Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 143
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009161, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388959

ABSTRACT

We report the emergency development and application of a robust serologic test to evaluate acute and convalescent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina. The assays, COVIDAR IgG and IgM, which were produced and provided for free to health authorities, private and public health institutions and nursing homes, use a combination of a trimer stabilized spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD) in a single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate. Over half million tests have already been distributed to detect and quantify antibodies for multiple purposes, including assessment of immune responses in hospitalized patients and large seroprevalence studies in neighborhoods, slums and health care workers, which resulted in a powerful tool for asymptomatic detection and policy making in the country. Analysis of antibody levels and longitudinal studies of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in over one thousand patient samples provided insightful information about IgM and IgG seroconversion time and kinetics, and IgM waning profiles. At least 35% of patients showed seroconversion within 7 days, and 95% within 45 days of symptoms onset, with simultaneous or close sequential IgM and IgG detection. Longitudinal studies of asymptomatic cases showed a wide range of antibody responses with median levels below those observed in symptomatic patients. Regarding convalescent plasma applications, a protocol was standardized for the assessment of end point IgG antibody titers with COVIDAR with more than 500 plasma donors. The protocol showed a positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titers, and was used for clinical trials and therapies across the country. Using this protocol, about 80% of convalescent donor plasmas were potentially suitable for therapies. Here, we demonstrate the importance of providing a robust and specific serologic assay for generating new information about antibody kinetics in infected individuals and mitigation policies to cope with pandemic needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Gut ; 70(5): 865-875, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections. DESIGN: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020. RESULTS: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Serologic Tests , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368933

ABSTRACT

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Protein Domains , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 183-186, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines to generate immunological memory post-vaccination has not previously been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess immunological memory in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals after a single dose of mRNA vaccine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Healthcare workers (n = 280) were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent and grouped under previously infected and no prior exposure (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction positive and negative, respectively). Blood was drawn at baseline and post-vaccination (single dose of COVISHIELD) for enumerating neutralizing antibodies by chemiluminescence and memory T- and B-cells by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Post vaccination, compared with the no prior exposure group, the previously infected group had higher levels of: antibody response (1124.73 ± 869.13 vs 94.23 ± 140.06 AU/ml, p = 0.0001); CD4 memory T-cells: central memory CCR7+CD45RA- (p = 0.0001), effector memory CCR7-/CD45RA- (p = 0.01); total CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.004); CD8+ naïve T-cells CCR7+CD45RA+ (p = 0.01); and memory B-cells CD20+CD27+ (p = 0.0001). DISCUSSION: Single-dose vaccination elicited higher neutralizing antibody response and protective immunity in individuals who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those with no prior exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2153-2158, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients and patients receiving hemodialysis are immunocompromised populations that are prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination but were excluded from clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Antibody titers and rates of seroconversion after vaccination are lower among patients with CKD and those taking immunosuppressants compared with controls. Data are lacking regarding their humoral response to vaccination to prevent COVID-19. METHODS: This investigation of early serological response after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine included 78 patients undergoing hemodialysis, 74 kidney transplant recipients, and seven healthy controls. We recorded data from the medical file for various clinical parameters, including response to hepatitis B vaccination, and measured antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 at 0, 14, 28, 36, and 58 days after the first injection. RESULTS: In controls, we detected antibodies at a positive level (>13 arbitrary units per ml; AU/ml) at day 14 postinjection, which increased progressively to peak at day 36 (1082 AU/ml; interquartile range [IQR], 735.0-1662.0). Patients undergoing hemodialysis had lower titers that peaked at day 58 (276 AU/ml; IQR, 83.4-526.0). We detected a positive antibody level in only three transplant recipients at day 36. In patients on hemodialysis, those aged <75 years had a higher antibody response versus those aged >75 years, and serum albumin and Kt/V were positively correlated with serological response (P<0.04 and P<0.0, respectively); nonresponders to HBV vaccine had the lowest anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postvaccination humoral response is strongly inhibited by immunosuppressant therapy in kidney transplant recipients, and is reduced by the uremic condition in patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Transplant Recipients
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the longevity of spike-specific antibody responses and neutralizing activity in the plasma of recovered Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) patients. METHODS: We traced the antibody responses and neutralizing activity against MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in peripheral blood samples collected from 70 recovered MERS patients for 5 years after the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. We also measured the half-life of neutralizing antibody titres in the longitudinal specimens. RESULTS: The seropositivity rate persisted for up to 4 years (50.7-56.1%), especially in MERS patients who suffered from severe pneumonia, and then decreased (35.9%) in the fifth year. Although the spike-specific antibody responses decreased gradually, the neutralizing antibody titres decreased more rapidly (half-life: 20 months) in 19 participants without showing negative seroconversion during the study period. Only five (26.3%) participants had neutralizing antibody titres greater than 1/1000 of PRNT50, and a high neutralizing antibody titre over 1/5000 was not detected in the participants at five years after infection. DISCUSSION: The seropositivity rate of the recovered MERS patients persisted up to 4 years after infection and significantly dropped in the fifth year, whereas the neutralizing antibody titres against MERS-CoV decreased more rapidly and were significantly reduced at 4 years after infection.

12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1520.e7-1520.e10, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Dexamethasone has become the standard of care for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its virological impact is poorly understood. The objectives of this work were to characterize the kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) concentration in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the antibody response in patients with (D+) and without (D-) dexamethasone treatment. METHODS: Data and biosamples from hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, enrolled between 4th March and 11th December 2020 in a prospective observational study, were analysed. SARS-CoV-2 virus concentration in serial URT samples was measured using RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG) were measured in serum samples using S1-ELISA. RESULTS: We compared 101 immunocompetent patients who received dexamethasone (according to the inclusion criteria and dosage determined in the RECOVERY trial) to 93 immunocompetent patients with comparable disease severity from the first months of the pandemic, who had not been treated with dexamethasone or other glucocorticoids. We found no inter-group differences in virus concentration kinetics, duration of presence of viral loads >106 viral copies/mL (D+ median 17 days (IQR 13-24), D- 19 days (IQR 13-29)), or time from symptom onset until seroconversion (IgA: D+ median 11.5 days (IQR 11-12), D- 14 days (IQR 11.5-15.75); IgG: D+ 13 days (IQR 12-14.5), D- 12 days (IQR 11-15)). CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone does not appear to lead to a change in virus clearance or a delay in antibody response in immunocompetent patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Viral Load
13.
Immunology ; 164(1): 135-147, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295026

ABSTRACT

Detecting antibody responses during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential in determining the seroepidemiology of the virus and the potential role of antibody in disease. Scalable, sensitive and specific serological assays are essential to this process. The detection of antibody in hospitalized patients with severe disease has proven relatively straightforward; detecting responses in subjects with mild disease and asymptomatic infections has proven less reliable. We hypothesized that the suboptimal sensitivity of antibody assays and the compartmentalization of the antibody response may contribute to this effect. We systematically developed an ELISA, optimizing different antigens and amplification steps, in serum and saliva from non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects. Using trimeric spike glycoprotein, rather than nucleocapsid, enabled detection of responses in individuals with low antibody responses. IgG1 and IgG3 predominate to both antigens, but more anti-spike IgG1 than IgG3 was detectable. All antigens were effective for detecting responses in hospitalized patients. Anti-spike IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses were readily detectable in saliva from a minority of RT-PCR confirmed, non-hospitalized symptomatic individuals, and these were mostly subjects who had the highest levels of anti-spike serum antibodies. Therefore, detecting antibody responses in both saliva and serum can contribute to determining virus exposure and understanding immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Saliva
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3781, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275920

ABSTRACT

In addition to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), humans are also susceptible to six other coronaviruses, for which consecutive exposures to antigenically related and divergent seasonal coronaviruses are frequent. Despite the prevalence of COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing research, the nature of the antibody response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Here we longitudinally profile the early humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and quantify levels of pre-existing immunity to OC43, HKU1 and 229E seasonal coronaviruses, and find a strong back-boosting effect to conserved but not variable regions of OC43 and HKU1 betacoronaviruses spike protein. However, such antibody memory boost to human coronaviruses negatively correlates with the induction of IgG and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein. Our findings thus provide evidence of immunological imprinting by previous seasonal coronavirus infections that can potentially modulate the antibody profile to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Oncologist ; 26(9): e1619-e1632, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients with cancer show worse outcomes compared with patients without cancer. The humoral immune response (HIR) of patients with cancer against SARS-CoV-2 is not well characterized. To better understand it, we conducted a serological study of hospitalized patients with cancer infected with SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a unicentric, retrospective study enrolling adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to a central hospital from March 15 to June 17, 2020, whose serum samples were quantified for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain or spike protein IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies. The aims of the study were to assess the HIR to SARS-CoV-2; correlate it with different cancer types, stages, and treatments; clarify the interplay between the HIR and clinical outcomes of patients with cancer; and compare the HIR of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with and without cancer. RESULTS: We included 72 SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects (19 with cancer, 53 controls). About 90% of controls revealed a robust serological response. Among patients with cancer, a strong response was verified in 57.9%, with 42.1% showing a persistently weak response. Treatment with chemotherapy within 14 days before positivity was the only factor statistically shown to be associated with persistently weak serological responses among patients with cancer. No significant differences in outcomes were observed between patients with strong and weak responses. All IgG, IgM, IgA, and total Ig antibody titers were significantly lower in patients with cancer compared with those without. CONCLUSION: A significant portion of patients with cancer develop a proper HIR. Recent chemotherapy treatment may be associated with weak serological responses among patients with cancer. Patients with cancer have a weaker SARS-CoV-2 antibody response compared with those without cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: These results place the spotlight on patients with cancer, particularly those actively treated with chemotherapy. These patients may potentially be more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, so it is important to provide oncologists further theoretical support (with concrete examples and respective mechanistic correlations) for the decision of starting, maintaining, or stopping antineoplastic treatments (particularly chemotherapy) not only on noninfected but also on infected patients with cancer in accordance with cancer type, stage and prognosis, treatment agents, treatment setting, and SARS-CoV-2 infection risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659041, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268250

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic with millions infected and numerous fatalities. Virus-specific antibodies can be detected in infected patients approximately two weeks after symptom onset. In this study, we set up ELISA technology coating with purified SARS-CoV-2 S and N proteins to study the antibody response of 484 serum samples. We established a surrogate viral inhibition assay using SARS-CoV-2 S protein pseudovirus system to determine the neutralization potency of collected serum samples. Here, we report robust antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 484 recovered patients varying from 154 to 193 days, with 92% of recovered patients displaying a positive virus-specific spike glycoprotein IgG (s-IgG) response, while the ratio of positive spike glycoprotein IgM (s-IgM) reached 63%. Furthermore, moderate to potent neutralization activities were also observed in 62% of patients, correlating significantly with s-IgG response. This study strongly supports the long-term presence of antibodies in recovered patients against SARS-CoV-2, although all serum samples were collected from individuals with mild or moderate symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Line , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Viral Load
17.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 207: 106760, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function due to COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase to identify publications that described at least one patient with COVID-19 who had altered olfactory/gustatory function and had CSF testing performed. The search ranged from December 1, 2019 to November 18, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 51 publications that described 70 patients who met inclusion criteria. Of 51 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, 3 (6%) patients had positive results and 1 (2%) patient had indeterminate results. Cycle threshold (Ct; the number of amplification cycles required for the target gene to exceed the threshold, which is inversely related to viral load) was not provided for the patients with a positive PCR. The patient with indeterminate results had a Ct of 37 initially, then no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on repeat testing. Of 6 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, 3 (50%) were positive. Testing to distinguish intrathecal antibody synthesis from transudation of antibodies to the CSF via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier was performed in 1/3 (33%) patients; this demonstrated antibody transmission to the CSF via transudation. CONCLUSION: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function. While pathology studies are needed, our review suggests it is unlikely that these symptoms are related to viral neuroinvasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
19.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(6): 577-587, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264321

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays have high clinical utility in managing the pandemic. We compared antibody responses and seroconversion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using different immunoassays. Methods: We evaluated 12 commercial immunoassays, including three automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (Abbott, Roche, and Siemens), three enzyme immunoassays (Bio-Rad, Euroimmun, and Vircell), five lateral flow immunoassays (Boditech Med, SD biosensor, PCL, Sugentech, and Rapigen), and one surrogate neutralizing antibody assay (GenScript) in sequential samples from 49 COVID-19 patients and 10 seroconversion panels. Results: The positive percent agreement (PPA) of assays for a COVID-19 diagnosis ranged from 84.0% to 98.5% for all samples (>14 days after symptom onset), with IgM or IgA assays showing higher PPAs. Seroconversion responses varied across the assay type and disease severity. Assays targeting the spike or receptor-binding domain protein showed a tendency for early seroconversion detection and higher index values in patients with severe disease. Index values from SARS-CoV-2 binding antibody assays (three automated assays, one LFIA, and three EIAs) showed moderate to strong correlations with the neutralizing antibody percentage (r=0.517-0.874), and stronger correlations in patients with severe disease and in assays targeting spike protein. Agreement among the 12 assays was good (74.3%-96.4%) for detecting IgG or total antibodies. Conclusions: Positivity rates and seroconversion of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies vary depending on the assay kits, disease severity, and antigen target. This study contributes to a better understanding of antibody response in symptomatic COVID-19 patients using currently available assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(8): 1429-1440, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess antibody response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with immune-mediated diseases (IMD) among hospital workers and people aged 65 and older. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied 82 hospital workers with IMD (mean age: 42.2 ± 10.0 years) and 300 (mean age: 41.7 ± 9.9 years) controls. Among + 65 aged population, we studied 22 (mean age: 71.4 ± 4.5 years) patients and 47 controls (mean age: 70.9 ± 4.8 years). All study subjects had a negative history for COVID-19. Sera were obtained after at least 21 days following the second vaccination. Anti-spike IgG antibody titers were measured quantitatively using a commercially available immunoassay method. RESULTS: Patients with IMD were significantly less likely to have detectable antibodies than healthy controls both among the hospital workers (92.7% vs 99.7%, p < 0.001) and elderly population (77.3% vs 97.9%, p = 0.011). Among patients with IMD, those using immunosuppressive or immune-modulating drugs (64/75, 85.3%) were significantly less likely to have detectable antibodies compared to those off treatment (29/29, 100%) (p = 0.029). Additionally, a negative association between age and the antibody titer categories among patients (r = - 0.352; p < 0.001) and controls (r = - 0.258; p < 0.001) were demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospital workers, the vast majority of patients with IMD and immunocompetent controls developed a significant humoral response following the administration of the second dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. This was also true for the elderly population, albeit with lower antibody titers. Immunosuppressive use, particularly rituximab significantly reduced antibody titers. Antibody titers were significantly lower among those aged ≥ 60 years both in patient and control populations. Whether these individuals should get a booster dose warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immune System Diseases/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mass Vaccination , Personnel, Hospital , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/blood , Immune System Diseases/diagnosis , Immunization Schedule , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Turkey , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...