecified clinical outcomes. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605332

ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in December of 2019, researchers have raced to understand its pathogenesis and begun devising vaccine and treatment strategies. An accurate understanding of the body's temporal immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is paramount to successful vaccine development and disease progression monitoring. To provide insight into the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, plasma samples from 181 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients collected at various timepoints post-symptom onset (PSO) were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies via lateral flow. Additionally, 21 donors were tracked over time to elucidate patient-specific immune responses. We found sustained levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies past 130 days PSO, with 99% positivity observed at 31-60 days PSO. By 61-90 days PSO, the percentage of IgM-/IgG+ results were nearly equal to that of IgM+/IgG+ results, demonstrating a shift in the immune response with a decrease in IgM antibody levels. Results from this study not only provide evidence that the antibody response to COVID-19 can persist for over 4 months, but also demonstrates the ability of Easy Check™ to monitor seroconversion and antibody response of patients. Easy Check was sufficiently sensitive to detect antibodies in patient samples as early as 1-4 days PSO with 86% positivity observed at 5-7 days PSO. Further studies are required to determine the longevity and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and whether they are protective against re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
Biomicrofluidics ; 14(6): 061507, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574498

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 became a pandemic affecting more than 200 countries and territories. Millions of lives are still affected because of mandatory quarantines, which hamstring economies and induce panic. Immunology plays a major role in the modern field of medicine, especially against virulent infectious diseases. In this field, neutralizing antibodies are heavily studied because they reflect the level of infection and individuals' immune status, which are essential when considering resumption of work, flight travel, and border entry control. More importantly, it also allows evaluating the antiviral vaccine efficacy as vaccines are still known for being the ultimate intervention method to inhibit the rapid spread of virulent infectious diseases. In this Review, we first introduce the host immune response after the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the latest results using conventional immunoassays. Next, as an enabling platform for detection with sufficient sensitivity while saving analysis time and sample size, the progress of microfluidic-based immunoassays is discussed and compared based on surface modification, microfluidic kinetics, signal output, signal amplification, sample matrix, and the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Based on the overall comparison, this Review concludes by proposing the future integration of visual quantitative signals on microfluidic devices as a more suitable approach for general use and large-scale surveillance.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526843

ABSTRACT

There is limited data on the effect of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pediatric rheumatology. We examined the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and a negative history of COVID-19 and the correlation of the presence of these antibodies with disease activity measured by juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). In total, 62 patients diagnosed with JIA, under treatment with various antirheumatic drugs, and 32 healthy children (control group) were included. Serum samples were analyzed for inflammatory markers and antibodies and their state evaluated with the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS). JIA patients do not have a higher seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than healthy subjects. We found anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in JIA patients who did not have a history of COVID-19. The study showed no unequivocal correlation between the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and JIA activity; therefore, this relationship requires further observation. We also identified a possible link between patients' humoral immune response and disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment, which will be confirmed in follow-up studies.

9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): e118, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510465
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5816-5824, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453607

ABSTRACT

Serological testing for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies is used to detect ongoing or past SARS-CoV-2 infections. To study the kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and to assess the diagnostic performances of eight serological assays, we used 129 serum samples collected on known days post symptom onset (dpso) from 42 patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 54 serum samples from healthy blood donors, and children infected with seasonal coronaviruses. The sera were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence testing (IIFT) based on SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. They were further tested for antibodies against the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (IgG, IgA) and against the viral nucleocapsid protein (IgG, IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The assay specificities were 94.4%-100%. The sensitivities varied largely between assays, reflecting their respective purposes. The sensitivities of IgA and IgM assays were the highest between 11 and 20 dpso, whereas the sensitivities of IgG assays peaked between 20 and 60 dpso. IIFT showed the highest sensitivities due to the use of the whole SARS-CoV-2 as substrate and provided information on whether or not the individual has been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays provided further information about both the prevalence and concentration of specific antibodies against selected antigens of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Transplantation ; 105(10): 2165-2169, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) remain rare. We sought to shed further light on this issue by conducting a single-center study in a kidney transplant center located in one of the France's highest risk zone (Grand Est) for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) during the initial disease outbreak. METHODS: To this aim, we used a survey approach coupled with systematic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 serology in a cohort of 1390 KTRs. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 serologies were available for 780 survey respondents, among whom 48 had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (total seroprevalence: 6.2%). Thirty-five of the 48 seropositive KTRs had previously received a diagnosis of Covid-19, whereas the remaining 13 patients were not known to be infected (8 asymptomatic cases). Specifically, 18.7% of seropositive KTRs and 1.1% of the entire cohort were asymptomatic. Household exposure was found to markedly increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in KTRs living in one of the France's highest risk zone for Covid-19 during the first French lockdown was as low as 6.3%. Rapid and strict implementation of protective measures could have significantly mitigated virus spread even in an area of high virus circulation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate antibody production in asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Sera from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19 patients were collected. Microneutralization (MN), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed. RESULTS: A total of 70 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were evaluated, including 15 asymptomatic/anosmia, 49 mild symptomatic, and 6 pneumonia patients. The production of the neutralizing antibody was observed in 100% of pneumonia, 93.9% of mild symptomatic, and 80.0% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups. All the patients in the pneumonia group showed high MN titer (≥1:80), while 36.7% of mild symptomatic and 20.0% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed high titer (p < 0.001). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could be more sensitively detected by FIA IgG (98.8%) and ELISA (97.6%) in overall. For the FIA IgG test, all patients in the pneumonia group exhibited a high COI value (≥15.0), while 89.8% of mild symptomatic and 73.3% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed a high value (p = 0.049). For the ELISA test, all patients in the pneumonia group showed a high optical density (OD) ratio (≥3.0), while 65.3% of mild symptomatic and 53.3% of asymptomatic/anosmia groups showed a high ratio (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Most asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients produced the neutralizing antibody, although the titers were lower than pneumonia patients. ELISA and FIA sensitively detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

13.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389449

ABSTRACT

Several studies have described the long-term kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but long-term follow-up data, i.e., >6 months, are still sparse. Additionally, the literature is inconsistent regarding the waning effect of the serological response. The aim of this study was to explore the temporal dynamic changes of the immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized and non-hospitalized symptomatic patients over a period of 10 months. Six different analytical kits for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection were used. Positivity rates, inter-assay agreement and kinetic models were determined. A high inter-individual and an inter-methodology variability was observed. Assays targeting total antibodies presented higher positivity rates and reached the highest positivity rates sooner compared with assays directed against IgG. The inter-assay agreement was also higher between these assays. The stratification by disease severity showed a much-elevated serological response in hospitalized versus non-hospitalized patients in all assays. In this 10-month follow-up study, serological assays showed a clinically significant difference to detect past SARS-CoV-2 infection with total antibody assays presenting the highest positivity rates. The waning effect reported in several studies should be interpreted with caution because it could depend on the assay considered.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 622-629, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological assays detecting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are being widely deployed in studies and clinical practice. However, the duration and effectiveness of the protection conferred by the immune response remains to be assessed in population-based samples. To estimate the incidence of newly acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections in seropositive individuals as compared to seronegative controls, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal matched study. METHODS: A seroprevalence survey including a representative sample of the population was conducted in Geneva, Switzerland, between April and June 2020, immediately after the first pandemic wave. Seropositive participants were matched one-to-two to seronegative controls, using a propensity-score including age, gender, immunodeficiency, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and education level. Each individual was linked to a state-registry of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our primary outcome was confirmed infections occurring from serological status assessment to the end of the second pandemic wave (January 2021). RESULTS: Among 8344 serosurvey participants, 498 seropositive individuals were selected and matched with 996 seronegative controls. After a mean follow-up of 35.6 (standard deviation [SD] 3.2) weeks, 7 out of 498 (1.4%) seropositive subjects had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, of whom 5 (1.0%) were classified as reinfections. In contrast, the infection rate was higher in seronegative individuals (15.5%, 154/996) during a similar follow-up period (mean 34.7 [SD 3.2] weeks), corresponding to a 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86%- 98%, P < .001) reduction in the hazard of having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test for seropositives. CONCLUSIONS: Seroconversion after SARS-CoV-2 infection confers protection against reinfection lasting at least 8 months. These findings could help global health authorities establishing priority for vaccine allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Reinfection , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 35: 100880, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly understood and to date has generally been characterised by a lower number of declared cases and deaths as compared to other regions of the world. Paucity of reliable information, with insights largely derived from limited RT-PCR testing in high-risk and urban populations, has been one of the biggest barriers to understanding the course of the pandemic and informed policy-making. Here we estimate seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Ethiopia during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: We undertook a population-based household seroprevalence serosurvey based on 1856 participants in Ethiopia, in the capital city Addis Ababa, and in Jimma, a middle-sized town in the Oromia region, and its rural surroundings (districts of Seka and Mana), between 22 July and 02 September 2020. We tested one random participant per household for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a high specificity rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and evaluated population seroprevalence using a Bayesian logistic regression model taking into account test performance as well as age and sex of the participants. FINDINGS: In total, 2304 random households were visited, with 1856 individuals consenting to participate. This produced a sample of 956 participants in Addis Ababa and 900 participants in Jimma. IgG prevalence was estimated at 1.9% (95% CI 0.4-3.7%), and combined IgM/IgG prevalence at 3.5% (95% CI 1.7-5.4%) for Addis Ababa in early August 2020, with higher prevalence in central sub-cities. Prevalence in Jimma town was lower at 0.5% (95% CI 0-1.8%) for IgG and 1.6% (95%CI 0-4.1%) for IgM/IgG, while in rural Jimma IgG prevalence was 0.2% and IgM/IgG 0.4% in early September. INTERPRETATION: More than four months after the first cases were detected in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa displayed a prevalence under 5% and likely as low as 2%, while rural Jimma displayed a prevalence of 0.2%. A 2% seroprevalence figure for the capital translated to a number of cases at least five times larger than those reported for the country as a whole. At the same time, it contrasts with significantly higher seroprevalence figures in large cities in Europe and America only two to three months after the first cases. This population-based seroepidemiological study thus provides evidence of a slower spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the Ethiopian population during the first wave of the pandemic and does not appear to support the notion that lower case numbers were simply a reflection of limited testing and surveillance. FUNDING: Schmidt Family Foundation, Joachim Hertz Foundation, Nespresso, Peet's and Smuckers.

17.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(7-8): 679-685, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID­19 pandemic studies on workplace safety of hospital staff taking care of patients with this disease are a high priority. We decided to analyze the results of opportunistic screening for anti-SARS­CoV-2 antibodies among employees of a designated COVID-19 center. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate whether potential exposition to SARS­CoV-2 antigens is reflected in the results of serological studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Every employee who performed at least a single test between April 21 and July 20, 2020 was included in the study. The tests assessed the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM+IgA. Employees working in direct contact with COVID­19 patients and those participating in aerosol­generating procedures were identified. RESULTS: The results of 2455 tests taken by 1572 employees were analyzed. A total of 357 participants (22.7%) had at least 1 positive or equivocal result during the study period. Linear mixed models revealed gradual increases in mean levels of both IgG and IgM+IgA antibodies among employees with all negative results. The rate of change was higher among persons who had direct contact with COVID­19 patients and the highest rate of change was observed among individuals participating in aerosol­generating procedures. CONCLUSIONS: We detected developing humoral immune response to a new set of coronavirus antigens among the study group. It is possible that employees of designated COVID­19 centers are regularly exposed to noninfectious doses of SARS­CoV-2 or its antigens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Eur J Intern Med ; 89: 87-96, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313078

ABSTRACT

Elucidating the characteristics of human immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is of high priority and relevant for determining vaccine strategies. We report the results of a follow-up evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 148 convalescent plasma donors who participated in a phase 2 study at a median of 8.3 months (range 6.8-10.5 months) post first symptom onset. Monitoring responses over time, we found contraction of antibody responses for all four antigens tested, with Spike antibodies showing higher persistence than Nucleocapsid antibodies. A piecewise linear random-effects multivariate regression analysis showed a bi-phasic antibody decay with a more pronounced decrease during the first 6 months post symptoms onset by analysis of two intervals. Interestingly, antibodies to Spike showed better longevity whereas their neutralization ability contracted faster. As a result, neutralizing antibodies were detected in only 76% of patients at the last time point. In a multivariate analysis, older age and hospitalization were independently associated with higher Spike, Spike-RBD, Nucleocapsid, N-RBD antibodies and neutralizing antibody levels. Results on persistence and neutralizing ability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, especially against Spike and Spike-RBD, should be considered in the design of future vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kinetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(3): 191-198, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Define the seroprevalence and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Arapahoe County, Colorado first responders (eg, law enforcement, human services, fire departments). METHODS: Two hundred sixty four first responders were enrolled June to July 2020. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was defined as detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to both spike receptor binding domain and nucleocapsid in venous blood by validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared risk factors for being seropositive versus seronegative. RESULTS: 4% (11/264) were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive. Seropositive participants were significantly more likely to have lung disease (% seropositive, % seronegative; P-value) (36%, 8%; P = 0.01), prior SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 testing (36%, 8%; P ≤ 0.01), a prior positive result (18%, less than 1%), and to believe they previously had COVID-19 (64%, 15%; P < 0.01). Only 15% of those believing they had COVID-19 had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Human services employees and individuals with lung disease are at SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk. Few individuals believed they had COVID-19 had prior exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Responders/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305834

ABSTRACT

In comparison to other European countries, during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, Poland reported a relatively low number of confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. To estimate the scale of the pandemic in Poland, a serosurvey of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed after the first wave of COVID-19 in Europe (March-May 2020). Within this study, we collected samples from 28 July to 24 September 2020 and, based on the ELISA results, we found that 1.67% (25/1500, 95% CI 1.13-2.45) of the Poznan (Poland) metropolitan area's population had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after the first wave of COVID-19. However, the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was confirmed with immunoblotting in 56% (14/25) samples, which finally resulted in a decrease in seroprevalence, i.e., 0.93% (14/1500, 95% CI 0.56-1.56). The positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG results were associated with age, occupation involving constant contact with people, travelling abroad, non-compliance with epidemiological recommendations and direct contact with the novel coronavirus. Our findings confirm the low SARS-CoV-2 incidence in Poland and imply that the population had little herd immunity heading into the second and third wave of the pandemic, and therefore, that herd immunity contributed little to preventing the high numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related deaths in Poland during these subsequent waves.

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