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2.
Curr HIV Res ; 19(2): 103-105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435695

ABSTRACT

In 2014, The Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has set an ambitious target code-named 90-90-90, which aims to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV will know their state, 90% of all people diagnosed will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of all people receiving ART will have viral suppression by 2020. Since 2014, many tests and treatment programs have been developed to achieve the above goals worldwide. In 2019, it was reported that many developed countries can reach the target with the right strategies, as well as regions that are still far from the targets. It has been reported that the fourth 90 should be one of the targets related to HIV infection in recent years. This view, beyond virological suppression, was towards developing programs that would enable people living with HIV to live not only longer but also healthy. The socio-cultural and economic obstacles to reach the targets may vary according to geographical regions, but it is clear that COVID-19 disease, which has taken the whole world under the influence since 2019, is a major obstacle to the 90-90-90 targets worldwide. Difficulties in the diagnosis and access to ART and treatment nonadherence which may be encountered more frequently due to many factors may threaten both the health of people living with HIV and public health. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many programs developed in the fight against the HIV epidemic. Considering COVID-19 disease and future epidemics that may create a chaotic environment, analyzing the difficulties experienced in the pandemic retrospectively, and determining new strategies that will bring appropriate solutions to the problems will play an important role in the proper management of future issues.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Nations
3.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5808-5812, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264740

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly, which now has turned into a pandemic. The new emerging infectious disease has raised many challenges and uncertainties regarding disease management and prognosis in immunocompromised patient populations. The risk of COVID-19 among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has different opinions. Some scholars speculated that patients with HIV may be at decreased risk for complications of COVID-19 because HIV antiretroviral medications may have activity against coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2. But others have the opposite because of the immunosuppression for HIV patients. Here we reported a case of HIV-infected patient confirmed with COVID-19 and had a favourable prognosis. The patient was a 24-year-old male who was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years ago and then followed a regular antiretroviral therapy (ART). After infected with COVID-19, the patient had no other clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities throughout the course of the disease except presented with fever for a short-term (2 days), and no secondary infection or exacerbation occurred after admission in hospital. Follow-up chest CT showed that the lung lesions disappeared within a short period of time. After standard treatment by 9 days, the patient was cured and discharged. This report highlights the importance of ART for HIV-infected persons, and with regular ART for HIV patients may reduce adverse consequences after infection with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Curr HIV Res ; 19(4): 377-382, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the SARS-COV-2 disease pandemic on March 9, 2020. With the advent of this disease, another health burden was added to about 37.9 million people in the world who are infected with HIV and are suffering from various diseases. These people may be at serious risk of COVID-19. Information about the effects of COVID-19 on people living with HIV, is limited. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a 61-year-old man who was a known case of HIV from 6 years ago that was being treated with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). He also had a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma from 4 years ago who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) 2 weeks before given referral to our hospital. He complained of weakness, anorexia, and fever. RT-PCR for SARS-COV-2-RNA was positive in his nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and treated with atazanavir. After one week, the patient discharged in a good general state. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of COVID-19 infection in an HIV positive patient after BMT in Iran. Despite his immunodeficiency, COVID-19 disease had mild manifestations and he had a good prognosis. We hope that our report and that of others can remain promising to doctors and HIV patients cross fingers for COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hodgkin Disease/surgery , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 13: 361-375, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175484

ABSTRACT

Paramount efforts worldwide are seeking to increase understanding of the basic virology of SARS-CoV-2, characterize the spectrum of complications associated with COVID-19, and develop vaccines that can protect from new and recurrent infections with SARS-CoV-2. While we continue learning about this new virus, it is clear that 1) the virus is spread via the respiratory route, primarily by droplets and contact with contaminated surfaces and fomites, as well as by aerosol formation during invasive respiratory procedures; 2) the airborne route is still controversial; and 3) that those infected can spread the virus without necessarily developing COVID-19 (ie, asymptomatic). With the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections increasing globally, the possibility of co-infections and/or co-morbidities is becoming more concerning. Co-infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one such example of polyparasitism of interest. This military-themed comparative review of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV details their virology and describes them figuratively as separate enemy armies. HIV, an old enemy dug into trenches in individuals already infected, and SARS-CoV-2 the new army, attempting to attack and capture territories, tissues and organs, in order to provide resources for their expansion. This analogy serves to aid in discussion of three main areas of focus and draw attention to how these viruses may cooperate to gain the upper hand in securing a host. Here we compare their target, the key receptors found on those tissues, viral lifecycles and tactics for immune response surveillance. The last focus is on the immune response to infection, addressing similarities in cytokines released. While the majority of HIV cases can be successfully managed with antiretroviral therapy nowadays, treatments for SARS-CoV-2 are still undergoing research given the novelty of this army.

7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 1-5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the magnitude of the global COVID-19 pandemic, persons living with HIV (PLWH) may become coinfected with SARS-CoV-2. SETTING: We conducted a survey in Wuhan, China, to characterize the status of coinfected PLWH, their time to clinical improvement, and clinical prognoses. METHODS: Using a Wuhan shipping service for antiretroviral medications, the Wuhan LGBT Center screened 2900 PLWH shipping addresses and cross-referenced 36 of them to quarantine sites or hospitals, suggesting possible COVID-19 cases. Through telephone calls and WeChat (social media) messaging, we conducted a survey after obtaining online informed consent. RESULTS: We had 12 HIV-infected respondents (10 men and 2 women) who also reported COVID-19. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 33.0-56.3), mean age 42.4 years, and range 25-66 years of age. Nine of 10 persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) presented with only mild COVID-19 symptoms. The 10th person on ART was a 56-year-old man who died at home early in the outbreak when health care services were overwhelmed. Two additional cases who had been in intensive care with acute COVID-19 were both men, aged 25 and 37 years; both were ART-naive until this hospitalization. Excluding the deceased man, 6 of 11 coinfected persons reported feeling depressed even after clinical improvements. CONCLUSION: Twelve coinfected persons were identified in Wuhan; 9 of 10 were on long-term ART and had favorable outcomes. Two men identified as having started ART only recently were found to have severe symptoms. Our case series suggests the value of ART for potential mitigation of COVID-19 coinfection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(12): 421-426, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151031

ABSTRACT

In 2018, an estimated 1.8 million persons living in Nigeria had HIV infection (1.3% of the total population), including 1.1 million (64%) who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Effective ART reduces morbidity and mortality rates among persons with HIV infection and prevents HIV transmission once viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels (2,3). In April 2019, through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR),* CDC launched an 18-month ART Surge program in nine Nigerian states to rapidly increase the number of persons with HIV infection receiving ART. CDC analyzed programmatic data gathered during March 31, 2019-September 30, 2020, to describe the ART Surge program's progress on case finding, ART initiation, patient retention, and ART Surge program growth. Overall, the weekly number of newly identified persons with HIV infection who initiated ART increased approximately eightfold, from 587 (week ending May 4, 2019) to 5,329 (week ending September 26, 2020). The ART Surge program resulted in 208,202 more HIV-infected persons receiving PEPFAR-supported ART despite the COVID-19 pandemic (97,387 more persons during March 31, 2019-March 31, 2020 and an additional 110,815 persons during April 2020-September 2020). Comprehensive, data-guided, locally adapted interventions and the use of incident command structures can help increase the number of persons with HIV infection who receive ART, reducing HIV-related morbidity and mortality as well as decreasing HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , International Cooperation , Program Development , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , United States/epidemiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6283, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142455

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the risk of mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) is largely unknown. PLWHA are unique due to their altered immune system from their history of chronic HIV infection and their use of antiretroviral therapy, some of which have been used experimentally to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the epidemiology of SARS-COV-2/HIV coinfection and estimate associated mortality from COVID-19 (Prospero Registration ID: CRD42020187980). PubMed, SCOPUS, OVID and Cochrane Library databases, and medRxiv preprint repositories were searched from January 1, 2020, to December 12, 2020. Data were extracted from studies reporting COVID-19 attack and mortality rates in PLWHA compared to their HIV-negative counterparts. Pooled attack and mortality risks were quantified using random-effects models. We identified 22 studies that included 20,982,498 participants across North America, Africa, Europe, and Asia. The median age was 56 years, and 50% were male. HIV-positive persons had a significantly higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [risk ratio (RR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.46)] and mortality from COVID-19 (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.21-2.60) than HIV-negative individuals. The beneficial effects of tenofovir and protease-inhibitors in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death from COVID-19 in PLWHA remain inconclusive. HIV remains a significant risk factor for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and is associated with a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. In support of the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, persons with HIV need priority consideration for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pathology ; 52(7): 770-777, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044336

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated and compared six SARS-CoV-2 serology kits including the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, Beckman Access SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, OCD Vitros OCD Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total antibody assay, Roche Elecsys Anti SARS-CoV-2 assay, Siemens SARS-CoV-2 Total assay, and cPass surrogate viral neutralising antibody assay. A total of 336 non-duplicated residual serum samples that were obtained from COVID-19 confirmed patients (n=173) on PCR and negative controls (n=163) obtained pre-December 2019 before the COVID-19 pandemic were used for the study. These were concurrently analysed on the different immunoassay platforms and correlated with clinical characteristics. Our results showed all assays had specificity ranging from 99.3% to 100.0%. Overall sensitivity across all days of symptoms, in descending order were OCD (49.1%, 95% CI 41.8-56.5%), cPass (44.8%, 95% CI 37.5-52.3%), Roche (41.6%, 95% CI 34.5-49.0%), Siemens (39.9%, 95% CI 32.9-47.3%), Abbott (39.8%, 95% CI 32.9-47.3%) and Beckman (39.6%, 95% CI 32.5-47.3%). Testing after at least 14 days from symptom onset is required to achieve AUCs greater than 0.80. OCD and cPass performed the best in terms of sensitivity for >21 days symptoms with 93.3% (95% CI, 73.5-99.2%) and 96.7% (95% CI, 82.8-99.9%), respectively. Both also shared the greatest concordance, kappa 0.963 (95% CI 0.885-1.0), p<0.001, and had the lowest false negative rates. Serology results should be interpreted with caution in certain cases. False negatives were observed in a small number of individuals with COVID-19 on immunosuppressive therapy, pauci-symptomatic or who received antiretroviral therapy. In conclusion, all assays exhibited excellent specificity and total antibody assays with spike protein configurations generally outperformed nucleocapsid configurations and IgG assays in terms of diagnostic sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(11): e25637, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social disruption associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens to impede access to regular healthcare, including for people living with HIV (PLHIV), potentially resulting in antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). We aimed to explore the characteristics and factors associated with ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among PLHIV by convenience sampling through social media between 5 and 17 February 2020. Respondents were asked to report whether they were at risk of ATI (i.e. experienced ATI, risk of imminent ATI, threatened but resolved risk of ATI [obtaining ART prior to interruption]) or were not at risk of ATI associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV were also asked to report perceived risk factors for ATI and sources of additional ART. The factors associated with the risk of ATI were assessed using logistic regression. We also evaluated the factors associated with experienced ATI. RESULTS: A total of 5084 PLHIV from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China completed the survey, with valid response rate of 99.4%. The median age was 31 years (IQR 27 to 37), 96.5% of participants were men, and 71.3% were men who had sex with men. Over one-third (35.1%, 1782/5084) reported any risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak, including 2.7% (135/5084) who experienced ATI, 18.0% (917/5084) at risk of imminent ATI and 14.4% (730/5084) at threatened but resolved risk. PLHIV with ATI were more likely to have previous interruptions in ART (aOR 8.3, 95% CI 5.6 to 12.3), travelled away from where they typically receive HIV care (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5), stayed in an area that implemented citywide lockdowns or travel restrictions to control COVID-19 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.6), and be in permanent residence in a rural area (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of PLHIV in China are at risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak and some have already experienced ATI. Correlates of ATI and self-reported barriers to ART suggest that social disruptions from COVID-19 have contributed to ATI. Our findings demonstrate an urgent need for policies and interventions to maintain access to HIV care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel
12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(2): 407-410, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719268

ABSTRACT

The use of antiretroviral therapy for people with HIV (PWH) has improved life expectancy. However, PWH now lose more life-years to tobacco use than to HIV infection. Unfortunately, PWH smoke at higher rates and have more difficulty maintaining abstinence than the general population, compounding their risk for chronic disease. In this Commentary, we describe a United States National Cancer Institute-led initiative to address the relative lack of research focused on developing, testing, and implementing smoking cessation interventions for PWH. This initiative supports seven clinical trials designed to systematically test and/or develop and test adaptations of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions for PWH (eg, combination of behavioral and pharmacological). We summarize each project, including setting/recruitment sites, inclusion/exclusion criteria, interventions being tested, and outcomes. This initiative provides critical opportunities for collaboration and data harmonization across projects. The knowledge gained will inform strategies to assist PWH to promote and maintain abstinence, and ensure that these efforts are adaptable and scalable, thereby addressing one of the major threats to the health of PWH. Reducing smoking behavior may be particularly important during the COVID-19 pandemic given that smokers who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 may be at risk for more severe disease. IMPLICATIONS: This Commentary describes a National Cancer Institute-led initiative to advance the science and practice of treating tobacco use among PWH, which is now responsible for more life years lost than HIV. We describe the scope of the problem, the objectives of the initiative, and a summary of the seven funded studies. Harmonization of data across projects will provide information related to treatment mediators and moderators that was not previously possible. Stakeholders interested in tobacco cessation, including researchers, clinicians and public health officials, should be aware of this initiative and the evidence-base it will generate to advance tobacco treatment among this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Morbidity , Smoking/mortality , Tobacco Use/mortality , COVID-19 , Humans , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Pandemics , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use Cessation , United States
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 863-874, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714346

ABSTRACT

Gliomas represent the majority of malignant central nervous system tumors, with the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, accounting for almost 57% of this entity. Type of glioma and its incidence can vary depending on the age of presentation. In turn, outcomes can vary significantly based on the actual type of glioma (histologically and molecularly) and age of the patient, as well as various tumor specific factors such as size, location, comorbidities, etc. In the last decade we have been able to identify key molecular features that have provided us with greater insight into the behavior of these tumors, but the spectrum of treatment options remains limited. In addition, ultimate causes of death in patients with gliomas are variable and stochastic in nature. Given these complicated factors, prognostication for gliomas remains extremely difficult. This review aims to discuss prognostication in low grade versus high grade gliomas, variability in treatment of these tumors, clinical features of poor prognosis, and differences in prognostic understanding between patients, caregivers, and providers. We will also make some general recommendations where appropriate on how to approach this subject from a palliative care perspective.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Adult , Humans , Prognosis
14.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e629-e640, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could lead to disruptions to provision of HIV services for people living with HIV and those at risk of acquiring HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, where UNAIDS estimated that more than two-thirds of the approximately 38 million people living with HIV resided in 2018. We aimed to predict the potential effects of such disruptions on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used five well described models of HIV epidemics (Goals, Optima HIV, HIV Synthesis, an Imperial College London model, and Epidemiological MODeling software [EMOD]) to estimate the effect of various potential disruptions to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa lasting 6 months over 1 year from April 1, 2020. We considered scenarios in which disruptions affected 20%, 50%, and 100% of the population. FINDINGS: A 6-month interruption of supply of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs across 50% of the population of people living with HIV who are on treatment would be expected to lead to a 1·63 times (median across models; range 1·39-1·87) increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period compared with no disruption. In sub-Saharan Africa, this increase amounts to a median excess of HIV deaths, across all model estimates, of 296 000 (range 229 023-420 000) if such a high level of disruption occurred. Interruption of ART would increase mother-to-child transmission of HIV by approximately 1·6 times. Although an interruption in the supply of ART drugs would have the largest impact of any potential disruptions, effects of poorer clinical care due to overstretched health facilities, interruptions of supply of other drugs such as co-trimoxazole, and suspension of HIV testing would all have a substantial effect on population-level mortality (up to a 1·06 times increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period due to disruptions affecting 50% of the population compared with no disruption). Interruption to condom supplies and peer education would make populations more susceptible to increases in HIV incidence, although physical distancing measures could lead to reductions in risky sexual behaviour (up to 1·19 times increase in new HIV infections over a 1-year period if 50% of people are affected). INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary priority for governments, donors, suppliers, and communities should focus on maintaining uninterrupted supply of ART drugs for people with HIV to avoid additional HIV-related deaths. The provision of other HIV prevention measures is also important to prevent any increase in HIV incidence. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19 , Condoms/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Global Health/trends , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/growth & development , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Survival Analysis
15.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
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