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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2155-2162, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the duration of immunity following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a first priority to gauge the degree of protection following infection. Such knowledge is lacking, especially in the general population. Here, we studied changes in immunoglobulin isotype seropositivity and immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding strength of SARS-CoV-2-specific serum antibodies up to 7 months following onset of symptoms in a nationwide sample. METHODS: Participants from a prospective representative serological study in the Netherlands were included based on IgG seroconversion to the spike S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 (N = 353), with up to 3 consecutive serum samples per seroconverted participant (N = 738). Immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and IgG antibody concentrations to S1, and increase in IgG avidity in relation to time since onset of disease symptoms, were determined. RESULTS: While SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgA antibodies declined rapidly after the first month after disease onset, specific IgG was still present in 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89%-95%) of the participants after 7 months. The estimated 2-fold decrease of IgG antibodies was 158 days (95% CI, 136-189 days). Concentrations were sustained better in persons reporting significant symptoms compared to asymptomatic persons or those with mild upper respiratory complaints only. Similarly, avidity of IgG antibodies for symptomatic persons showed a steeper increase over time compared with persons with mild or no symptoms (P = .022). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies persist and show increasing avidity over time, indicative of underlying immune maturation. These data support development of immune memory against SARS-CoV-2, providing insight into protection of the general unvaccinated part of the population. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NL8473 (the Dutch trial registry).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
2.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(12): 3919-3922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525534

ABSTRACT

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute behavioral and mood changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and encephalopathy. We describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis due to NMDAR antibody in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019) (COVID-19), without pulmonary involvement or fever. The patient presented with acute ataxia, rapidly developed encephalopathy, and autoimmune encephalitis was suspected. Steroid treatment was withheld because of lymphopenia and intravenous immunoglobulin was started. The absence of clinical response prompted plasmapheresis and, when lymphocyte counts improved, pulse steroid treatment was applied. The latter was followed by significant improvement and the patient was discharged in a conscious and ambulatory state. Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection and steroid treatment should be preferred unless limited by contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , COVID-19 , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 811-821, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. PURPOSE: To synthesize evidence on the prevalence, levels, and durability of detectable antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 confer natural immunity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization global literature database, and Covid19reviews.org from 1 January through 15 December 2020, limited to peer-reviewed publications available in English. STUDY SELECTION: Primary studies characterizing the prevalence, levels, and duration of antibodies in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); reinfection incidence; and unintended consequences of antibody testing. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators sequentially extracted study data and rated quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: Moderate-strength evidence suggests that most adults develop detectable levels of IgM and IgG antibodies after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and that IgG levels peak approximately 25 days after symptom onset and may remain detectable for at least 120 days. Moderate-strength evidence suggests that IgM levels peak at approximately 20 days and then decline. Low-strength evidence suggests that most adults generate neutralizing antibodies, which may persist for several months like IgG. Low-strength evidence also suggests that older age, greater disease severity, and presence of symptoms may be associated with higher antibody levels. Some adults do not develop antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection for reasons that are unclear. LIMITATIONS: Most studies were small and had methodological limitations; studies used immunoassays of variable accuracy. CONCLUSION: Most adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR develop antibodies. Levels of IgM peak early in the disease course and then decline, whereas IgG peaks later and may remain detectable for at least 120 days. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (PROSPERO: CRD42020207098).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 34-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275900

ABSTRACT

As millions of patients have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus a vast number of individuals complain about continuing breathlessness and fatigue even months after the onset of the disease. This overwhelming phenomenon has not been well defined and has been called "post-COVID syndrome" or "long-COVID" [1]. There are striking similarities to myalgic encephalomyelitis also called chronic fatigue syndrome linked to a viral and autoimmune pathogenesis. In both disorders neurotransmitter receptor antibodies against ß-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors may play a key role. We found similar elevation of these autoantibodies in both patient groups. Extracorporeal apheresis using a special filter seems to be effective in reducing these antibodies in a significant way clearly improving the debilitating symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Therefore, such a form of neuropheresis may provide a promising therapeutic option for patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome. This method will also be effective when other hitherto unknown antibodies and inflammatory mediators are involved.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal , COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/diagnosis , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 585, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses are causative agents of respiratory infections with several subtypes being prevalent worldwide. They cause respiratory illnesses of varying severity and have been described to be continuously emerging but their prevalence is not well documented in Uganda. This study assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against the previously known human coronaviruses prior 2019 in Uganda. METHODS: A total 377 serum samples collected from volunteers that showed influenza like illness in five hospital-based sentinel sites and archived were analyzed using a commercial Qualitative Human Coronavirus Antibody IgG ELISA kit. Although there is no single kit available that can detect the presence of all the circulating coronaviruses, this kit uses a nucleoprotein, aa 340-390 to coat the wells and since there is significant homology among the various human coronavirus strains with regards to the coded for proteins, there is significant cross reactivity beyond HCoV HKU-39849 2003. This gives the kit a qualitative ability to detect the presence of human coronavirus antibodies in a sample. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence for all the sites was 87.53% with no significant difference in the seroprevalence between the Hospital based sentinel sites (p = 0.8). Of the seropositive, the age group 1-5 years had the highest percentage (46.97), followed by 6-10 years (16.67) and then above 20 (16.36). An odds ratio of 1.6 (CI 0.863-2.97, p = 0.136) showed that those volunteers below 5 years of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to those above 5 years. The seropositivity was generally high throughout the year with highest being recorded in March and the lowest in February and December. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of Human coronaviruses is alarmingly high which calls for need to identify and characterize the circulating coronavirus strains so as to guide policy on the control strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Sentinel Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 17-23, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distribution and nature of symptoms among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals need to be clarified. METHODS: Between May and August 2020, 11 138 healthcare and administrative personnel from Central Denmark Region were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and subsequently completed a questionnaire. Symptom prevalence and overall duration for symptoms persisting for more than 30 days were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: In total, 447 (4%) of the participants were SARS-CoV-2-seropositive. Loss of sense of smell and taste was reported by 50% of seropositives compared with 3% of seronegatives. Additionally, seropositives more frequently reported fever, dyspnoea, muscle or joint ache, fatigue, cough, headache and sore throat, and they were more likely to report symptoms persisting for more than 30 days. In adjusted models, they had a higher risk of reporting symptoms, with the strongest association observed for loss of sense of taste and smell (OR = 35.6; 95% CI: 28.6-44.3). CONCLUSION: In this large study, SARS-CoV-2-seropositive participants reported COVID-19-associated symptoms more frequently than those who were seronegative, especially loss of sense of taste and smell. Overall, their symptoms were also more likely to persist for more than 30 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administrative Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e272-e274, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258811

ABSTRACT

The estimated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence in children was found to be 9.46% for the Washington Metropolitan area. Hispanic/Latinx individuals were found to have higher odds of seropositivity. While chronic medical conditions were not associated with having antibodies, previous fever and body aches were predictive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Virginia/epidemiology , West Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9672, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219725

ABSTRACT

In a context where SARS-CoV-2 population-wide testing is implemented, clinical features and antibody response in those infected have never been documented in Africa. Yet, the information provided by analyzing data from population-wide testing is critical to understand the infection dynamics and devise control strategies. We described clinical features and assessed antibody response in people screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed data from a cohort of 3464 people that we molecularly screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection in our routine activity. We recorded people SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, age, gender, blood types, white blood cells (WBC), symptoms, chronic disease status and time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR conversion from positive to negative. We calculated the age-based distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, analyzed the proportion and the spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, in a nested sub-study, we screened 83 COVID-19 patients and 319 contact-cases for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Males and females accounted for respectively 51% and 49% of people screened. The studied population median and mean age were both 39 years. 592 out of 3464 people (17.2%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection with males and females representing, respectively, 53% and 47%. The median and mean ages of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects were 37 and 38 years respectively. The lowest rate of infection (8%) was observed in the elderly (aged > 60). The rate of SARS-Cov-2 infection in both young (18-35 years old) and middle-aged adults (36-60 years old) was around 20%. The analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection age distribution showed that middle-aged adults accounted for 54.7% of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons, followed respectively by young adults (33.7%), children (7.7%) and elderly (3.8%). 68% (N = 402) of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons were asymptomatic, 26.3% (N = 156) had influenza-like symptoms, 2.7% (N = 16) had influenza-like symptoms associated with anosmia and ageusia, 2% (N = 11) had dyspnea and 1% (N = 7) had respiratory failure, which resulted in death. Data also showed that 12% of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects, had chronic diseases. Hypertension, diabetes, and asthma were the top concurrent chronic diseases representing respectively 58%, 25% and 12% of recorded chronic diseases. Half of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were cured within 14 days following the initiation of the anti-COVID-19 treatment protocol. 78.3% of COVID-19 patients and 55% of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed negative contact-cases were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients with severe-to-critical illness have higher leukocytes, higher neutrophils and lower lymphocyte counts contrarily to asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate illness. Neutrophilic leukopenia was more prevalent in asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate disease for 4 weeks after diagnosis (27.1-42.1%). In Patients with severe-to-critical illness, neutrophilic leukocytosis or neutrophilia (35.6-50%) and lymphocytopenia (20-40%) were more frequent. More than 60% of participants were blood type O. It is also important to note that infection rate was slightly higher among A and B blood types compared with type O. In this African setting, young and middle-aged adults are most likely driving community transmission of COVID-19. The rate of critical disease is relatively low. The high rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies observed in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative contact cases suggests that subclinical infection may have been overlooked in our setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Group Antigens/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0238088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 seroprevalence data, particularly in less developed countries with a relatively low incidence, has been scant. We aimed to explore the seroprevalence of hospital staff in the area with zero confirmed COVID-19 case to shed light on the situation of COVID-19 infection in zero or low infection rate countries where mass screening was not readily available. METHODS: A locally developed rapid immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) test kit was used for hospital staff screening of Ranong hospital which is located in a province with zero COVID-19 prevalence in Thailand from 17th April to 17th May 2020. All staff was tested, 100 of which were randomly invited to have a repeating antibody test in one month. (Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20200426002). RESULTS: Of 844 hospital staff, 82 were tested twice one month apart (response rate for repeating antibody test 82%). Overall, 0.8% of the participants (7 of 844) had positive IgM, none had positive IgG. Female staff had 1.0% positive IgM (95% CI: 0.5-2.1%) while male had 0.5% positive IgM (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). No participants with a history of travel to the high-risk area or close contact with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 case developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Among 844 staff, 811 had no symptoms and six of them developed IgM seropositive (0.7%) while 33 had minor symptoms and only one of them developed IgM seropositive (3.0%). No association between SARS-CoV-2 IgM status and gender, history of travel to a high-risk area, close contact with PCR-confirmed or suspected COVID-19 case, presence of symptoms within 14 days, or previous PCR status was found. None of the hospital staff developed SARS-CoV-2 IgG. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 antibody test could detect a considerable number of hospital staff who could be potential silent spreaders in a province with zero COVID-19 cases. Accurate antibody testing is a valuable screening tool, particularly in asymptomatic healthcare workers. Trial registration: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chulalongkorn University (IRB No.236/63) and the Institutional Review Board of Ranong Hospital. (Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20200426002).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Thailand/epidemiology
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e045384, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since its emergence in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic that has significantly challenged healthcare systems. Healthcare workers have previously been shown to have experienced higher rates of infection than the general population. We aimed to assess the extent of infection in staff working in our healthcare setting. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of antibody results, compared with staff demographic data, and exposure to patients with COVID-19 infection. SETTING: A large teaching hospital in the North West of England. PARTICIPANTS: 4474 staff in diverse clinical and non-patient facing roles who volunteered for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing by the Roche Elecsys assay between 29 May and 4 July 2020. RESULTS: Seroprevalence was 17.4%. Higher rates were seen in Asian/Asian British (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.04) and Black/Black British (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.45) staff. Staff working in any clinical location were more likely to be seropositive (OR 2.68, 95% 2.27 to 3.15). Staff were at an increased risk of seropositivity as the 'per 100 COVID-19 bed-days change' increased in the clinical area in which they worked (OR 1.12, 95% 1.10 to 1.14). Staff working in critical care were no more likely to have detectable antibodies than staff working in non-clinical areas. Symptoms compatible with COVID-19 were reported in 41.8% and antibodies were detected in 30.7% of these individuals. In staff who reported no symptoms, antibodies were detected in 7.7%. In all staff who had detectable antibodies, 25.2% reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Staff working in clinical areas where patients with COVID-19 were nursed were more likely to have detectable antibodies. The relationship between seropositivity in healthcare workers and the increase in 'per 100 COVID-19 bed-days' of the area in which they worked, although statistically significant, was weak, suggesting other contributing factors to the risk profile. Of staff with detectable antibodies and therefore evidence of prior infection, a quarter self-reported that they had experienced no compatible symptoms. This has implications for potential unrecorded transmission in both staff and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/blood , England/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 640093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133915

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) disease severity and stages varies from asymptomatic, mild flu-like symptoms, moderate, severe, critical, and chronic disease. COVID-19 disease progression include lymphopenia, elevated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in lungs, immune dysregulation, cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), etc. Development of vaccines to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and other coronavirus has been difficult to create due to vaccine induced enhanced disease responses in animal models. Multiple betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 expand cellular tropism by infecting some phagocytic cells (immature macrophages and dendritic cells) via antibody bound Fc receptor uptake of virus. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) may be involved in the clinical observation of increased severity of symptoms associated with early high levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients. Infants with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 may also have ADE caused by maternally acquired SARS-CoV-2 antibodies bound to mast cells. ADE risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 has implications for COVID-19 and MIS-C treatments, B-cell vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 antibody therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy for patients. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies bound to mast cells may be involved in MIS-C and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) following initial COVID-19 infection. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies bound to Fc receptors on macrophages and mast cells may represent two different mechanisms for ADE in patients. These two different ADE risks have possible implications for SARS-CoV-2 B-cell vaccines for subsets of populations based on age, cross-reactive antibodies, variabilities in antibody levels over time, and pregnancy. These models place increased emphasis on the importance of developing safe SARS-CoV-2 T cell vaccines that are not dependent upon antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Phagocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Models, Immunological , Pregnancy , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Risk , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preexisting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 could be related to cross-reactive antibodies to common human-coronaviruses (HCoVs). This study aimed to evaluate whether human milk antibodies against to S1 and S2 subunits SARS-CoV-2 are cross-reactive to S1 and S2 subunits HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E in mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, in mothers with previous viral symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, and in unexposed mothers; Methods: The levels of secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA, secretory IgM (SIgM)/IgM, and IgG specific to S1 and S2 SARS-CoV-2, and reactive to S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured in milk from 7 mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, 20 mothers with viral symptoms, and unexposed mothers (6 Ctl1-2018 and 16 Ctl2-2018) using ELISA; Results: The S2 SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in the COVID-19 PCR (p = 0.014) and viral symptom (p = 0.040) groups than in the Ctl1-2018 group. We detected a higher number of positive correlations between the antigens and secretory antibodies in the COVID-19 PCR group than in the viral symptom and Ctl-2018 groups. S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43-reactive IgG was higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (p = 0.002) but did not differ for the other antibodies; Conclusions: Mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR and mothers with previous viral symptoms had preexisting human milk antibodies against S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. Human milk IgG were more specific to S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2 than other antibodies, whereas SIgA and SIgM were polyreactive and cross-reactive to S1 or S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mothers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
13.
Transl Res ; 232: 60-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081356

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients elicit strong responses to the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 but binding antibodies are also detected in prepandemic individuals, indicating potential crossreactivity with common cold human coronaviruses (HCoV) and questioning its utility in seroprevalence studies. We investigated the immunogenicity of the full-length and shorter fragments of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein, and the crossreactivity of antibodies with HCoV. We identified a C-terminus region in SARS-CoV2 N of minimal sequence homology with HCoV that was more specific for SARS-CoV-2 and highly immunogenic. IgGs to the full-length SARS-CoV-2 N also recognized N229E N, and IgGs to HKU1 N recognized SARS-CoV-2 N. Crossreactivity with SARS-CoV-2 was stronger for alpha- rather than beta-HCoV despite having less sequence identity, revealing the importance of conformational recognition. Higher preexisting IgG to OC43 N correlated with lower IgG to SARS-CoV-2 N in rRT-PCR negative individuals, reflecting less exposure and indicating a potential protective association. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 N were higher in patients with more severe and longer duration of symptoms and in females. IgGs remained stable for at least 3 months, while IgAs and IgMs declined faster. In conclusion, N protein is a primary target of SARS-CoV-2-specific and HCoV crossreactive antibodies, both of which may affect the acquisition of immunity to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Rhinovirus/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(4): 2245-2253, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065596

ABSTRACT

The morbidity and mortality rates due to Covid-19 are increasing day by day, to overcome this, we urgently need a better treatment strategy, therefore various ways and strategies for this must be pursued. The purpose of the present review is to explain that the rhizome of bangle (Zingiber montanum) has great potential to increase antibodies and reduce symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which also seems suitable for treating Covid-19. Method: This review is looking for the results of scientific research from various sources, regarding the efficacy of bangle (Zingiber montanum) rhizome which is strongly suspected to be able to prevent, and reduce the symptoms that occur in COVID-19. The results showed that the bangle rhizome extract had activity as immunomodulatory, antiviral and reduced symptoms such as what happened in COVID-19. Conclusion: Bangle rhizome extract has dozens of nutritious substances and has multifunctional activities, and it can be postulated that among the benefits of bangle rhizome extract it is able to prevent and reduce symptoms that occur in Covid-19, and preclinical studies and clinical studies are needed to prove this postulate.

15.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3537-3539, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015539

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the onset of the novel coronavirus pandemic, several neurological complications secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported, affecting central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular junction. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 77-year-old man who developed bulbar myasthenia gravis (MG) eight weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The search for serum antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor and the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), performed by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the search of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 antibodies, performed by immunohistochemistry, resulted negative, while anti-MuSK antibodies were detected by cell-based assay (CBA). The patient was treated with pyridostigmine (60 mg four times a day) with unsatisfactory clinical response, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (azathioprine 1.5 mg/kg/day) with improvement of MG symptoms after two months of treatment. DISCUSSION: Several viral diseases have been described as associated with the onset of MG, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Similarly, a growing number of scientific reports suggest a correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and autoimmune diseases. The interest of our case lies in the timing of the MG onset (after 2 months from infection), together with the unusual late onset of anti-MuSK MG. These elements suggest that coronavirus infection may act as a trigger of the disease. We confirm the importance of CBA in the serological diagnosis of RIA-negative MG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Aged , Autoantibodies , Humans , Male , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Receptors, Cholinergic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tyrosine
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1401-1408, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers are thought to be highly exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in health-care workers and the proportion of seroconverted health-care workers with previous symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, screening was offered to health-care workers in the Capital Region of Denmark, including medical, nursing, and other students who were associated with hospitals in the region. Screening included point-of-care tests for IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Test results and participant characteristics were recorded. Results were compared with findings in blood donors in the Capital Region in the study period. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and April 23, 2020, we screened 29 295 health-care workers, of whom 28 792 (98·28%) provided their test results. We identified 1163 (4·04% [95% CI 3·82-4·27]) seropositive health-care workers. Seroprevalence was higher in health-care workers than in blood donors (142 [3·04%] of 4672; risk ratio [RR] 1·33 [95% CI 1·12-1·58]; p<0·001). Seroprevalence was higher in male health-care workers (331 [5·45%] of 6077) than in female health-care workers (832 [3·66%] of 22 715; RR 1·49 [1·31-1·68]; p<0·001). Frontline health-care workers working in hospitals had a significantly higher seroprevalence (779 [4·55%] of 16 356) than health-care workers in other settings (384 [3·29%] of 11 657; RR 1·38 [1·22-1·56]; p<0·001). Health-care workers working on dedicated COVID-19 wards (95 [7·19%] of 1321) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than other frontline health-care workers working in hospitals (696 [4·35%] of 15 983; RR 1·65 [1·34-2·03]; p<0·001). 622 [53·5%] of 1163 seropositive participants reported symptoms attributable to SARS-CoV-2. Loss of taste or smell was the symptom that was most strongly associated with seropositivity (377 [32·39%] of 1164 participants with this symptom were seropositive vs 786 [2·84%] of 27 628 without this symptom; RR 11·38 [10·22-12·68]). The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of health-care workers with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was low but higher than in blood donors. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health-care workers was related to exposure to infected patients. More than half of seropositive health-care workers reported symptoms attributable to COVID-19. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/classification , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999191

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(7): 680-686, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies based on molecular testing of oral/nasal swabs underestimate SARS-CoV-2 infection due to issues with test sensitivity, test timing and selection bias. The objective of this study was to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, consistent with previous infection. DESIGN: This multicentre observational cohort study, conducted between 16 April to 3 July 2020 at 5 UK sites, recruited children of healthcare workers, aged 2-15 years. Participants provided blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing and data were gathered regarding unwell contacts and symptoms. RESULTS: 1007 participants were enrolled, and 992 were included in the final analysis. The median age of participants was 10·1 years. There were 68 (6.9%) participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests indicative of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 34/68 (50%) reported no symptoms prior to testing. The presence of antibodies and the mean antibody titre was not influenced by age. Following multivariable analysis four independent variables were identified as significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity: known infected household contact OR=10.9 (95% CI 6.1 to 19.6); fatigue OR=16.8 (95% CI 5.5 to 51.9); gastrointestinal symptoms OR=6.6 (95% CI 3.0 to 13.8); and changes in sense of smell or taste OR=10.0 (95% CI 2.4 to 11.4). DISCUSSION: Children demonstrated similar antibody titres in response to SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of age. Fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in sense of smell or taste were the symptoms most strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT0434740.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e13880, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796050

ABSTRACT

We describe the successful pediatric liver transplant for unresectable hepatoblastoma in a 4-year-old male with COVID-19 prior to transplant. The first negative NP swab was documented 1 month after initial diagnosis, when SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were also detected. The patient was actively listed for liver transplant after completing four blocks of a SIOPEL-4 based regimen due to his PRETEXT IV disease which remained unresectable. Following three additional negative NP swabs and resolution of symptoms for 4 weeks, he underwent a whole-organ pediatric liver transplant. COVID-19 positivity determined via NP swab SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR (Hologic Aptima SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay). IgG and IgM total SARS- CoV-2 antibodies detected by Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS® Immunodiagnostics Products Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Test. Patient received standard prednisone and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction therapy following transplant. Post-transplant course was remarkable for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with discharge home on post-transplant day #11. Surveillance tests have remained negative with persistent SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies at 6 weeks after transplant. We describe one of the earliest, if not the first case of liver transplant following recent recovery from COVID-19 in a pediatric patient with a lethal malignant liver tumor. A better understanding of how to balance the risk profile of transplant in the setting of COVID-19 with disease progression if transplant is not performed is needed. We followed existing ASTS guidelines to document clearance of the viral infection and resolution of symptoms before transplant. This case highlights that pediatric liver transplantation can be safely performed upon clearance of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hepatoblastoma/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Hepatoblastoma/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Male , Neutropenia/complications , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Treatment Outcome
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 698, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has escalated to a pandemic since its first outbreak in Wuhan, China. A small proportion of patients may have difficulty in generating IgM or IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and little attention has been paid to them. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present two cases of confirmed COVID-19 patients and characterize their initial symptoms, chest CT results, medication, and laboratory test results in detail (including RT-PCR, IgM/ IgG, cytokine and blood cell counts). CONCLUSION: Both of patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia failed to produce either IgM or IgG even 40 to 50 days after their symptoms onset. This work provides evidence demonstrating that at least a small proportion of patients may have difficulty in rapidly gaining immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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