Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 103
Filter
1.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; 20(3): 1537-1545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899276

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 and its consequences has led to fears, worries, and anxiety among individuals worldwide. The present study developed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) to complement the clinical efforts in preventing the spread and treating of COVID-19 cases. Methods: The sample comprised 717 Iranian participants. The items of the FCV-19S were constructed based on extensive review of existing scales on fears, expert evaluations, and participant interviews. Several psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain its reliability and validity properties. Results: After panel review and corrected item-total correlation testing, seven items with acceptable corrected item-total correlation (0.47 to 0.56) were retained and further confirmed by significant and strong factor loadings (0.66 to 0.74). Also, other properties evaluated using both classical test theory and Rasch model were satisfactory on the seven-item scale. More specifically, reliability values such as internal consistency (α = .82) and test-retest reliability (ICC = .72) were acceptable. Concurrent validity was supported by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (with depression, r = 0.425 and anxiety, r = 0.511) and the Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Scale (with perceived infectability, r = 0.483 and germ aversion, r = 0.459). Conclusion: The Fear of COVID-19 Scale, a seven-item scale, has robust psychometric properties. It is reliable and valid in assessing fear of COVID-19 among the general population and will also be useful in allaying COVID-19 fears among individuals.

2.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
4.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(2): 108-114, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively affected many people's mental health with increased symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. Anxiety and depression can have negative effects on pregnant women and result in poor neonatal outcomes. Therefore, we analyzed stress, anxiety and depression in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cohort study of pregnant women during COVID-19 compared to pregnant women before COVID-19. Pregnant women were recruited through social media platforms from 21 May 2020 to 22 June 2020. Pregnant women ≥ 18 years of age, who master the Dutch language were included. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were analyzed. Demographic features were summarized using descriptive statistics. Possible differences in demographic variables between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U test and Chi-squared test. Significant demographic differences between groups were controlled for using logistical regression analysis or an independent one-way analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Thousand hundred and two pregnant women completed the questionnaires during COVID-19, and 364 pregnant women before COVID-19. We found no differences in clinically high levels of anxiety (HADS-A ≥ 8) and depression (HADS-D ≥ 8) in women during COVID-19 (19.5% and 13.2%, respectively) and women before COVID-19 (23.1% and 15.7%, respectively). A question was implemented whether participants related their stress level to COVID-19. Women who related their stress to the COVID-19 pandemic reported significantly higher overall stress levels on the PSS-10 compared to women with stress unrelated to COVID-19 (mean, 15.62; standard deviation [SD], 6.44 vs. mean, 10.28; SD, 5.48; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies, COVID-19 did not increase anxiety and depression levels in Dutch pregnant women. Women who related their perceived stress to the COVID-19 pandemic experienced higher stress levels than women who did not relate their stress to the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting that interventions that specifically aim to reduce COVID-19 stress, may help to reduce overall stress levels in pregnant women during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Young Adult
5.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(7): 491-496, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 epidemic has both physical and psychosocial consequences for the general population. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social dysfunction during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. This cross-sectional web-based study was conducted on 1000 Rafsanjani citizens in southeastern Iran. Data were collected by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the General Health Questionnaire from March 15 to March 30, 2020. The prevalence of GAD was 27.8%. The mean score of social functioning was 9.71 ± 2.66, and all participants had social dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression test showed a significant correlation between anxiety and social functioning (confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.30; p < 0.001), sex (CI, 1.49-3.04; p < 0.001), and concern about COVID-19 (CI, 1.38-2.73; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 epidemic had negative psychosocial consequences in the general population in Iran.


Subject(s)
Anomie , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/ethnology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 36: 100916, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emerging novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide in 2020. The present systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and its relationship with psychological distress. METHODS: Five academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase) were searched. Observational studies including case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included if relevant data relationships were reported (i.e., sleep assessed utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or Insomnia Severity Index). All the studies were English, peer-reviewed papers published between December 2019 and February 2021. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020181644. FINDINGS: 168 cross-sectional, four case-control, and five longitudinal design papers comprising 345,270 participants from 39 countries were identified. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems were 31% among healthcare professionals, 18% among the general population, and 57% among COVID-19 patients (all p-values < 0.05). Sleep problems were associated with depression among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's Z scores of -0.28, -0.30, and -0.36, respectively. Sleep problems were positively (and moderately) associated with anxiety among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's z scores of 0.55, 0.48, and 0.49, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Sleep problems appear to have been common during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, sleep problems were found to be associated with higher levels of psychological distress. With the use of effective programs treating sleep problems, psychological distress may be reduced. Vice versa, the use of effective programs treating psychological distress, sleep problems may be reduced. FUNDING: The present study received no funding.

7.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 109: 110207, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented worldwide crisis caused by the rapid spread of COVID-19 and the restrictive public health measures enforced by some countries to slow down its transmission have severely threatened the physical and mental wellbeing of communities globally. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of anxiety in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two researchers independently searched for cross-sectional community-based studies published between December 1, 2019 and August 23, 2020, using PubMed, WoS, Embase, and other sources (e.g., grey literature, manual search). RESULTS: Of 3049 records retrieved, 43 studies were included. These studies yielded an estimated overall prevalence of anxiety of 25%, which varied significantly across the different tools used to measure anxiety. Consistently reported risk factors for the development of anxiety included initial or peak phase of the outbreak, female sex, younger age, marriage, social isolation, unemployment and student status, financial hardship, low educational level, insufficient knowledge of COVID-19, epidemiological or clinical risk of disease and some lifestyle and personality variables. CONCLUSIONS: As the overall global prevalence of anxiety disorders is estimated to be 7.3% normally, our results suggest that rates of anxiety in the general population could be more than 3 times higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest a substantial impact on mental health that should be targeted by individual and population-level strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence
8.
Heliyon ; 7(6): e07173, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The psychological burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and lockdown strategy among young people not diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population remains unknown and often have been overlooked. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, depression and stress among young people diagnosed with COVID-19 of Bangladesh amidst the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 1 May to 30 May 2020 using an online Google form-based questionnaire posted on Facebook. A snowball sampling approach was used for data collection. A total of 974 self-declared healthy individuals not diagnosed with COVID-19 participated here. Anxiety, depression and stress were measured using Bangla validated Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), respectively. Statistical software SPSS 20 was used for analysis. RESULT: Average age of the population was 25.86 ± 6.26 (SD) years with nearly half (48.6%) of them being young people (15 to ≤24 years). Most of the participants were male (76.3%). The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress was found to be 64.1%, 73.3% and 69.4%, respectively. Young people had significantly higher proportion of anxiety (67.2% vs 61.1%), and depression (78.2% vs 68.7%) compared to adults (p = 0.045 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, most of the participants had mild depression (30.3%), minimal anxiety (31.4%), and moderate stress (67.5%), and severity of depression and anxiety was higher in the young participants. The mean GAD-7, PHQ-9 and PSS scores were 7.57 ± 5.61, 9.19 ± 6.15 and 16.02 ± 5.55 (SD), respectively. On multivariable logistic analysis, unemployment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.642; Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.005-13.200; p < 0.05) was the single most important predictor of depression. For stress, unemployment (AOR 1.399; CI: 1.055-1.855), and female sex (AOR 1.638; CI: 1.158-2.317) were significant predictors. CONCLUSION: Anxiety, depression and stress were highly prevalent among young people (≤24 years) not diagnosed with COVID-19 in Bangladesh amidst the pandemic. Unemployment is the most common underlying determinant. Authorities should address the issue on a priority basis.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e049851, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an increased level of anxiety and fear among the general population related to its management and infection spread. Considering the relevance of present circumstances, we explored perceptions and attitudes of community members towards their mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using a purposive sampling approach, at two communities of Karachi, Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS: In-depth interviews were conducted with community members including, young adults, middle-aged adults and older adults of both genders. Study data were analysed manually using the thematic analysis technique. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The primary outcome is assessing community perception towards their mental well-being amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 27 in-depth interviews were conducted, between May and June 2020. Three overarching themes were identified: (1) impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of the general communities; (2) current coping mechanisms to adapt to the new reality and (3) recommendations to address the mental health of communities. Generally, community members underwent increased anxiety and fear due to the contagious nature of the virus. Alongside, social, financial and religious repercussions of the pandemic have also heightened psychological distress among community members. However, community members were able to point out some of the coping mechanisms such as getting closer to God, connecting with family, participating in mental health sessions and resetting lives by indulging in diverse activities. Simultaneously, they also recommended the need for remote mental health services for elders and continuous efforts by the government to address the mental health needs of the community. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-associated mental health consequences have hit every individual in society. The study finding has the potential to guide the development of context-specific innovative mental health programmes to overcome the pandemic repercussions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 578366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221986

ABSTRACT

Background: In the wake of the worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus and the resultant restrictive measures, mental health has become a crucial issue. Physical health is not the only aspect of humans that is at risk. Globally, the rates and severity of mental illness are being significantly impacted by this pandemic. Two scales have been validated to measure the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the levels of anxiety and obsessional thinking in clinical and non-clinical populations. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of anxiety and obsessions related to COVID-19 in the general public of Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Data were collected via snowball sampling from May 9 to May 19. An online survey consisting of a demographic profile and two scales, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) and Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS), was sent through email, WhatsApp, and Facebook groups to adults (18 years and above) of Lahore, Pakistan. Results: A total of 240 individuals (20% men and 80% women) recorded their responses. The majority belonged to a nuclear family system (60%), and their education level ranged from high school to Ph.D. The cut-off score for probable dysfunctional coronavirus anxiety and obsession levels was not met within this sample (CAS, M = 3.24, SD = 4.21; OCS, M = 4.14, SD = 3.15), suggesting that the general population of Lahore, Pakistan is not suffering from dysfunctional anxiety or obsessions related to COVID-19. Forty-seven participants' score on OCS and 35 participants' scores on CAS were above the cut-off, i.e., ≥7 and ≥9, respectively. The results of the correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship (** p < 0.619) between anxiety and obsessions related to COVID-19. Conclusion: One important, yet surprising, conclusion of this study is that the average adult in Lahore does not show much anxiety or obsessions related to COVID-19. Other studies around the world using these measurement tools have indicated significantly high levels of both anxiety and obsessions related to COVID-19. These findings may demonstrate the resilience of Pakistanis or perhaps the lack of understanding of the seriousness of the situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 224, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The psychosocial impact of previous infectious disease outbreaks in adults has been well documented, however, there is limited information on the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults and children in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) community. The aim of this study was to explore anxiety levels among adults and children in the UAE and to identify potential risk and protective factors for well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using a web-based cross-sectional survey we collected data from 2200 self-selected, assessed volunteers and their children. Demographic information, knowledge and beliefs about COVID-19, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using the (GAD-7) scale, emotional problems in children using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), worry and fear about COVID-19, coping mechanisms and general health information were collected. Descriptive analysis was carried out to summarize demographic and participant characteristics, Chi-square analysis to explore associations between categorical variables and anxiety levels and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of anxiety levels in adults and emotional problems in children. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of GAD in the general population was 71% with younger people (59.8%) and females (51.7%) reporting highest levels of anxiety. Parents who were teachers reported the highest percentage of emotional problems in children (26.7%). Adjusted multivariable logistic regression for GAD-7 scores showed that being female, high levels of worry associated with COVID-19, intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine and smoking were associated with higher levels of anxiety. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression for SDQ showed that higher emotional problems were reported for children in lower and higher secondary education, and parents who had severe anxiety were seven times more likely to report emotional problems in their children. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the psychological impact of COVID-19 among adults and children in the UAE and highlights the significant association between parental and child anxiety. Findings suggest the urgency for policy makers to develop effective screening and coping strategies for parents and especially children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 212, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with serious consequences that have led to the implementation of unprecedented social isolation measures. At the early stages of the pandemic, Ecuador was one of the most affected countries in Latin America. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of depression, anxiety and stress in the Ecuadorian general population during the social isolation period due to COVID-19. METHODS: A web-based survey consisting of 31 short-answer and multiple-choice questions was administered to the general population from April 22-May 3, 2020. Mental health status was assessed through the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21) questionnaire. Ordinal logistic analyses were used to identify potential risk factors associated with the severity of mental health issues. RESULTS: A total of 626 individuals were included. Most of them were females (60.5%), and their mean age was 29.6 ± 11.7 years. Approximately 17.7% of the respondents had moderate to very severe levels of depression, 30.7% had similar levels of anxiety, and 14.2% experienced stress. Female sex, younger age, student status, and having a relative diagnosed with COVID-19 were associated with significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress. Ordinal regression models showed that being a student was a risk factor for having more severe levels of depression (OR = 3.67; 95% CI = 2.56-5.26, p: 0.0001), anxiety (OR= 1.86; 95% CI= 1.35-2.55, p: 0.0001), and stress (OR = 2.17; 95% CI= 1.47-3.19, p: 0.0001). Having a relative with COVID-19 was also found to be a risk factor only for depression (OR= 1.70; 95% CI= 1.03-2.80, p: 0.036) and anxiety (OR = 2.17; 95% CI= 1.35-3.47, p: 0.001). Additionally, male sex,  older age, and having more children were found to be protective factors for the three conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that social isolation due to the COVID-19 outbreak has impacted the mental health of the general population in Ecuador. We identified potential risk and protective factors that could serve as a foundation from which to develop psychological strategies to safeguard the mental health of our population during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 272(1): 95-105, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202751

ABSTRACT

Τhe COVID-19 pandemic has mental health implications for both healthcare workforces and general population, particularly in regions heavily hit by the crisis. Τhe study aimed (i) to investigate anxiety- and depression severity differences between staff of a COVID-19 treatment unit (N = 84) and a hospital without such a unit (N = 55) in comparison to participants of a convenience general population online survey (N = 240) and (ii) to explore relations between such symptoms and hospital staff reaction to COVID-19 in a low COVID-19 burden setting. Anxiety was studied with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item in hospital workforces and with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) in online survey participants. Depression symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in hospital employees and the HADS in the online survey sample. Symptoms were classified as absent/minimal, borderline abnormal or indicating clinical caseness. Staff reaction to COVID-19 was tapped with a 9-item-questionnaire and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-revised (IES-R). Proper tests for differences and stepwise ordered logistic regression models were employed. Anxiety- and depression severity was higher in hospital workforces than in online survey participants (P < 0.05). Anxiety was more severe in frontline- compared to backstage employees (P < 0.001) was inversely correlated with age (P = 0.011) and positively with avoidance (P = 0.028). Both anxiety and depression symptoms related to intrusion symptoms (P < 0.001). Regarding the relatively long data collection period, an inverse association between crisis duration and depression symptoms was detected (P = 0.025). These observations point to the urgent need for distress-mitigating interventions for hospital workforces even in low COVID-19 burden settings.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 12(2): 316-322, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201094

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective The novel Coronavirus pandemic surfaced in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and spread rapidly across the globe. In recent available literature, most of the studies were done to estimate the burden of psychiatric problems among general population due to this pandemic, Therefore, this study was planned to assess depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance among Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. Materials and Methods A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was done from June 2020 to August 2020 among 100 COVID-19 patients who were admitted and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Assessment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance were done by patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale, generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale and Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI), respectively. Results In this study, 73% were males and 27% were females. The mean age of the patients in present study was 42.90 ± 16.33 years. This study reveals that depression was in 27%, anxiety in 67%, and sleep disturbance in 62% of patients. Depression and anxiety were found significantly associated with presence of comorbidity and severity of illness ( p < 0 0.05). The association of sleep disturbance with severity of illness was also found statistically significant ( p < 0.05). Conclusion The risk of psychological stress is high in COVID-19 patients. The psychological problems among COVID-19 patients are commonly related to the consequences of disease, and severity and contagiousness of the disease. Therefore, in this present pandemic situation, it is more important to identify these psychological problems among COVID-19 patients, so that better care and timely interventions can be done with respect to psychological issues.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 602244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191704

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is profoundly affecting the mental health status. Although the burden of mental health problems has been reported in the general population and health care workers, little is known about the prevalence of mental health disorders among recovered COVID-19 patients and their associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional telephonic-study of recovered COVID-19 patients with and without a history of hospitalization was conducted from April 20 to June 20, 2020, in Tehran, Iran. We assessed the anxiety symptoms, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among participants, using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) and PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with mental health problems. Results: A total of 602 individuals with a mean age of 53.2 years (SD: 14.7), completed the study. The rates of mental health symptoms among the respondents were 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-7.8%) for anxiety, 5.0% (95% CI: 3.5-7.0%) for depression, and 3.8% (95% CI: 2.3-5.3%) for PTSD disorders. Moreover, being younger than 50 years and female gender was significantly associated with a higher probability of reporting anxiety (p < 0.01), and depression (p < 0.001 for being younger than 50 years, p < 0.02 for female gender). Conclusions: The current study indicated that patients with COVID-19 presented features of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. These results may help implement appropriate mental health intervention policies for those at risk and minimize the mental health consequences of the COVID-19.

16.
Front Psychol ; 12: 638985, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178032

ABSTRACT

Background: We described the prevalence of anxiety and depression related to COVID-19 pandemic among different types of population and examined their potential risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect demographic characteristics, exposure histories, and many other concerns about COVID-19. The Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS), followed by a four-step multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. Results: Out of 3,303 participants, the quarantined people (40.9%), community workstation staffs-policemen-volunteers (CPV) (36.4%) and general public (30.7%) reported higher percentages of depression than the general medical staff (18.4%). Moreover, the quarantined people (19.1%) also showed higher prevalence of anxiety than the general public (9.1%) and the general medical staff (7.8%). The quarantined people had the highest risk of anxiety and depression, whereas the self-rated health was negatively associated with the risks of anxiety and depression. Younger age group (18 to 30 years) showed higher risks of anxiety (OR = 6.22, 95% CI = 2.89-13.38, p < 0.001) and depression (OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 2.40-5.69, p < 0.001). People who had exposure history or contact from Hubei province after December 1, 2019 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.07-2.30, p < 0.001), had family or friends engaged in front-line health care work (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02-2.14, p < 0.001), had confirmed case nearby (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.43-4.18, p < 0.001) were all more likely to suffer from anxiety. Moreover, the negligence (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.37-2.51, p < 0.001) or overindulgence (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.03-2.04, p < 0.001) toward the epidemic information was associated with a higher risk of depression and anxiety. Conclusions: Our findings show that the CPV and quarantined people were most at-risk population. We have identified that the young people, people with exposure histories and negligence or overindulgence toward epidemic information are in grave need of attention.

17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 86, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, emotional symptoms increased in the general population. Less is known about youths. METHODS: We surveyed a sample of Italian adolescents during the strictest quarantine period and assessed the effects of socio-demographic and psychological factors on current emotional symptoms. A convenient sample of 326 adolescents (age range 14-19 years) participated in a web-based survey. We collected data on several socio-demographic and psychological variables (summarized into three indexes: environmental context, changes in lifestyle, and worries about infection) and psychopathological symptoms (previous psychopathological status, current anxiety and depressive symptoms). RESULTS: Descriptive analysis showed that adolescents have experienced quarantine under very different conditions; they reported 47.5 and 14.1% of anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that previous psychopathological status and worries about infection are linked to anxiety and that female gender, previous psychopathological status (moderated by change in lifestyle), worse environmental context are linked to depression. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that, facing the COVID-19 pandemic and its related safety measures, adolescents show relevant emotional symptoms and therefore should be monitored, assessed and supported.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 670, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to examine the prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes, both short-term and long-term, among SARS patients, healthcare workers and the general public of SARS-affected regions, and to examine the protective and risk factors associated with these mental health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using databases such as Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science Core Collection, CNKI, the National Central Library Online Catalog and dissertation databases to identify studies in the English or Chinese language published between January 2003 to May 2020 which reported psychological distress and mental health morbidities among SARS patients, healthcare workers, and the general public in regions with major SARS outbreaks. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 6984 titles. Screening resulted in 80 papers for the review, 35 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of post-recovery probable or clinician-diagnosed anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among SARS survivors were 19, 20 and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of these outcomes among studies conducted within and beyond 6 months post-discharge was not significantly different. Certain aspects of mental health-related quality of life measures among SARS survivors remained impaired beyond 6 months post-discharge. The prevalence of probable depressive disorder and PTSD among healthcare workers post-SARS were 12 and 11%, respectively. The general public had increased anxiety levels during SARS, but whether there was a clinically significant population-wide mental health impact remained inconclusive. Narrative synthesis revealed occupational exposure to SARS patients and perceived stigmatisation to be risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers, although causality could not be determined due to the limitations of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The chronicity of psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors should alert us to the potential long-term mental health complications of covid-19 patients. Healthcare workers working in high-risk venues should be given adequate mental health support. Stigmatisation against patients and healthcare workers should be explored and addressed. The significant risk of bias and high degree of heterogeneity among included studies limited the certainty of the body of evidence of the review.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Outbreaks/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology
19.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 67(7): 892-906, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide epidemic declared by the world health organization as a public health emergency of concern and consequently inducing huge mental health and psychological reactions. AIMS: This study is aimed to summarize the existing data regarding anxiety, depression, and psychological distress during the covid-19 pandemic among the wider population so that effective intervention strategies will be initiated. METHODS: Pieces of literature that assessed anxiety, depression, and psychological distress among the general population during the COVID pandemic period were systematically gathered. Data extraction in Microsoft excel was done by two independent reviewers using predefined criteria. The analysis was done using a stata-11 and random effect model. A sub-group and sensitivity analysis was done. Besides, the funnel plot and eggers publication bias test was tested. RESULTS: Sixteen studies that assessed 78,225 participants were included. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis for anxiety prevalence. The average prevalence of anxiety was found to be 38.12%. A sub-group analysis showed that anxiety was 33.33% in China and 47.70% in other countries (Italy, Turkey, and India). Anxiety prevalence in studies measured with the DASS-21 scale, GAD-7 scale, and other tools (SAS, HADS, and 5-point Likert scale) was 23.4%, 40.73%, and 44.47% respectively. The prevalence of anxiety in studies that assessed a sample size above 2,000 participants was 40.33%. The average prevalence of depression among included studies was 34.31% and a sub-group analysis showed that depression was higher in China (36.32%) than in other countries (28.3%). Moreover, six studies reported psychological distress and the average prevalence was 37.54%. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are potential public mental health problems of the global community that suggests the need for early recognition and initiation of interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
20.
Global Health ; 17(1): 34, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental burden due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been widely reported for the general public and specific risk groups like healthcare workers and different patient populations. We aimed to assess its impact on mental health during the early phase by comparing pandemic with prepandemic data and to identify potential risk and protective factors. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analyses, we systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from January 1, 2019 to May 29, 2020, and screened reference lists of included studies. In addition, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO for prepandemic comparative data. Survey studies assessing mental burden by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the general population, healthcare workers, or any patients (eg, COVID-19 patients), with a broad range of eligible mental health outcomes, and matching studies evaluating prepandemic comparative data in the same population (if available) were included. We used multilevel meta-analyses for main, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses, focusing on (perceived) stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sleep-related symptoms as primary outcomes. RESULTS: Of 2429 records retrieved, 104 were included in the review (n = 208,261 participants), 43 in the meta-analysis (n = 71,613 participants). While symptoms of anxiety (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.40; 95% CI 0.15-0.65) and depression (SMD 0.67; 95% CI 0.07-1.27) were increased in the general population during the early phase of the pandemic compared with prepandemic conditions, mental burden was not increased in patients as well as healthcare workers, irrespective of COVID-19 patient contact. Specific outcome measures (eg, Patient Health Questionnaire) and older comparative data (published ≥5 years ago) were associated with increased mental burden. Across the three population groups, existing mental disorders, female sex, and concerns about getting infected were repeatedly reported as risk factors, while older age, a good economic situation, and education were protective. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis paints a more differentiated picture of the mental health consequences in pandemic situations than previous reviews. High-quality, representative surveys, high granular longitudinal studies, and more research on protective factors are required to better understand the psychological impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to help design effective preventive measures and interventions that are tailored to the needs of specific population groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL