Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
Urology ; 155: 179-185, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the attitudes and education regarding surgical castration in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer (mCaP). METHODS: We identified 142 patients receiving ADT for mCaP at our institution without prior orchiectomy who were then sent 2 surveys via mail: (1) A questionnaire to assess knowledge and understanding of ADT treatment alternatives and (2) the functional assessment of cancer therapy - prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire which determines health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Two cohorts were created based on the answer to "would you be interested in surgical orchiectomy?" and demographic, CaP and HRQOL were compared between the surgical castration yes (SC+) and surgical castration no (SC-) cohorts. A second analysis identified predictors of worse HRQOL. RESULTS: Of 68 (47.9%) patients that responded to the survey, only 39 (59.1%) recalled a discussion regarding treatment alternatives to ADT and only 22 (33.3%) recalled a discussion regarding orchiectomy. There were 24 (40.0%) patients that stated interest in undergoing orchiectomy (SC+) as an alternative to ADT with the only independent risk factor being "…bother from the number of clinical appointments required for ADT…" Patients most bothered by side effects and cosmetic changes associated with ADT reported lower HRQOL scores on the FACT-P. CONCLUSIONS: Few men on ADT knew about surgical alternatives, implying that educational deficits may be a significant factor in the decline in the utilization of orchiectomy. Changes in healthcare economics, utilization and delivery brought on by a global pandemic should warrant a fresh look at the use of surgical castration.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Orchiectomy/psychology , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Quality of Life , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Education as Topic , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Endocrinology ; 162(8)2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259229

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a gender disparity in severity, with men exhibiting higher hospitalization and mortality rates than women. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, infects cells following recognition and attachment of the viral spike glycoprotein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transmembrane protein, followed by spike protein cleavage and activation by cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). In prostate cancer cells, androgen acting on the androgen receptor increases TMPRSS2 expression, which has led to the hypothesis that androgen-dependent expression of TMPRSS2 in the lung may increase men's susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and that, accordingly, suppressing androgen production or action may mitigate COVID-19 severity by reducing SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Several ongoing clinical trials are testing the ability of androgen deprivation therapies or anti-androgens to mitigate COVID-19. This perspective discusses clinical and molecular advances on the rapidly evolving field of androgen receptor (AR) action on cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and the potential effect of anti-androgens on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity in male patients. It discusses limitations of current studies and offers insight for future directions.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen/drug effects , Receptors, Androgen/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Sex Factors
6.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 12: 20420188211010105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215076

ABSTRACT

The pandemic acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) named COVID-19 is causing a severe health emergency, and an individual's hormonal milieu may play an important role in both susceptibility to infection and severity of clinical course. We analyzed the role of testosterone in the immune response, and we hypothesized possible mechanisms to explain the high incidence of COVID-19 infection and a worse clinical course in elderly male patients. Testosterone may impair the immune response, and this effect could explain the greater susceptibility of men to infection. Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) plays a crucial role in the entry of the virus into the respiratory epithelial cells, leading to COVID-19 disease. It is crucial to emphasize that testosterone levels and chemical castration (e.g. by androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer) may have contrasting roles in the phases of COVID-19 infection. Whereas low testosterone levels may be protective against the initial susceptibility (due to a restoration of immunological functions and a block of TMPRSS2), low testosterone may stimulate a worse clinical course in the advanced COVID-19 infection as it could exacerbate or activate the cytokine storm. If testosterone levels play these different roles, it is necessary to carefully identify patients for any indicated testosterone manipulation.

7.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(6): 47, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188176

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in patients with prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy, the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Emerging data supports decreased cardiovascular risk of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared to agonists. Ongoing clinical trials are assessing the relative safety of different modalities of androgen deprivation therapy. Racial disparities in cardiovascular outcomes in prostate cancer patients are starting to be explored. An intriguing inquiry connects androgen deprivation therapy with reduced risk of COVID-19 infection susceptibility and severity. Recognition of the cardiotoxicity of androgen deprivation therapy and aggressive risk factor modification are crucial for optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Androstenes/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiotoxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Disease Susceptibility , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(2): 446-463, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065451

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by heterogeneity in susceptibility to the disease and severity of illness. Understanding inter-individual variation has important implications for not only allocation of resources but also targeting patients for escalation of care, inclusion in clinical trials, and individualized medical therapy including vaccination. In addition to geographic location and social vulnerability, there are clear biological differences such as age, sex, race, presence of comorbidities, underlying genetic variation, and differential immune response that contribute to variability in disease manifestation. These differences may have implications for precision medicine. Specific examples include the observation that androgens regulate the expression of the enzyme transmembrane protease, serine 2 which facilitates severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral entry into the cell; therefore, androgen deprivation therapy is being explored as a treatment option in males infected with COVID-19. An immunophenotyping study of COVID-19 patients has shown that a subset develop T cytopenia which has prompted a clinical trial that is testing the efficacy of interleukin-7 in these patients. Predicting which COVID-19 patients will develop progressive disease that will require hospitalization has important implications for clinical trials that target outpatients. Enrollment of patients at low risk for progression of disease and hospitalization would likely not result in such therapy demonstrating efficacy. There are efforts to use artificial intelligence to integrate digital data from smartwatch applications or digital monitoring systems and biological data to enable identification of the high risk COVID-19 patient. The ultimate goal of precision medicine using such modern technology is to recognize individual differences to improve health for all.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Population , COVID-19 , Precision Medicine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Urol ; 205(2): 441-443, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: TMPRSS2 is a host co-receptor for cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. A prior report suggested that use of androgen deprivation therapy, which downregulates TMPRSS2, may protect men with prostate cancer from infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cohort study of a prospective registry of all patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 12 and June 10, 2020 with complete followup until disease recovery or death. The main exposure examined was the use of androgen deprivation therapy, and the outcome measures were the rate of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and disease severity as a function of androgen deprivation therapy use. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 1,779 men with prostate cancer from a total tested population of 74,787, of whom 4,885 (6.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of those with prostate cancer 102 (5.7%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 304 (17.1%) were on androgen deprivation therapy. Among those on androgen deprivation therapy 5.6% were positive as compared to 5.8% not on androgen deprivation therapy. Men on androgen deprivation therapy were slightly older (75.5 vs 73.8 years, p=0.009), more likely to have smoked (68.1% vs 59.3%, p=0.005) and more likely to report taking steroids (43.8% vs 23.3%, p <0.001). Other factors known to increase risk of infection and disease severity were equally distributed (asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure and immune suppressive disease). Multivariable analysis did not indicate a difference in infection risk for those with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.54-1.61, p=0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deprivation therapy does not appear to be protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Aged , Down-Regulation , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 140-146, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of complicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is still unclear if the risk of mortality is influenced by cancer type or ongoing anti-cancer treatments. An interesting debate concerning the potential relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been opened in the case of prostate cancer (PC), and the aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with mCRPC who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recorded their baseline clinical characteristics, their history of PC and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their oncological status and treatment at the time of infection. The primary study end point was the death rate and the possible impact of the patients' PC-related history and treatments on mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 1433 patients with mCRPC attending the participating centres (2.3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 22 (64.7%) of whom were hospitalised. Most of the patients were symptomatic, the most frequent symptoms being fever (70.6%), dyspnoea (61.8%), cough (52.9%) and fatigue (38.2%). After a median follow-up of 21 days (interquartile range: 13-41), 13 patients had died (38.2%), 17 recovered (50.0%) and four (11.7%) were still infected. The number of treatments previously administered for mCRPC had a significant impact on mortality (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute additional data to the current debate concerning the postulated protective role of ADT, which seems to be less in patients with metastatic PC.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Bone Neoplasms/epidemiology , Bone Neoplasms/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Bone Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721488

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, severity, and fatality rates. The reason older patients and males show increased risk of severe disease and death remains uncertain. Sex hormones, such as estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, might be implicated in the age-dependent and sex-specific severity of COVID-19. High testosterone levels could upregulate transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), facilitating the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Data from patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen-deprivation therapy seem to confirm this hypothesis. Clinical studies on TMPRSS2 inhibitors, such as camostat, nafamostat, and bromhexine, are ongoing. Antiandrogens, such as bicalutamide and enzalutamide, are also under investigation. Conversely, other studies suggest that the immune modulating properties of androgens could protect from the unfavorable cytokine storm, and that low testosterone levels might be associated with a worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Some evidence also supports the notion that estrogens and progesterone might exert a protective effect on females, through direct antiviral activity or immune-mediated mechanisms, thus explaining the higher COVID-19 severity in post-menopausal women. In this perspective, we discuss the available evidence on sex hormones and hormone therapy in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, and we highlight the possible implications for cancer patients, who can receive hormonal therapies during their treatment plans.

14.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(4): 561-563, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680650

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan city, China, in December 2019 causing atypical pneumonia and affecting multiple body organs. The rapidly increasing numbers of infected patients and deaths due to COVID-19 disease necessitated declaring it as a global pandemic. Efforts were combined since then to rapidly develop a treatment and/or a vaccine to combat the deadly virus. Drug repurposing approach has been pursued as a temporary management tactic to treat COVID-19 patients. However, reports about the efficacy of many of the used drugs had been controversial with a dire need to keep the ongoing efforts for rapid development of new treatments. Promising data came out pointing to a possible hidden liaison between prostate cancer (PCa) and COVID-19, where androgen-deprivation therapies (ADT) used in PCa had been shown to instigate a protective role against COVID-19. Delving into the possible mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between COVID-19 and PCa alludes a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 targets on host epithelial cells and PCa genetic aberrations and molecular signatures, including AR and TMPRSS2. The question remains: Can PCa treatments serve as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 patients?


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
15.
Prog Urol ; 30(10): 484-487, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634109

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the pandemic that hit the world starting December 2019. Recent studies and international statistics have shown an increased prevalence, morbidity as well as mortality of this disease in male patients compared to female patients. The aim of this brief communication is to describe the pathophysiology of this sex-discrepancy, based on the infectivity mechanism of the coronavirus including the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the Type II transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS2), and the androgen receptor. This could help understand the susceptibility of urological patients, especially those receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, and testosterone replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Receptors, Androgen/physiology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Male , Organ Specificity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Sex Distribution , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
16.
Int Braz J Urol ; 46(suppl.1): 50-61, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601969

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Propose an approach of prostate cancer (PCa) patients during COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a review of current literature related to surgical and clinical management of patients during COVID-19 crisis paying special attention to oncological ones and especially those suffering from PCa. Based on these publications and current urological guidelines, a manual to manage PCa patients is suggested. RESULTS: Patients suffering from cancer are likely to develop serious complications from COVID-19 disease together with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the management of oncological patients should be taken into special consideration and most of the treatments postponed. In case the procedure is not deferrable, it should be adapted to the current situation. While the shortest radiotherapy (RT) regimens should be applied, surgical procedures must undergo the following recommendations proposed by main surgical associations. PCa prognosis is generally favourable and therefore one can safely delay most of the biopsies up to 6 months without interfering with survival outcomes in the vast majority of cases. In the same way, most of the localised PCa patients are suitable for active surveillance (AS) or hormonal therapy until local definitive treatment could be reconsidered. In metastatic as well as castration resistant PCa stages, adding androgen receptor targeted agents (abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide) to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) could be considered in high risk patients. On the contrary, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and Radium-223 must be avoided with regard to the consequence of hematologic toxicity and risk of COVID-19 infection because of immunodepression. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the biopsies should be delayed while AS is advised in those patients with low risk PCa. ADT allows us to defer definitive local treatment in many cases of intermediate and high risk PCa. In regard to metastatic and castration resistant PCa, combination therapies with abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide could be considered. Chemotherapy, Radium-223 and immunotherapy are discouraged.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Urology/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(9): R281-R292, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-577793

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health challenge with active development of antiviral drugs and vaccines seeking to reduce its significant disease burden. Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells. TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-responsive gene and its fusion represents one of the most frequent alterations in prostate cancer. Androgen suppression by androgen deprivation therapy and androgen receptor signaling inhibitors form the foundation of prostate cancer treatment. In this review, we highlight the growing evidence in support of androgen regulation of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 and the potential clinical implications of using androgen suppression to downregulate TMPRSS2 to target SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss the future directions and controversies that need to be addressed in order to establish the viability of targeting TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 through androgen signaling regulation for COVID-19 treatment, particularly its relevance in the context of prostate cancer management.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Androgens/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology
19.
Ann Oncol ; 31(8): 1040-1045, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cell entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and on S protein priming by TMPRSS2. Inhibition of TMPRSS2 may work to block or decrease the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Intriguingly, TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated gene that is up-regulated in prostate cancer where it supports tumor progression and is involved in a frequent genetic translocation with the ERG gene. First- or second-generation androgen-deprivation therapies (ADTs) decrease the levels of TMPRSS2. Here we put forward the hypothesis that ADTs may protect patients affected by prostate cancer from SARS-CoV-2 infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted data regarding 9280 patients (4532 males) with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 68 hospitals in Veneto, one of the Italian regions that was most affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The parameters used for each COVID-19-positive patient were sex, hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit, death, tumor diagnosis, prostate cancer diagnosis, and ADT. RESULTS: There were evaluable 9280 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients in Veneto on 1 April 2020. Overall, males developed more severe complications, were more frequently hospitalized, and had a worse clinical outcome than females. Considering only the Veneto male population (2.4 million men), 0.2% and 0.3% of non-cancer and cancer patients, respectively, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the total number of SARS-CoV-2-positive cases, prostate cancer patients receiving ADT had a significantly lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with patients who did not receive ADT (OR 4.05; 95% CI 1.55-10.59). A greater difference was found comparing prostate cancer patients receiving ADT with patients with any other type of cancer (OR 4.86; 95% CI 1.88-12.56). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that cancer patients have an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections compared with non-cancer patients. However, prostate cancer patients receiving ADT appear to be partially protected from SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL