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1.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 62(6): 867-872, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social isolation (quarantine) caused by COVID-19 has generated several consequences for the physical and mental health of the general population; however, little is known about the effects of this disease on elite athletes. We seek to assess the effect of social isolation on anxiety, sleep quality and quality of life for elite athletes. METHODS: 206 athletes from collective and individual sports (116 men and 90 women) participated in the present study, with an average age of 24.61±8.73 years. Time devoted to physical training before and during the pandemic was assessed. Assessment of anxiety symptoms, sleep quality and mood were assessed using semistructured questionnaires. RESULTS: There was a reduction in hours dedicated to training, as well as in training sessions for both groups evaluated. There is a high prevalence (>90%) of anxiety symptoms (medium and high) in both groups. There were no major losses in the sleep quality of the athletes (>75% presented regular to very good sleep). CONCLUSIONS: There are no differences regarding the traits and state of anxiety between athletes of collective and individual modalities. However, both groups showed traces of anxiety, which, from the point of view of health, becomes worrying.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Athletes/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Sleep , Young Adult
2.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2511-2518, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the mental health condition of the world's population. Although the direct effect of COVID-19 on the mental health status of chronic medical patients is well understood, the burden of depression and anxiety on patients with chronic medical conditions is not well studied yet. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and associated factors among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Mettu, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to July 30, 2020 among chronic medical patients in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Consecutive sampling technique was applied with a total of 423 samples. Quantitative data were employed by using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistical procedures, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions with odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed. The statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings showed that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among chronic medical patients was 55.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Female gender (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI (1.06, 2.59)), poor social support (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.10, 3.42)), widowed/divorced (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI (1.59, 9.64)), separated (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI (1.64, 8.19)), and longer duration of illness (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.15, 2.89)) were significantly associated with depression, whereas earlier age at onset of illness, having more than three co-morbid diagnoses, tobacco use and poor social support were found to have significant association with anxiety among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of concurrent depression and anxiety in the current study was high. Strategies for prompt identification and treatment of depression and anxiety should be developed among medically ill patients.

3.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e5-e10, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing stressor that may have detrimental effects on mental health. Theoretical and empirical literature implies that individuals who are characterized by catastrophic appraisals of somatic cues, a tendency known as anxiety sensitivity, as well as by older subjective age, might be particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety during the pandemic. Furthermore, subjective age might moderate the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Yet, research to date has not explored the contribution of both anxiety sensitivity and subjective age in explaining distress following stress in general, nor in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Filling this gap, a convenience sample of 828 participants (Mage = 43.98, SD = 14.06) filled questionnaires measuring background variables, COVID-19-related stressors, anxiety sensitivity, subjective age, and anxiety and depression symptoms during the pandemic. RESULTS: Positive associations were found between anxiety sensitivity and subjective age, on the one hand, and anxiety and depression symptoms, on the other. Furthermore, subjective age moderated the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Although higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to depression and anxiety during the pandemic, these relations were significantly stronger among participants with an older subjective age. DISCUSSION: The findings are consistent with theories that view subjective age as an intraindividual construct involved in modulating important mental health outcomes in the context of coping with stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Psychotherapeut (Berl) ; 65(4): 291-296, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680760

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resulting constraints on personal (i.e. face to face) treatment, video consultations have recently gained a major role in the delivery of healthcare services; however, until now, most psychotherapists have little experience with conducting video consultations, not least because of poor possibilities for reimbursement from the statutory health insurance. This article provides (1) an overview of the effectiveness of psychotherapy interventions delivered via video consultations for depression and anxiety disorders, (2) recommendations for setting up and conducting these consultations and (3) first experiences of psychotherapists from a German feasibility study and from the provision in routine care in hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(2): e149-e152, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672370

ABSTRACT

GOALS: The goal of this study was to describe the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on ability to engage in activities and the influence on psychological distress and gastrointestinal symptoms among individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. BACKGROUND: Individuals with IBS and comorbid anxiety and/or depression report increased symptoms and decreased quality of life compared with individuals with IBS alone. The current COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to further influence symptoms among individuals with IBS and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. STUDY: Individuals who met the Rome-IV IBS criteria and reported mild to severe anxiety and/or depression were included. Participants completed an online survey with questions about anxiety, depression, impact of COVID on activities and symptoms, and demographics. RESULTS: Fifty-five individuals participated in the study. The COVID-19 pandemic most commonly influenced their ability to spend time with friends and family, shop for certain types of food, and access health care. Participants also reported increased stress (92%), anxiety (81%), and depressive symptoms (67%). Finally, around half the sample reported increases in abdominal pain (48%), diarrhea (45%), or constipation (44%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is related to self-reported increases in psychological distress and gastrointestinal symptoms among individuals with IBS and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Additional research is needed to intervene on these symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(3): 1010-1036, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671826

ABSTRACT

As of 2 September 2020, the 2019 novel coronavirus or SARS CoV-2 has been responsible for more than 2,56,02,665 infections and 8,52,768 deaths worldwide. There has been an urgent need of newer drug discovery to tackle the situation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 3C-like protease (or 3CLpro) is a potential target as anti-SARS agents as it plays a vital role in the viral life cycle. This study aims at developing a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model against a group of 3CLpro inhibitors to study their structural requirements for their inhibitory activity. Further, molecular docking studies were carried out which helped in the justification of the QSAR findings. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulation study was performed for selected compounds to check the stability of interactions as suggested by the docking analysis. The current QSAR model was further used in the prediction and screening of large databases within a short time.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Curr Psychol ; 41(1): 480-491, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611510

ABSTRACT

The scientific world witnessed a surge of researches, from all corners of the world, regarding the humanitarian crisis precipitated by COVID-19 pandemic, more specifically its impact on people's mental health. However, researchers exploring the association between COVID-19 related fear and mental health are yet to understand the conditions through which potential benefits may occur. Many factors could buffer the effects of COVID-19 related fear on mental health; support system is probably the predominant one. Thus, the present study examined the moderating effects of support system in the association between COVID-19 related fear and mental health outcomes - somatic symptoms, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 163 volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related fear, support system, and mental health outcomes. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and simple effect tests revealed that high levels of support from family, friends, and significant others might buffer/lessen the psychological sequelae (e.g., somatic symptoms, anxiety, and depression during public health emergencies, such as COVID-19 pandemic. Given the potential for negative mental health outcomes following pandemics, such as COVID-19, efforts to enhance peoples' support system may be especially important.

8.
Sex Med ; 9(1): 100295, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic include pandemic triggered feelings of fear, uncertainty, and anxiety added to the effects of restricting the population's activities in lockdown. AIM: We aimed to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on sexual satisfaction of females and males in Egypt and to evaluate possible predictive factors. METHODS: Married men and females in Egypt were invited to respond to an online questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed medical history, socioeconomic status, sexual performance satisfaction before and during the lockdown in addition to validated Arabic questionnaires for depression, sexual function in males and females, and sexual satisfaction (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Female Sexual Function Index, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Index of Sexual Satisfaction, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measures were frequency of depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and sexual satisfaction in males and females during COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 479 females and 217 males completed the questionnaire. Sexual satisfaction was significantly higher before (91.2%, 73.5%) than during lockdown (70.5%, 56.2%) in both males and females, respectively. During lockdown, significantly more males (70.5%) reported being satisfied with their sexual performance than females (56.2%) (P < .001). More than half of the male subjects (68.2%) had no erectile dysfunction while 97.3% females scored ≤26.5 on the Female Sexual Function Index scale suggestive of sexual difficulties. Sexual stress was significantly greater in females (70.8%) than males (63.1%). Educational level, occupation, anxiety, and erectile dysfunction were independently associated with sexual stress in males. Being a housewife or unemployed, husband's age >35 years, marriage duration of 5-10 years, anxiety, and female sexual dysfunction were predictors of sexual relation stress in females. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic was associated with lower sexual satisfaction in both genders. Females however suffered more anxiety and depression and thereby greater risk of sexual function difficulties and sexual dissatisfaction. Intervention strategies in order to lessen the suffering of affected individuals particularly after the pandemic are recommended. Omar SS, Dawood W, Eid N, et al. Psychological and Sexual Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Egypt: Are Women Suffering More. Sex Med 2021;9:100295.

9.
J Reprod Infertil ; 22(2): 125-132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly emerging COVID-19 has caused severe anxiety around the world and it is infecting more people each day since there is no preventive measure or definite therapy for the diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate its effect on anxiety and stress of pregnant mothers during perinatal care. METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant mothers without COVID-19 infection who were referred to the hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences for delivery during April 2020, based on negative clinical symptoms and the results of polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for COVID-19, were recruited by census method and asked to complete the Persian version of the perceived stress scale (PSS); participants views about their anxiety level and the role of COVID-19 as the source of their stress and worries were recorded. Women who refused to continue the study were excluded. The frequency of variables and mean scores were calculated using SPSS v. 21. RESULTS: Mean age of mothers was 30.20±16.19 years; 31.3% were primigravida and mean gestational age was 38.00±4.14 weeks. Moreover, 16.3% asked for earlier pregnancy termination and 39% requested Cesarean section (C/S). Assessing the mothers' anxiety revealed a high/very high level of anxiety in 51.3%. The majority felt worried and frustrated because of COVID-19 (86.4%). Social media had a great impact on the level of stress among these mothers (60.3%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic is an important source for the increased anxiety and stress among healthy pregnant mothers.

10.
Cerebellum ; 20(6): 896-903, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574417

ABSTRACT

Although there are no convincing evidences of detrimental effect of SARS-CoV2 infection on the cerebellum, the COVID-19 pandemic could impact the life quality of patients with cerebellar ataxias, but few studies have addressed this concern. To assess the motor and mental health changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemics in Cuban patients with cerebellar ataxias, three hundred four patients with cerebellar ataxias and 167 healthy controls were interviewed for risks of exposure to COVID-19, and the self-perception of the pandemics' impact on the disease progression and on the mental health. All subjects underwent the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The patients reported low exposition to SARS-CoV2 infection, but one case was confirmed with a mild COVID-19. Overall, depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly and marginally increased in patients, respectively, with higher scores in cases with severe and moderate ataxia. Positive patient's impression of psychopathological changes was associated to increased age, age at onset, and anxiety. Sixty-seven patients had a positive self-perception of ataxia progression, which was mainly influenced by higher anxiety scores but not by the adherence to at-home exercise programs. However, the practice of physical exercise was related with lower depression and anxiety scores, but this therapeutical effect was not significantly influenced by the disease stage. We demonstrated the negative effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental and motor deficits in Cuban patients with cerebellar ataxias and the positive effect of the at-home physical exercise programs on their mental well-being. These findings give rationales to develop tele-medicine approaches to minimize these health impacts and to study the long-term effects of such sequelae and accordingly define their treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/complications , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cerebellar Ataxia/epidemiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/psychology , Cuba/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 657021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542380

ABSTRACT

Background: Health professionals including nurses have experienced heavy workload and great physical and mental health challenges during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may affect nursing students' career choices. This study examined the changes in nursing students' career choices after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: This study was conducted in five University nursing schools in China between September 14, 2020 and October 7, 2020. Career choices before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were collected and analyzed. Results: In total, 1,070 nursing students participated in the study. The reported choice of nursing as future career increased from 50.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 47.9-53.9%] before the COVID-19 pandemic to 62.7% (95%CI: 59.8-65.6%) after the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Students who chose nursing as their future career following the COVID-19 outbreak had less severe depression and anxiety compared to those who did not choose nursing, but the associations of depression and anxiety with career choice disappeared in multivariable analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.91], rural residence (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.17-2.00), fourth year students (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.35-0.72), negative experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.47-0.92), and good health (OR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.78-11.87) were significantly associated with the choice of nursing as future career after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have a positive influence on the career choice of nursing among Chinese nursing students.

13.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 28(6): 941-942, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528402
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526834

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare systems worldwide. Little is known about the impact of the pandemic on medical and psycho-social aspects of children with rare diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and their parents. The study is based on children registered in The Database of Pulmonary Hypertension in the Polish Population and a parent-reported survey deployed during the first 6 months of the pandemic. The questionnaire consisted of six question panels: demographic data, fear of COVID-19, General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), social impact of pandemic, patients' medical status, and alarming symptoms (appearance or exacerbation). Out of 80 children registered, we collected 58 responses (72.5% response rate). Responders (parents) were mostly female (n = 55; 94.8%) at a mean age of 40.6 ± 6.9 years. Patients (children) were both females (n = 32; 55%) and males with a mean age of 10.0 ± 5.1 years. Eleven (19%) children had symptoms of potential disease exacerbation. Eight parents (72.7%) decided for watchful waiting while others contacted their GPs or cardiologists (n = 6; 54.5%). Three children had to be hospitalized (27.3%). Most planned hospitalizations (27/48; 56.2%) and out-patient visits (20/35; 57.1%) were cancelled, delayed, or substituted by telehealth services. Among the participating parents, the study shows very high levels of anxiety (n = 20; 34.5%) and concern (n = 55; 94.8%) and the need for detailed information (52; 89.6%) regarding COVID-19 and medical service preparedness during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced child healthcare and caused high levels of anxiety among parents.

15.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(5): 1469-1479, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic disrupted medical care for persons with cancer including those with lymphoma. Many professional societies recommend postponing, decreasing, or stopping anti-cancer therapy in selected persons during the pandemic. Although seemingly sensible, these recommendations are not evidence-based and their impact on anxiety and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) is unknown. METHODS: We surveyed 2532 subjects including 1060 persons with lymphoma, 948 caregivers, and 524 normals using a purposed-designed questionnaire on a patient organization website. Respondents also completed the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and patient respondents, the EORTC QLQ-C30 instruments to quantify anxiety, and HRQoL. We also evaluated caregiver support and an online education programme of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO). Data of HRQoL from a 2019 pre-pandemic online survey of 1106 persons with lymphoma were a control. RESULTS: 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30, 36%) of lymphoma patients and 31% (28, 34%) of caregivers but only 21% (17, 24%) of normals had any level of anxiety (both pair-wise P < 0.001). Among lymphoma respondents, physical exercise and better caregiver support were associated with less anxiety, whereas female sex, receiving therapy, and reduced therapy intensity were associated with more anxiety. Paradoxically, lymphoma respondents during the pandemic had better HRQoL than pre-pandemic controls. Reduced therapy intensity was associated with worse HRQoL, whereas respondents who scored caregiver support and the online patient education programme high had better HRQoL. CONCLUSION: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, lymphoma patients and their caregivers had significantly higher incidences of anxiety compared with normals. Lymphoma respondents reported better HRQoL compared with pre-pandemic controls. Reduced therapy intensity in persons with cancer may have unanticipated adverse effects on anxiety and HRQoL. Regular and intense support by caregivers and online education programmes alleviate anxiety and improve HRQoL.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Lymphoma/therapy , Quality of Life/psychology , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Lymphoma/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Psychosocial Support Systems , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 626150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362338

ABSTRACT

Cannabis is increasingly used by individuals with mental health diagnoses and often purported to treat anxiety and various other psychiatric symptoms. Yet support for using cannabis as a psychiatric treatment is currently limited by a lack of evidence from rigorous placebo-controlled studies. While regulatory hurdles and other barriers make clinical trials of cannabis challenging to conduct, addiction researchers have decades of experience studying cannabis use in human laboratory models. These include methods to control cannabis administration, to delineate clinical and mechanistic aspects of cannabis use, and to evaluate potential treatment applications for cannabis and its constituents. In this paper, we review these human laboratory procedures and describe how each can be applied to study cannabis use in patients with psychiatric disorders. Because anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses affecting American adults, and anxiety relief is also the most commonly-reported reason for medicinal cannabis use, we focus particularly on applying human laboratory models to study cannabis effects in individuals with anxiety and related disorders. Finally, we discuss how these methods can be integrated to study cannabis effects in other psychiatric conditions and guide future research in this area.

17.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(7): 491-496, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 epidemic has both physical and psychosocial consequences for the general population. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social dysfunction during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. This cross-sectional web-based study was conducted on 1000 Rafsanjani citizens in southeastern Iran. Data were collected by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the General Health Questionnaire from March 15 to March 30, 2020. The prevalence of GAD was 27.8%. The mean score of social functioning was 9.71 ± 2.66, and all participants had social dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression test showed a significant correlation between anxiety and social functioning (confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.30; p < 0.001), sex (CI, 1.49-3.04; p < 0.001), and concern about COVID-19 (CI, 1.38-2.73; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 epidemic had negative psychosocial consequences in the general population in Iran.


Subject(s)
Anomie , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/ethnology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173684

ABSTRACT

Harmonious and stable family relations are undoubtedly an important component of victory in terms of epidemic prevention. Take the COVID-2019 (2019 new crown pneumonia epidemic) as the major public events background; 24,188 national samples were obtained based on a network survey. We selected gender, education level, occupation type, family scale, neighborhood relationship and psychological state as independent variables, and adopted multiple logistic models to assess the impact of major public events on family relationships and the characteristics of humanistic-regional attributes. The findings are as follows: (1) During the epidemic period, major public health emergencies effectively promoted the national residents' family relationships. (2) The family relationships of national residents presented a high level in central China and a low level in the border areas of China, which is consistent with the spread of COVID-2019 in January and February. (3) Family relationship level averages between 2.201~2.507 among different groups when divided by occupation, age and education. The family relationship has improved, but the change is not drastic and the gap between various groups is not significant, so there is essentially no difference. (4) The impact of major public health emergencies on all families is nearly sudden and instant, so that family relationship changes are often also abrupt. (5) Educational level, family size and gender have a positive effect on the change in family relations, but this effect is weakened as family education level increases; while the anxiety of the interviewees and the neighborhood had a negative effect on the change in family relationship, this indicates that the better the neighborhood relations are, the more harmonious a family relationship is. The above research can provide an important scientific support and decision-making basis for the government to carry out community prevention work, respond to major public health emergencies and construct a family support social policy system in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Relations , China/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(3): 584-586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320565

ABSTRACT

Reports of patients with axillary adenopathy identified on breast imaging after coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination are rising. We propose a pragmatic management approach based on clinical presentation, vaccination delivery, and imaging findings. In the settings of screening mammography, screening MRI, and diagnostic imaging workup of breast symptoms, with no imaging findings beyond unilateral axillary adenopathy ipsilateral to recent (within the past 6 weeks) vaccination, we report the adenopathy as benign with no further imaging indicated if no nodes are palpable 6 weeks after the last dose. For patients with palpable axillary adenopathy in the setting of ipsilateral recent vaccination, clinical follow-up of the axilla is recommended. In all these scenarios, axillary ultrasound is recommended if clinical concern persists 6 weeks after vaccination. In patients with a recent breast cancer diagnosis in the pre- or peritreatment setting, prompt recommended imaging is encouraged as well as vaccination (in the thigh or contralateral arm). Our recommendations align with the ACR BI-RADS Atlas and aim to reduce patient anxiety, provider burden, and costs of unnecessary evaluation of enlarged nodes in the setting of recent vaccinations and, also, to avoid further delays in vaccinations and breast cancer screening during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Ultrasonography , Vaccination
20.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 97(4): 369-377, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This was a systematic review of studies that examined the impact of epidemics or social restriction on mental and developmental health in parents and children/adolescents. SOURCE OF DATA: The PubMed, WHO COVID-19, and SciELO databases were searched on March 15, 2020, and on April 25, 2020, filtering for children (0-18 years) and humans. SYNTHESIS OF DATA: The tools used to mitigate the threat of a pandemic such as COVID-19 may very well threaten child growth and development. These tools - such as social restrictions, shutdowns, and school closures - contribute to stress in parents and children and can become risk factors that threaten child growth and development and may compromise the Sustainable Development Goals. The studies reviewed suggest that epidemics can lead to high levels of stress in parents and children, which begin with concerns about children becoming infected. These studies describe several potential mental and emotional consequences of epidemics such as COVID-19, H1N1, AIDS, and Ebola: severe anxiety or depression among parents and acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress, anxiety disorders, and depression among children. These data can be related to adverse childhood experiences and elevated risk of toxic stress. The more adverse experiences, the greater the risk of developmental delays and health problems in adulthood, such as cognitive impairment, substance abuse, depression, and non-communicable diseases. CONCLUSION: Information about the impact of epidemics on parents and children is relevant to policy makers to aid them in developing strategies to help families cope with epidemic/pandemic-driven adversity and ensure their children's healthy development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Development , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Child , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
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