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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 549-556, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional anonymous survey included 1,090 healthcare workers. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics - 9 (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin two component factor model, Cronbach's alpha and ROC-analysis were performed to determine the influence of different variables, internal structure and consistency, sensitivity and specificity of SAVE-9 compared with GAD-7. RESULTS: The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 535 (49.1%) respondents had moderate and 239 (21.9%) had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 134 participants (12.3%) had severe anxiety, 144 (13.2%) had moderate according to GAD-7. The component model revealed two-factor structure of SAVE-9: "anxiety and somatic concern" and "social stress". Female gender (OR - 0.98, p=0.04) and younger age (OR - 0.65, p=0.04) were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model. The total score of SAVE-9 with a high degree of confidence predicted the GAD-7 value in comparative ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers in Russia reported high rates of stress and anxiety. The Russian version of the SAVE-9 displayed a good ratio of sensitivity to specificity compared with GAD-7 and can be recommended as a screening instrument for detection of stress and anxiety in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 3153-3161, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a threat to global health. Increasing studies have shown that the mental health status of health professionals is very poor during the COVID-19 epidemic. At present, the relationship between somatic symptoms and symptoms of anxiety of health professionals during the COVID-19 has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of somatic symptoms and its related factors in health professionals with symptoms of anxiety during COVID-19 in China. METHODS: A total of 606 health professionals were assessed online with the Chinese version of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, 7-item Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). RESULTS: The percentage of symptoms of anxiety, somatic symptoms and insomnia in all health professionals was 45.4%, 12.0%, and 32%, respectively. The frequency of somatic symptoms in health professionals with symptoms of anxiety was 22.9%. The SCL-90 somatization subscale score was significantly positively correlated with history of somatic diseases, GAD-7 score and ISI score in participants with symptoms of anxiety. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19, symptoms of anxiety, insomnia, and somatic symptoms are commonly observed in health professionals. Insomnia and symptoms of anxiety are independently associated with somatic symptoms of health professionals with symptoms of anxiety.

3.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 15(6): 536-543, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the magnitude of depression, anxiety, and stress among health care workers by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined 122 health care workers between April and May 2020 through the electronic use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The perceptions of the participants towards stigmatisation of their profession during the COVID-19 pandemic were also assessed through a Likert's scale. The magnitude of anxiety, depression, and stress were analysed using a mean ± SD, correlation and percentages in respective statistics. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: This study found that 32.9% of the healthcare workers frequently faced COVID-19 cases during the ongoing pandemic. As many as 35.6% were unusually anxious. A mean anxiety score of 8.43 ± 4.6 was noted, with significantly higher scores for women and those workers with inadequate training (p < 0.001 and 0.028). Moreover, a mean depression score of 7.6 ± 4.7 (p < 0.002) was recorded for the healthcare workers with inadequate training. About 27.9% of the participants were depressed. The mean stress score of the study cohort was 6.86 ± 2.5. From the cohort, 24.5% and 72.8% experienced mild and moderate stress, respectively. This study found that inadequate training for infection control was associated with a higher proportion of anxiety and depression [OR 1.86 (95% CI: 1.5-2.3; p < 0.043) and OR 2.21 (95% CI: 1.7-2.8; p < 0.018), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found a high prevalence of anxiety, depression, and moderate stress among healthcare workers, regardless of their job specifications. The associated risk factors for anxiety and depression included inadequate training for infection control, and pre-existing stress-provoking medical conditions.

4.
Curr Psychol ; 41(2): 1057-1064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

5.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 1047-1055, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) has been associated with psychological distress during its rapid rise period in Pakistan. The present study aimed to assess the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the three metropolitan cities of Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based study was conducted in 276 HCWs from April 10, 2020, to June 5, 2020. Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) were used for the mental health assessment of the HCWs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis (MLRA) was performed to measure the association between the demographics and the occurrence of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS). RESULTS: The frequency of DAS in the HCWs was 10.1%, 25.4%, and 7.3%, respectively. The MLRA showed that the depression in HCWs was significantly associated with the profession (P<0.001). The anxiety in HCWs was significantly associated with their age (P=0.005), profession (P<0.05), and residence (P<0.05). The stress in HCWs was significantly associated with their age (P<0.05). LIMITATION: This study was conducted in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, when the number of COVID-19 cases was on the rise in Pakistan and it only represents a definite period (April to June 2020). CONCLUSION: The symptoms of DAS are present in the HCWs of Pakistan and to manage the psychological health of HCWs, there is a need for the initiation of psychological well-being programs.

6.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77: S404-S412, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prospective study was conducted during the second phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among healthcare workers (HCWs) and factors that influence the outcome. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 1124 HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 30, 2020, to April 2, 2020). Demographic data, questions on COVID-19 and scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were analysed using the chi-square test (Bonferroni correction) and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The study consists of 1124 HCWs, including 749 doctors, 207 nurses, 135 paramedics, 23 administrators and ten supporting staff members. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were reported as 37.2% and 31.4%, respectively. The risk factors for anxiety were female gender (30.6% vs 45.5%), age group (20-35 years) (50.4% vs 61.2%), unmarried (21.2% vs 30.6%) and job profile (nurse) (14.7% vs 26.4%). The protective factor was having service of more than 20 years (23.4% vs 14.8%). The risk factors for depression were age group (20-35 years) (51.3% vs 61.3%) and employed at a primary care hospital (16.2% vs 23.4%). The protective factors were job profile (doctor) (69.9% vs 59.6%) and having service of more than 20 years (22.3% vs 15.5%). CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of the HCWs reported anxiety and depressive symptoms. The risk factors for anxiety symptoms were female gender, younger age and job profile (nurse) and for depressive symptoms were younger age and working at a primary care hospital. Future research studies should identify strategies for providing a safer and supportive work environment for HCWs to face epidemics/pandemics.

8.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(S1): 174-181, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318709

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers, who are in low-resource settings, are critically vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increasing rate of coronavirus infection in a developing country such as Bangladesh caused the highest death rate of doctors among frontline service providers and resulted in fear and anxiety among healthcare workers. Even with the preliminary measures of hospitals and clinics to protect healthcare workers, the growing casualties are alarming. This research uses case study approach to explore the issues doctors and nurses face in 'priority intervention areas' (PIA) in order to improve the health system quality. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted from 12 May to 4 June 2020 among doctors and nurses from two different private hospitals in Dhaka city. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The two significant areas that required immediate attention were identified from the PIA framework as 'patient and staff safety, infection control' and 'cultural aspects and community engagement'. Each area of the PIA framework showed previously ignored issues in the current health system. The adaptation of the PIA framework helped identify critical health system issues. Possible corrective actions including proper planning and management of isolating the infected patients and provision of adequate personal protective equipment are recommended to management and policymakers to save the lives of healthcare workers and to minimise the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Bangladesh , Hospitals, Private , Humans , Infection Control , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 658846, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278459

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health care workers, due to be involved in caring for COVID-19 patients may experience various psychological problems including anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic by systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The PRISMA guideline was used for conducting this study. Related keywords were searched in credited resources including ISC, Magiran, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, ProQuest, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Embase to find the articles published on the prevalence of GAD among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic from the first of January to the end of June 2020. Meta-analysis was conducted by the random effects model. Results: In this study, 553 articles were initially identified, from which 19 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the prevalence of GAD in health care workers based on the GAD-7 and GAD-2 instruments were 32.04% (95% CI: 26.89-37.19, I 2 = 98.2%, p < 0.001) and 22.62% (95% CI: 9.01-36.24, I 2 = 97.7%, p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of GAD was obtained 30.5% (95% CI: 25.58-35.42, I 2 = 98.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed a relatively high GAD prevalence, as one of the fundamental psychological problems, among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, health system managers should implement preventive strategies to protect health staff from contracting the virus and monitor them for psychological problems and provide them with supportive measures if necessary.

10.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(9): 3241-3249, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276736

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the association between menstrual cycle regularity in healthcare providers and COVID-19 pandemic-related anxiety, depression, stress. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by administrating online questionnaires to female healthcare workers in Turkey. Women aged 18-40 years with regular menstrual cycles for more than 1 year before the beginning of the pandemic were included in the study and they were divided into two groups according to menstrual cycle regularity during the pandemic. The questionnaires included sociodemographic characteristics, medical and reproductive history, lifestyle information of participants, COVID-19 Stress Scales (CSS), and a short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: A total of 952 women were included in the study, 679 had regular menstrual cycles, and 273 had irregular menstrual cycles. The prevalence of irregular menses among Turkish women healthcare workers aged 18-40 years was 28.7%. The CSS subdimensions and total scores were significantly higher in the irregular menstruation group than in women with regular menstruation (p < 0.001). The DASS-21 depression, anxiety, and stress subdimensions were likewise significantly higher in women with irregular menstruation (p < 0.001). Besides, both the univariable and the multivariable logistic regression results showed the relationship between irregular menstruation and CSS total score. CONCLUSION: The current study showed the association between the COVID-19 pandemic-induced anxiety, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and increased prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity among healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Menstruation Disturbances/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268314

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this descriptive cross-sectional study we aimed, to assess the level of depression, anxiety, insomnia and distress symptoms experienced by healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Methods: All healthcare providers currently working in different hospitals were invited to participate in this study. Data gathering started in March 2020 to May 2020. The participants answered a five-part questionnaire which includes demographic data, a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, a 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, a 7-item Insomnia Severity Index, and a 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised, which assess the level of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress. Results: Out of 200 healthcare providers, 40% were males. 52% were aged 31-40 years old, 61% were married. The majority of the participants were Saudi nationals (84%), 74% were nurses, 11% were physicians and 15% were other healthcare providers. More than half of the participants worked as front-liners (57%). Overall, 73, 69, 62, and 83% of all healthcare providers reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress, respectively. The analysis showed severe symptoms level of depression for physicians and nurses was 35% and 20% (p < 0.05), respectively. Only three of the independent variables made a unique contribution to the model (gender, profession, and working position) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on the mental health of healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia. Female nurses and healthcare providers working in the frontline who were directly treating patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of severe depression, anxiety and distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 36: 100916, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emerging novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide in 2020. The present systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and its relationship with psychological distress. METHODS: Five academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase) were searched. Observational studies including case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included if relevant data relationships were reported (i.e., sleep assessed utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or Insomnia Severity Index). All the studies were English, peer-reviewed papers published between December 2019 and February 2021. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020181644. FINDINGS: 168 cross-sectional, four case-control, and five longitudinal design papers comprising 345,270 participants from 39 countries were identified. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems were 31% among healthcare professionals, 18% among the general population, and 57% among COVID-19 patients (all p-values < 0.05). Sleep problems were associated with depression among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's Z scores of -0.28, -0.30, and -0.36, respectively. Sleep problems were positively (and moderately) associated with anxiety among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's z scores of 0.55, 0.48, and 0.49, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Sleep problems appear to have been common during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, sleep problems were found to be associated with higher levels of psychological distress. With the use of effective programs treating sleep problems, psychological distress may be reduced. Vice versa, the use of effective programs treating psychological distress, sleep problems may be reduced. FUNDING: The present study received no funding.

13.
Reprod Sci ; 29(2): 627-632, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260623

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to investigate a possible correlation between anxiety status and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels among healthcare professionals who provide medical care directly to COVID-19-positive patients during the recent pandemic. Fifty-two healthcare professionals (nurses, midwives, and residents) who provide medical care directly to COVID-19-positive patients in inpatient clinics or intensive care units were enrolled in this study. Serum AMH levels were analyzed to reflect ovarian reserve. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively) were completed by participants to assess their anxiety status. A linear regression model with participant age as the constant variable was applied to analyze the relationship between inventory scale scores and AMH levels. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean AMH value was significantly lower for the participants in the moderate/severe anxiety group compared to the minimal/mild anxiety group (p = 0.007). A linear regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between AMH levels and both BAI (B = -0.030, standard error = 0.010, p = 0.004) and STAI-S and STAI-T scores when age was controlled (both p = 0.003). The severity of anxiety experienced during the recent COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare professionals, who provide medical care directly to COVID-19-positive patients, is found to be related to low AMH levels.


Subject(s)
Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Anxiety/blood , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Midwifery , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Biomarkers/blood , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Ovarian Reserve , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261296

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019) was identified. As there is no any drug to treat this pandemic, the healthcare professionals are disproportionately at higher risk. The mental health outcome is expected to be high. Anxiety is expected to have a significant impact on health professionals, especially among those who work without adequate resources for self-protection. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research was to assess self-reported anxiety symptoms and associated factors among Ethiopian healthcare professionals in the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We have conducted an online cross-sectional study to collect information from healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during the early stage of the outbreak from April 7, 2020 to May 19, 2020. GAD-7 was used for measurement of anxiety. We have used a cut of point of 10 and above to report anxiety symptoms. We have used Google Forms for online data collection and SPSS-22 for analysis. To determine associated factors for anxiety, a binary logistic regression model was used. Variables with p-value < 0.2 during the bivariable binary logistic regression were exported for further analysis in the multivariable binary logistic regression. Finally, variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight healthcare professionals filled the online questionnaire; Majority (71.1%) were males. Significant number of respondents (78.9%) reported lack of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) at the work place. The prevalence of anxiety was 26.8%. Being female (AOR: 1.88; 95% C.I:1.11, 3.19), visiting/treating 30-150 patients per day (AOR: 3.44; 95% C.I:1.51, 7.84), those employed at private healthcare institutions (AOR: 2.40; 95% C.I:1.17, 4.90), who do not believe that COVID-19 is preventable (AOR: 2.04; 95% C.I:1.04, 4.03) and those who reported lack of PPE (AOR: 1.98; 95% C.I:1.04, 3.79) were more likely to be anxious. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety prevalence among healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during early stage of COVID-19 pandemic was high. This study shows that lack of preventive equipment, being female, contact with many patients, low self-efficacy and working in private health facilities were risk factors for anxiety. Anxiety prevention among health professionals during COVID-19 pandemic requires a holistic approach including provision of sufficient PPE, improving self-efficacy and addressing problems both at public and private institutions and focusing more on female health professionals.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , Prevalence , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
15.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 41-47, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259732

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic caused a severe health crisis that has affected millions of people and quarantined half of the world's population. The health emergency from Covid-19 has seen health workers on the front line face all the difficulties related to the burden of care and the reorganization of procedures, roles, and tools at the hospital level. One of the most significant and probably underestimated aspects is the psychological stress of frontline nurses. The article aims to analyze the literature relating to the impact on the mental health of nurses engaged in the management and care of Covid-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the published articles on the subject was conducted from January 2020 to November 2020. The search for papers was conducted on scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus and Embase. RESULTS: The results show the onset of anxiety, depression and stress and insomnia in healthcare workers. These aspects are closely related to numerous factors, including the fear of contracting the disease and infecting family members, stressful shifts and little rest, leading to a state of psychological and physical tension capable of activating pathological behaviours. The literature highlights the importance of support interventions for frontline personnel to avoid the onset of psycho-pathophysical severe problems. CONCLUSION: The review suggests that frontline nurses during the emergency phase of Covid- 19 may be prone to psychological disorders that can compromise mental health. Therefore, the surveillance and monitoring of symptoms, together with targeted support interventions, should be guaranteed daily to all professionals involved to prevent the onset of psychological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses/organization & administration , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1063, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and an anxiety-provoking event. There are few studies to identify potential risk and protective factors related to anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We collected information on demographic data and lifestyles by a web-based survey of 19,802 participants from 34 provinces in China during COVID-19 pandemic. Level of anxiety was evaluated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. We used ordinal multivariable logistic regression to estimate the associations of anxiety level with potential risk and protective factors. We further developed a new score to simplify the assessment of anxiety during COVID-19 crisis. RESULTS: Among 19,802 participants, we found that those who were front-line medical personnel, suffered from chronic disease, with present symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection or contact history had 112, 93, 40 and 15% increased risk of higher anxiety level; while those with knowledge about personal protective measures or wore masks had 75 and 29% lower risk of higher anxiety level respectively. We developed a risk score by calculating the sum of single score of 17 factors. Each one increase of the risk score was associated with a 297% increase in anxiety index score. In categorical analysis, low risk (the risk score between 1 to 2), the moderate risk group (the risk score of 3) and high risk group (the risk score ≥ 4) had - 0.40 (95% CI: - 1.55, 0.76), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.61) and 9.18 (95% CI: 8.04, 10.33) increase in anxiety index score, and 26% (95% CI: - 7, 72%), 172% (95% CI: 100, 270%), and 733% (95% CI: 516, 1026%) higher risk of anxiety respectively, when compared with the very low risk group (the risk score of 0). The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.72, 0.74) for the model fitted the developed risk score, with the cut-off point of 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed protective and risk factors associated with anxiety, and developed a simple method of identifying people who are at an increased risk of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 646780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256408

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant health threat. Health care worker (HCWs) are at a significant risk of infection which may cause high levels of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 on HCWs and factors which were associated with these stresses during the first outbreak in Shanghai. Methods: Between February 9 and 21, 2020, a total of 3,114 frontline HCWs from 26 hospitals in Shanghai completed an online survey. The questionnaire included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics, 15 stress-related questions, and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the 15 stress-related questions which produced four distinct factors for evaluation. Multiple linear regression models were performed to explore the association of personal characteristics with each score of the four factors. Binary logistic analysis was used to explain the association of personal characteristics and these four factors with the GHQ-12. Results: There were 2,691 valid surveys received. The prevalence of emotional distress (defined as GHQ-12 ≥ 12) was noted in 47.7% (95%CI:45.7-49.6%) HCWs. Females (OR = 1.43, 95%CI:1.09-1.86) were more likely to have a psychological distress than males. However, HCWs who work in secondary hospitals (OR = 0.71, 95% CI:0.58-0.87) or had a no contact history (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35-0.58) were less likely to suffer psychological distress. HCWs who were nurses, married, and had a known contact history were highly likely to have anxiety. HCWs working at tertiary hospitals felt an elevated anxiety regarding the infection, a lack of knowledge, and less protected compared to those who worked at secondary hospitals. Conclusions: Our study shows that the frontline HCWs had a significant psychosocial distress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Shanghai. HCWs felt a lack of knowledge and had feelings of being not protected. It is necessary for hospitals and governments to provide additional trainings and psychological counseling to support the first-line HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 219, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep quality and psychological effects on pediatric healthcare workers during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemic in Italy and to evaluate differences between primary and secondary care operators. Pediatric healthcare workers were involved in an online survey to assess sleep quality, stress and anxiety level, self-efficacy and social support in Italian pediatric healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We found that 67.4% of our sample suffered from sleep disturbance and 19.4% of subjects suffered from anxiety. Lower values of anxiety and social support were found in primary care staff compared to secondary care one. The associations between healthcare professional figures (being primary or secondary care operators) and mental health outcomes were not statistically significant. However, sex, age and having a SARS-CoV-2 infected relative/friend had an independent effect on mental health outcomes. It is crucial to provide social and psychological support to pediatric healthcare workers. A tailored psychological screening would be desirable for female healthcare workers and for those who have a SARS-CoV-2 infected relative/friend.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
19.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(3): 297-305, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254135

ABSTRACT

Objective This study assessed the psychological well-being of Australian hospital clinical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods An anonymous online cross-sectional survey was conducted in a large metropolitan tertiary health service located in Melbourne, Australia. The survey was completed by nurses, midwives, doctors and allied health (AH) staff between 15 May and 10 June 2020. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 items (DASS-21) assessed the psychological well-being of respondents in the previous week. Results In all, 668 people responded to the survey (nurses/midwives, n=391; doctors, n=138; AH staff, n=139). Of these, 108 (16.2%) had direct contact with people with a COVID-19 diagnosis. Approximately one-quarter of respondents reported symptoms of psychological distress. Between 11% (AH staff) and 29% (nurses/midwives) had anxiety scores in the mild to extremely severe ranges. Nurses and midwives had significantly higher anxiety scores than doctors (P<0.001) and AH staff (P<0.001). Direct contact with people with a COVID-19 diagnosis (P<0.001) and being a nurse or midwife (P<0.001) were associated with higher anxiety scores. Higher ratings of the health service's pandemic response and staff support strategies were protective against depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.05) and stress (P<0.001). Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant effect on the psychological well-being of hospital clinical staff, particularly nurses and midwives. Staff would benefit from (additional) targeted supportive interventions during the current and future outbreaks of infectious diseases. What is known about the topic? The outbreak of COVID-19 is having, and will have, a considerable effect on health services. No Australian data about the effect of COVID-19 on the psychological well-being of hospital clinical staff are available. What does this paper add? Australia healthcare providers have experienced considerable emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly nurses and midwives and clinical staff who have had direct contact with people with a COVID-19 diagnosis. In this study, nurses and midwives had significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression and stress during the pandemic than general Australian adult population norms, and significantly more severe anxiety symptoms than medical and AH staff. Despite a lower number of COVID-19 cases and a lower death rate than in other countries, the proportion of Australian hospital clinical staff experiencing distress is similar to that found in other countries. What are the implications for practitioners? Targeted well-being interventions are required to support hospital clinical staff during the current and future outbreaks of infectious diseases and other 'crises' or adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 329-336, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253249

ABSTRACT

We examined the manifestation of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks among health care professionals during the first COVID-19 wave (n = 6409) by means of mental disorder screening instruments. Logistic regressions were used to gauge individual risk factors; population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were inferred to identify the most important risk factors at the societal level. Data were weighted to represent general profiles of Belgian health care professionals. Lifetime, pre-pandemic emotional problems and work-related factors during the first wave of COVID-19 were strongly associated (mean adjusted odds ratios of 3.79 and 1.47, respectively) with positive screens for current mental disorders (occurrence of 29.3%). Most prominently, the data suggest that disruptions of work-life balance account for more than a quarter of the observed mental health problems due to the combination of widespread occurrence and strong association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Belgium/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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