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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 618685, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389172

ABSTRACT

Understanding humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection will play a critical role in the development of vaccines and antibody-based interventions. We report systemic and mucosal antibody responses in convalescent individuals who experienced varying severity of disease. Whereas assessment of neutralization and antibody-mediated effector functions revealed polyfunctional antibody responses in serum, only robust neutralization and phagocytosis were apparent in nasal wash samples. Serum neutralization and effector functions correlated with systemic SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response magnitude, while mucosal neutralization was associated with nasal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA. Antibody depletion experiments support the mechanistic relevance of these correlations. Associations between nasal IgA responses, virus neutralization at the mucosa, and less severe disease suggest the importance of assessing mucosal immunity in larger natural infection cohorts. Further characterization of antibody responses at the portal of entry may define their ability to contribute to protection from infection or reduced risk of hospitalization, informing public health assessment strategies and vaccine development efforts.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2153-2158, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients and patients receiving hemodialysis are immunocompromised populations that are prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination but were excluded from clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Antibody titers and rates of seroconversion after vaccination are lower among patients with CKD and those taking immunosuppressants compared with controls. Data are lacking regarding their humoral response to vaccination to prevent COVID-19. METHODS: This investigation of early serological response after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine included 78 patients undergoing hemodialysis, 74 kidney transplant recipients, and seven healthy controls. We recorded data from the medical file for various clinical parameters, including response to hepatitis B vaccination, and measured antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 at 0, 14, 28, 36, and 58 days after the first injection. RESULTS: In controls, we detected antibodies at a positive level (>13 arbitrary units per ml; AU/ml) at day 14 postinjection, which increased progressively to peak at day 36 (1082 AU/ml; interquartile range [IQR], 735.0-1662.0). Patients undergoing hemodialysis had lower titers that peaked at day 58 (276 AU/ml; IQR, 83.4-526.0). We detected a positive antibody level in only three transplant recipients at day 36. In patients on hemodialysis, those aged <75 years had a higher antibody response versus those aged >75 years, and serum albumin and Kt/V were positively correlated with serological response (P<0.04 and P<0.0, respectively); nonresponders to HBV vaccine had the lowest anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postvaccination humoral response is strongly inhibited by immunosuppressant therapy in kidney transplant recipients, and is reduced by the uremic condition in patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Transplant Recipients
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 49-59, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated frequency of reinfection with seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and serum antibody response following infection over 8 years in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) cohort. METHODS: Households were followed annually for identification of acute respiratory illness with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HCoV infection. Serum collected before and at 2 time points postinfection were tested using a multiplex binding assay to quantify antibody to seasonal, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 spike subdomains and N protein. RESULTS: Of 3418 participants, 40% were followed for ≥3 years. A total of 1004 HCoV infections were documented; 303 (30%) were reinfections of any HCoV type. The number of HCoV infections ranged from 1 to 13 per individual. The mean time to reinfection with the same type was estimated at 983 days for 229E, 578 days for HKU1, 615 days for OC43, and 711 days for NL63. Binding antibody levels to seasonal HCoVs were high, with little increase postinfection, and were maintained over time. Homologous, preinfection antibody levels did not significantly correlate with odds of infection, and there was little cross-response to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Reinfection with seasonal HCoVs is frequent. Binding anti-spike protein antibodies do not correlate with protection from seasonal HCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Family Characteristics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/virology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Michigan/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Public Health Surveillance , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Load
4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0038821, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276887

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to impose a significant burden on global health infrastructure. While identification and containment of new cases remain important, laboratories must now pivot and consider an assessment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity in the setting of the recent availability of multiple COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we have utilized the latest Abbott Alinity semiquantitative IgM and quantitative IgG spike protein (SP) serology assays (IgMSP and IgGSP) in combination with Abbott Alinity IgG nucleocapsid (NC) antibody test (IgGNC) to assess antibody responses in a cohort of 1,236 unique participants comprised of naive, SARS-CoV-2-infected, and vaccinated (including both naive and recovered) individuals. The IgMSP and IgGSP assays were highly specific (100%) with no cross-reactivity to archived samples collected prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, including those from individuals with seasonal coronavirus infections. Clinical sensitivity was 96% after 15 days for both IgMSP and IgGSP assays individually. When considered together, the sensitivity was 100%. A combination of NC- and SP-specific serologic assays clearly differentiated naive, SARS-CoV-2-infected, and vaccine-related immune responses. Vaccination resulted in a significant increase in IgGSP and IgMSP values, with a major rise in IgGSP following the booster (second) dose in the naive group. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-recovered individuals had several-fold higher IgGSP responses than naive following the primary dose, with a comparatively dampened response following the booster. This work illustrates the strong clinical performance of these new serological assays and their utility in evaluating and distinguishing serological responses to infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2670, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225507

ABSTRACT

Understanding how antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 evolve during infection may provide important insight into therapeutic approaches and vaccination for COVID-19. Here we profile the antibody responses of 162 COVID-19 symptomatic patients in the COVID-BioB cohort followed longitudinally for up to eight months from symptom onset to find SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, as well as antibodies either recognizing SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and nucleoprotein, or specific for S2 antigen of seasonal beta-coronaviruses and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 flu virus. The presence of neutralizing antibodies within the first weeks from symptoms onset correlates with time to a negative swab result (p = 0.002), while the lack of neutralizing capacity correlates with an increased risk of a fatal outcome (p = 0.008). Neutralizing antibody titers progressively drop after 5-8 weeks but are still detectable up to 8 months in the majority of recovered patients regardless of age or co-morbidities, with IgG to spike antigens providing the best correlate of neutralization. Antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses are temporarily boosted, and parallel those to SARS-CoV-2 without dampening the specific response or worsening disease progression. Our results thus suggest compromised immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike to be a major trait of COVID-19 patients with critical conditions, and thereby inform on the planning of COVID-19 patient care and therapy prioritization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Rate
6.
Gut ; 70(10): 1884-1893, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Delayed second dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination trades maximal effectiveness for a lower level of immunity across more of the population. We investigated whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab have attenuated serological responses to a single dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. DESIGN: Antibody responses and seroconversion rates in infliximab-treated patients (n=865) were compared with a cohort treated with vedolizumab (n=428), a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody. Our primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody assay 3-10 weeks after vaccination, in patients without evidence of prior infection. Secondary outcomes were seroconversion rates (defined by a cut-off of 15 U/mL), and antibody responses following past infection or a second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following BNT162b2 (6.0 U/mL (5.9) vs 28.8 U/mL (5.4) p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4.7 U/mL (4.9)) vs 13.8 U/mL (5.9) p<0.0001) vaccines. In our multivariable models, antibody concentrations were lower in infliximab-treated compared with vedolizumab-treated patients who received the BNT162b2 (fold change (FC) 0.29 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.40), p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (FC 0.39 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.51), p<0.0001) vaccines. In both models, age ≥60 years, immunomodulator use, Crohn's disease and smoking were associated with lower, while non-white ethnicity was associated with higher, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations. Seroconversion rates after a single dose of either vaccine were higher in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. CONCLUSION: Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to a single dose of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 infection, or a second dose of vaccine, led to seroconversion in most patients. Delayed second dosing should be avoided in patients treated with infliximab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
7.
Cell Rep ; 35(6): 109109, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201425

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether individuals with enormous diversity in B cell receptor repertoires are consistently able to mount effective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed antibody responses in a cohort of 55 convalescent patients and isolated 54 potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). While most of the mAbs target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding surface on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, mAb 47D1 binds only to one side of the receptor binding surface on the RBD. Neutralization by 47D1 is achieved independent of interfering RBD-ACE2 binding. A crystal structure of the mAb-RBD complex shows that the IF motif at the tip of 47D1 CDR H2 interacts with a hydrophobic pocket in the RBD. Diverse immunoglobulin gene usage and convergent epitope targeting characterize neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that vaccines that effectively present the receptor binding site on the RBD will likely elicit neutralizing antibody responses in a large fraction of the population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Immunoglobulins/genetics , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Genes, Immunoglobulin/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(4): 100253, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195473

ABSTRACT

The fate of protective immunity following mild severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains ill defined. Here, we characterize antibody responses in a cohort of participants recovered from mild SARS-CoV-2 infection with follow-up to 6 months. We measure immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG binding and avidity to viral antigens and assess neutralizing antibody responses over time. Furthermore, we correlate the effect of fever, gender, age, and time since symptom onset with antibody responses. We observe that total anti-S trimer, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and anti-nucleocapsid protein (NP) IgG are relatively stable over 6 months of follow-up, that anti-S and anti-RBD avidity increases over time, and that fever is associated with higher levels of antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody responses rapidly decay and are strongly associated with declines in IgM levels. Thus, while total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 may persist, functional antibody, particularly IgM, is rapidly lost. These observations have implications for the duration of protective immunity following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Multimerization/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Clin Chim Acta ; 519: 60-63, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced population immunity is a key global strategy to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The rapid implementation and availability of several COVID-19 vaccines is now a global health-care priority but more information about humoral responses to single- and double-dose vaccine is needed. METHODS: 163 health care workers (HCW) of the Padua University Hospitals, who underwent a complete vaccination campaign with BNT162b2 vaccine were asked to collect serum samples at 12 (t12) and 28 (t28) days after the first inoculum to allow the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies (Ab) using chemiluminescent assays against the spike (S) protein and the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the virus, respectively. RESULTS: Significant differences were found at t12 for infection-naïve and subjects with previous-natural infection who present higher values of specific antibodies, while no significant differences have been found between t12 and t28. No statistically significant difference was found between male and female, while lower Ab levels have been observed in subjects older than 60 years at t12 but not at t28. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms observed differences in vaccine responses between infection-naïve and subjects with previous natural infection at t12 but not for a longer time. The influence of sex and age deserves further studies, even if the relationship with age seems particularly significant.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Infect ; 82(5): 162-169, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody waning after SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in reduction in long-term immunity following natural infection and vaccination, and is therefore a major public health issue. We undertook prospective serosurveillance in a large cohort of healthy adults from the start of the epidemic in England. METHODS: Clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers were recruited across three English regions and tested monthly from March to November 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and nucleoprotein (N) antibodies using five different immunoassays. In positive individuals, antibody responses and long-term trends were modelled using mixed effects regression. FINDINGS: In total, 2246 individuals attended 12,247 visits and 264 were seropositive in ≥ 2 assays. Most seroconversions occurred between March and April 2020. The assays showed > 85% agreement for ever-positivity, although this changed markedly over time. Antibodies were detected earlier with Abbott (N) but declined rapidly thereafter. With the EuroImmun (S) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) assays, responses increased for 4 weeks then fell until week 12-16 before stabilising. For Roche (N), responses increased until 8 weeks, stabilised, then declined, but most remained above the positive threshold. For Roche (S), responses continued to climb over the full 24 weeks, with no sero-reversions. Predicted proportions sero-reverting after 52 weeks were 100% for Abbott, 59% (95% credible interval 50-68%) Euroimmun, 41% (30-52%) RBD, 10% (8-14%) Roche (N) < 2% Roche (S). INTERPRETATION: Trends in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following infection are highly dependent on the assay used. Ongoing serosurveillance using multiple assays is critical for monitoring the course and long-term progression of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , England , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies , Public Health
11.
Am J Transplant ; 21(6): 2254-2261, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085302

ABSTRACT

It remains uncertain whether immunocompromised patients including solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients will have a robust antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We enrolled all adult SOT recipients at our center with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent antibody testing with a single commercially available anti-nucleocapsid antibody test at least 7 days after diagnosis in a retrospective cohort. Seventy SOT recipients were studied (56% kidney, 19% lung, 14% liver ± kidney, and 11% heart ± kidney recipients). Thirty-six (51%) had positive anti-nucleocapsid antibody testing, and 34 (49%) were negative. Recipients of a kidney allograft were less likely to have positive antibody testing compared to those who did not receive a kidney (p = .04). In the final multivariable model, the years from transplant to diagnosis (OR 1.26, p = .002) and baseline immunosuppression with more than two agents (OR 0.26, p = .03) were significantly associated with the antibody test result, controlling for kidney transplantation. In conclusion, among SOT recipients with confirmed infection, only 51% of patients had detectable anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, and transplant-related variables including the level and nature of immunosuppression were important predictors. These findings raise the concern that SOT recipients with COVID-19 may be less likely to form SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
12.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 4: 100084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about COVID-19 infections is expanding, although knowledge about the disease course and antibody formation in patients with an auto-immune disease or immunodeficiency is not fully unraveled yet. It could be hypothesized that immunodeficient patients, due to immunosuppressive drugs or their disease, have a more severe disease course due to their immunocompromised state. However, it could also be hypothesized that some of the immunosuppressive drugs protect against a hyperinflammatory state. METHODS: We collected data on the incidence of COVID-19, disease course and SARS-CoV-2 antibody formation in COVID-19 positive patients in a cohort of patients (n â€‹= â€‹4497) known at the Clinical Immunology outpatient clinic in a tertiary care hospital in the Netherlands. RESULTS: In the first six months of the pandemic, 16 patients were identified with COVID-19, 14 by nasal swab PCR, and 2 patients by SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Eight patients were admitted to the hospital. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured in 8 patients and were detectable in all, including one patient on B-cell ablative therapy and one patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorder. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the disease course differs among immunocompromised patients, independently of (dis)continuation of immunosuppressive drugs. Antibody production for SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients was shown. More research needs to be conducted to confirm these observations and guidelines regarding (dis)continuation of immunosuppressive drugs in COVID-19 positive immunocompromised patients should be developed.

13.
J Immunol ; 206(1): 109-117, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067832

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and has led to calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. In this study, we have developed novel, to our knowledge, flexible ELISA-based assays for specific detection of human SARS-CoV-2 Abs against the receptor-binding domain, including an Ag sandwich ELISA relevant for large population screening and three isotype-specific assays for in-depth diagnostics. Their performance was evaluated in a cohort of 350 convalescent participants with previous COVID-19 infection, ranging from asymptomatic to critical cases. We mapped the Ab responses to different areas on protein N and S and showed that the IgM, A, and G Ab responses against receptor-binding domain are significantly correlated to the disease severity. These assays and the data generated from them are highly relevant for diagnostics and prognostics and contribute to the understanding of long-term COVID-19 immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 25-31, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065903

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age1,2. Adults develop respiratory symptoms, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the most severe form, while children are largely spared from respiratory illness but can develop a life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C)3-5. Here, we show distinct antibody responses in children and adults after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Adult COVID-19 cohorts had anti-spike (S) IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies, as well as anti-nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibody, while children with and without MIS-C had reduced breadth of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, predominantly generating IgG antibodies specific for the S protein but not the N protein. Moreover, children with and without MIS-C had reduced neutralizing activity as compared to both adult COVID-19 cohorts, indicating a reduced protective serological response. These results suggest a distinct infection course and immune response in children independent of whether they develop MIS-C, with implications for developing age-targeted strategies for testing and protecting the population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
15.
J Virol ; 95(3)2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028544

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses to the spike (S) protein monomer, S protein native trimeric form, or the nucleocapsid (N) proteins were evaluated in cohorts of individuals with acute infection (n = 93) and in individuals enrolled in a postinfection seroprevalence population study (n = 578) in Switzerland. Commercial assays specific for the S1 monomer, for the N protein, or within a newly developed Luminex assay using the S protein trimer were found to be equally sensitive in antibody detection in the acute-infection-phase samples. Interestingly, compared to anti-S antibody responses, those against the N protein appear to wane in the postinfection cohort. Seroprevalence in a "positive patient contacts" group (n = 177) was underestimated by N protein assays by 10.9 to 32.2%, while the "randomly selected" general population group (n = 311) was reduced by up to 45% relative to the S protein assays. The overall reduction in seroprevalence targeting only anti-N antibodies for the total cohort ranged from 9.4 to 31%. Of note, the use of the S protein in its native trimer form was significantly more sensitive compared to monomeric S proteins. These results indicate that the assessment of anti-S IgG antibody responses against the native trimeric S protein should be implemented to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infections in population-based seroprevalence studies.IMPORTANCE In the present study, we have determined SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses in sera of acute and postinfection phase subjects. Our results indicate that antibody responses against viral S and N proteins were equally sensitive in the acute phase of infection, but that responses against N appear to wane in the postinfection phase where those against the S protein persist over time. The most sensitive serological assay in both acute and postinfection phases used the native S protein trimer as the binding antigen, which has significantly greater conformational epitopes for antibody binding compared to the S1 monomer protein used in other assays. We believe these results are extremely important in order to generate correct estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the general population. Furthermore, the assessment of antibody responses against the trimeric S protein will be critical to evaluate the durability of the antibody response and for the characterization of a vaccine-induced antibody response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Multimerization , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Switzerland/epidemiology , Time Factors
16.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024611

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause serious illness in older adults and people with chronic underlying medical conditions; however, children and young people are often asymptomatic or with mild symptoms. We evaluated the presence of specific antibodies (Abs) response against Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) S protein epitopes (NL63-RBM1, NL63-RBM2_1, NL63-RBM2_2, NL63-RBM3, NL63-SPIKE541-554, and NL63-DISC-like) and SARS-CoV-2 epitopes (COV2-SPIKE421-434 and COV2-SPIKE742-759) in plasma samples of pre-pandemic, mid-pandemic, and COVID-19 cohorts by indirect ELISA. Moreover, a competitive assay was performed to check for cross reactivity response between COV2-SPIKE421-434 and NL63-RBM3 among patients with a definitive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Immune reaction against all SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 epitopes showed a significantly higher response in pre-pandemic patients compared to mid-pandemic patients. The results indicate that probably antibodies against HCoV-NL63 may be able to cross react with SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and the higher incidence in pre-pandemic was probably due to the timing of collection when a high incidence of HCoV-NL63 is reported. In addition, the competitive assay showed cross-reactivity between antibodies directed against COV2-SPIKE421-434 and NL63-RBM3 peptides. Pre-existing HCoV-NL63 antibody response cross reacting with SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in both pre- and mid-pandemic individual, suggesting that previous exposure to HCoV-NL63 epitopes may produce antibodies which could confer a protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and probably reduce the severity of the disease.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6588-6599, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMarked progress is achieved in understanding the physiopathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which caused a global pandemic. However, the CD4+ T cell population critical for antibody response in COVID-19 is poorly understood.METHODSIn this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of peripheral CD4+ T cells from 13 COVID-19 convalescent patients, defined as confirmed free of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 to 4 weeks, using flow cytometry and magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme antibody immunoassay. The data were correlated with clinical characteristics.RESULTSWe observed that, relative to healthy individuals, convalescent patients displayed an altered peripheral CD4+ T cell spectrum. Specifically, consistent with other viral infections, cTfh1 cells associated with SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies were found in COVID-19 covalescent patients. Individuals with severe disease showed higher frequencies of Tem and Tfh-em cells but lower frequencies of Tcm, Tfh-cm, Tfr, and Tnaive cells, compared with healthy individuals and patients with mild and moderate disease. Interestingly, a higher frequency of cTfh-em cells correlated with a lower blood oxygen level, recorded at the time of admission, in convalescent patients. These observations might constitute residual effects by which COVID-19 can impact the homeostasis of CD4+ T cells in the long-term and explain the highest ratio of class-switched virus-specific antibody producing individuals found in our severe COVID-19 cohort.CONCLUSIONOur study demonstrated a close connection between CD4+ T cells and antibody production in COVID-19 convalescent patients.FUNDINGSix Talent Peaks Project in Jiangsu Province and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
18.
J Immunol ; 206(1): 109-117, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934538

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and has led to calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. In this study, we have developed novel, to our knowledge, flexible ELISA-based assays for specific detection of human SARS-CoV-2 Abs against the receptor-binding domain, including an Ag sandwich ELISA relevant for large population screening and three isotype-specific assays for in-depth diagnostics. Their performance was evaluated in a cohort of 350 convalescent participants with previous COVID-19 infection, ranging from asymptomatic to critical cases. We mapped the Ab responses to different areas on protein N and S and showed that the IgM, A, and G Ab responses against receptor-binding domain are significantly correlated to the disease severity. These assays and the data generated from them are highly relevant for diagnostics and prognostics and contribute to the understanding of long-term COVID-19 immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
19.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900743

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age. While children are largely spared from severe respiratory disease, they can present with a SARS-CoV-2-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) similar to Kawasaki's disease. Here, we show distinct antibody (Ab) responses in children with MIS-C compared to adults with severe COVID-19 causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and those who recovered from mild disease. There was a reduced breadth and specificity of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in MIS-C patients compared to the COVID patient groups; MIS-C predominantly generated IgG Abs specific for the Spike (S) protein but not for the nucleocapsid (N) protein, while both COVID-19 cohorts had anti-S IgG, IgM and IgA Abs, as well as anti-N IgG Abs. Moreover, MIS-C patients had reduced neutralizing activity compared to COVID-19 cohorts, indicating a reduced protective serological response. These results suggest a distinct infection course and immune response in children and adults who develop severe disease, with implications for optimizing treatments based on symptom and age.

20.
Virology ; 551: 26-35, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus and the cause of COVID-19. More than 80% of COVID-19 patients exhibit mild or moderate symptoms. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of viral load and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal cohort of COVID-19 patients with severe and mild/moderate diseases. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information were obtained. Serial samples of blood, nasal and pharyngeal and anal swabs were collected at different time points post-onset. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoassays, respectively. RESULTS: Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in 58.0% (58/100) COVID-19 patients upon admission and lasted for a median of 13 days post-onset. In addition, 5.9% (1/17) and 20.2% (19/94) of the blood and anal swab specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, respectively. Anal viral RNA was more frequently detected in the patients who were positive for viral RNA in the respiratory samples upon admission. Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody developed within two weeks after onset, reached peak approximately 17 days post-onset and then maintained at relatively high level up to 50 days we analyzed in most patients. However, the levels of antibodies were variable among the patients. High titers of antibodies appeared to be associated with the severity of the disease. Furthermore, viral proteins from different sources showed significant difference of serological sensitivity especially during the first week post-onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate rapid clearance or self-elimination of viral RNA in about half of the COVID-19 patients upon admission. Viral RNA shedding of SARS-CoV-2 occurred in multiple tissues including the respiratory system, blood, and intestine. Variable levels of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody may be associated with disease severity. These findings have shed light on viral kinetics and antibody response in COVID-19 patients and provide scientific evidence for infection control and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
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