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1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e5-e10, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing stressor that may have detrimental effects on mental health. Theoretical and empirical literature implies that individuals who are characterized by catastrophic appraisals of somatic cues, a tendency known as anxiety sensitivity, as well as by older subjective age, might be particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety during the pandemic. Furthermore, subjective age might moderate the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Yet, research to date has not explored the contribution of both anxiety sensitivity and subjective age in explaining distress following stress in general, nor in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Filling this gap, a convenience sample of 828 participants (Mage = 43.98, SD = 14.06) filled questionnaires measuring background variables, COVID-19-related stressors, anxiety sensitivity, subjective age, and anxiety and depression symptoms during the pandemic. RESULTS: Positive associations were found between anxiety sensitivity and subjective age, on the one hand, and anxiety and depression symptoms, on the other. Furthermore, subjective age moderated the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Although higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to depression and anxiety during the pandemic, these relations were significantly stronger among participants with an older subjective age. DISCUSSION: The findings are consistent with theories that view subjective age as an intraindividual construct involved in modulating important mental health outcomes in the context of coping with stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Psychotherapeut (Berl) ; 65(4): 291-296, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680760

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resulting constraints on personal (i.e. face to face) treatment, video consultations have recently gained a major role in the delivery of healthcare services; however, until now, most psychotherapists have little experience with conducting video consultations, not least because of poor possibilities for reimbursement from the statutory health insurance. This article provides (1) an overview of the effectiveness of psychotherapy interventions delivered via video consultations for depression and anxiety disorders, (2) recommendations for setting up and conducting these consultations and (3) first experiences of psychotherapists from a German feasibility study and from the provision in routine care in hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(7): 491-496, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 epidemic has both physical and psychosocial consequences for the general population. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social dysfunction during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. This cross-sectional web-based study was conducted on 1000 Rafsanjani citizens in southeastern Iran. Data were collected by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the General Health Questionnaire from March 15 to March 30, 2020. The prevalence of GAD was 27.8%. The mean score of social functioning was 9.71 ± 2.66, and all participants had social dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression test showed a significant correlation between anxiety and social functioning (confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.30; p < 0.001), sex (CI, 1.49-3.04; p < 0.001), and concern about COVID-19 (CI, 1.38-2.73; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 epidemic had negative psychosocial consequences in the general population in Iran.


Subject(s)
Anomie , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/ethnology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(5): e283-e293, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patterns of work during COVID-19 pandemic altered by effort to contain the outbreak affected anxiety and depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 911 residents of Philadelphia, inquiring about their working lives during early months of the epidemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, plus demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. RESULTS: Occupational contact with suspected COVID-19 cases was associated with anxiety. Concerns about return to work, childcare, lack of sick leave, and loss/reduction in work correlated with anxiety and depression, even when there was no evidence of occupational contact with infected persons; patterns differed by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Heightened anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic can be due to widespread disruption of working lives, especially in "non-essential" low-income industries, on par with experience in healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Employment/classification , Employment/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking , Unemployment/psychology
5.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2399-2408, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC) emerged as an epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, and marginalized populations were affected at disproportionate rates. The authors sought to determine the impact of COVID-19 on cancer treatment, anxiety, and financial distress among low-income patients with gynecologic cancer during the peak of the NYC pandemic. METHODS: Medicaid-insured women who were receiving gynecologic oncology care at 2 affiliated centers were contacted by telephone interviews between March 15 and April 15, 2020. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained through self-report and retrospective chart review. Financial toxicity, anxiety, and cancer worry were assessed using modified, validated surveys. RESULTS: In total, 100 patients completed the telephone interview. The median age was 60 years (range, 19-86 years), and 71% had an annual income <$40,000. A change in employment status and early stage cancer (stage I and II) were associated with an increase in financial distress (P < .001 and P = .008, respectively). Early stage cancer and telehealth participation were significantly associated with increased worry about future finances (P = .017 and P = .04, respectively). Lower annual income (<$40,000) was associated with increased cancer worry and anxiety compared with higher annual income (>$40,000; P = .036 and P = .017, respectively). When controlling for telehealth participation, income, primary language, and residence in a high COVID-19 prevalence area, a delay in medical care resulted in a 4-fold increased rate of anxiety (P = .023, 95% CI, 1.278-14.50). Race was not significantly associated with increased financial distress, cancer worry, or anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Low socioeconomic status was the most common risk factor for increased financial distress, cancer worry, and anxiety. Interventions aimed at improving access to timely oncology care should be implemented during this ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Financial Stress/epidemiology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Pandemics/economics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/economics , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/economics , Genital Neoplasms, Female/psychology , Humans , Medicaid , Mental Health , Middle Aged , New York City , Pilot Projects , Poverty , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , United States , Young Adult
6.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 98: 102220, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275253

ABSTRACT

As the world embarks on mass vaccination for COVID-19, we are beginning to encounter unintended dilemmas in imaging oncology patients; particularly with regards to FDG PET/CT. In some cases, vaccine-related lymphadenopathy and FDG uptake on PET/CT can mimic cancer and lead to confounding imaging results. These cases where findings overlap with cancer pose a significant dilemma for diagnostic purposes, follow-up, and management leading to possible treatment delays, unnecessary repeat imaging and sampling, and patient anxiety. These cases can largely be avoided by optimal coordination between vaccination and planned imaging as well as preemptive selection of vaccine administration site. This coordination hinges on patient, oncologist, and radiologists' awareness of this issue and collaboration. Through close communication and patient education, we believe this will eliminate significant challenges for our oncology patients as we strive to end this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/standards , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/metabolism , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 645340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273363

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we aimed to explore the attitude of medical students toward their role and social accountability in this pandemic era. An online survey was developed to elicit information on (1) the role of medical students in the pandemic era; (2) Medical education in the "new normal," and (3) the impact of COVID-19 on medical students. Methods: The online survey, developed by a team consisting of three medical students, three psychiatry residents, and three professors of psychiatry, was conducted on 574 participants (213 medical students, 180 graduates, and 181 professors) in the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Anxiety symptom rating scales, including the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 (SAVE-6) scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale, were applied to measure participant anxiety level. Results: Medical students indicated their willingness to join the healthcare response to the COVID-19 pandemic, if requested; however, graduates and professors recommended that medical students continue their training rather than join the pandemic healthcare response. In the new normal era, medical education has had to change appropriately. Moreover, adequate knowledge of COVID-19 infection and spread must be considered for the continuation of clinical clerkships during the pandemic. Overall, medical students who indicated anxiety about treating possible or confirmed cases of COVID-19 rated higher on the SAVE-6 scale. Finally, medical students who reported that COVID-19 had an impact on their studies and daily life rated higher on the general anxiety scale (GAD-7). Conclusion: Social accountability is an important issue for medical students in the pandemic era. At the same time, non-disruption of their academic calendar would ensure continuous availability of component medical professionals, which is important for adequate future healthcare responses.

8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 670824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273358

ABSTRACT

The present longitudinal survey study explored changes in and effects of foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and listening anxiety (FLLA) on Chinese undergraduate students' English proficiency over a semester in the COVID-19 context. A set of 182 matching questionnaires was collected from first-year undergraduate English as a foreign language learners at two time points of a 16-week semester. Analyses of the data revealed the following major findings: (1) the participants experienced high levels of FLCA and FLLA both at the beginning and end of the semester, neither of which changed significantly during the semester, (2) FLCA and FLLA were highly positively related to each other, (3) FLCA and FLLA significantly predicted students' self-rated proficiency in listening and speaking English, and (4) confidence in using English, efforts and motivation to learn English and interaction with instructors and peers mediated FLCA and FLLA to exert effects on students' self-perceived proficiency in listening and speaking English. These findings indicate that the learning environment is critical in influencing the levels of and changes in FLCA and listening anxiety and that these two types of foreign language anxiety are serious issues in the pandemic foreign language learning context.

9.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 34(2): e14197, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine with social distancing has reduced transmission of COVID-19; however, fear of the disease and these remedial measures cause anxiety and stress. It is not known whether these events have impacted the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and disorders of brain-gut interaction (DGBI). METHODS: An online platform evaluated the prevalence of GI symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collection utilized validated questionnaires and was fully anonymized. Findings were compared with identical data acquired in 2019. The association of results with stress and anxiety was analyzed. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1896 subjects May - August 2019 to 980 non-identical subjects May - June 2020. GI symptoms were reported by 68.9% during the COVID-19 lockdown compared with 56.0% the previous year (p < 0.001). The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (26.3% vs. 20.0%; p < 0.001), functional dyspepsia (18.3% vs. 12.7%; p < 0.001), heartburn (31.7% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.002), and self-reported milk intolerance (43.5% vs. 37.8% p = 0.004) was higher during the pandemic. Many individuals reported multiple symptoms. Anxiety was associated with presence of all GI symptoms. High levels of stress impacted functional dyspepsia (p = 0.045) and abdominal pain (p = 0.013). The presence of DGBI (p < 0.001; OR 22.99), self-reported milk intolerance (p < 0.001; OR 2.50), and anxiety (p < 0.001; OR 2.18) was independently associated with increased GI symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher during the COVID-19 lockdown than under normal circumstances the previous year. This increase was attributable to increased numbers of patients with DGBI, an effect that was associated with anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Bulgaria/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30 Suppl 1: 1437-1444, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273105

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 significantly affects patients' mental health, triggering a wide range of psychological disorders, including anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mandala colouring on the anxiety of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 70 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were randomly divided between the intervention and control groups. Standard care was provided for both groups. The intervention group spent 30 min/day for six consecutive days performing mandala colouring. Patient anxiety was measured prior and subsequent to the intervention in both groups using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 25. The mean anxiety score was not significantly different between the two groups before the intervention (P = 0.08). Subsequent to the intervention, the mean anxiety score in the intervention and control groups was 44.05 ± 4.67 and 67.85 ± 6.25, respectively, indicating a statistically significant (P = 0.0001) decrease in the anxiety measured among the intervention group as compared with that of the control group. The results of this study show that 30 min of mandala colouring daily is an effective strategy for reducing anxiety in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Mandala colouring can complement routine treatment and provides a non-pharmaceutical option for decreasing patient anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Humans , Patients , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(6): 505-512, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The whole world is still struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic. Inflammation response, thought to be associated with severe illness and death, is an important research topic in COVID-19. Inflammation is also an essential condition explored in psychiatric illnesses. Our knowledge about the relationship between the inflammation response and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 is very limited. In this study, the relationship between anxiety and depression levels and inflammation response of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in the hospital was examined. METHODS: 175 patients were included in the study. Sociodemographic Data Form, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were applied to the patients. To evaluate the inflammation responses, blood sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, ferritin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and IL-6 levels were examined. RESULTS: In our study, no relationship was found between anxiety and depression levels and inflammatory responses in patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Anxiety and depression levels of women were higher than men, and NLR, ferritin, IL-6 levels were found to be lower than men. Anxiety levels increase with age. There is a positive correlation between NLR and ferritin levels and duration of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Our study examining the relationship of psychiatric comorbidities with the inflammation response and our increasing literature knowledge, together with studies evaluating the mental effects of COVID-19, suggest that determining the relationship between inflammation responses and psychiatric comorbidities in COVID-19, whose pathophysiology has not been clarified yet, maybe an essential step in interventions on the course of the disease.

12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(9): 3034-3044, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269171

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has the potential to detrimentally impact HIV self-management in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Effective HIV-self management is critically important in managing symptoms as well as viral suppression. We examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV self-management, social support, social isolation, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress in PLHIV. 85 PLHIV were recruited from social media sites and completed an online survey. Data were collected between April 23 and 30, 2020. Participants reported increases in social isolation, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress and decreases in social support and overall HIV self-management from pre- to during the pandemic. Additionally, the Social Support domain and Chronic Nature of HIV domain of the HIV Self-Management Scale were also decreased from pre- to during the pandemic. The ability for PLHIV to maintain HIV self-management during this time is essential and HIV care providers should have plans in place to provide support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Self-Management , Affective Symptoms , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
Front Psychol ; 12: 648000, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research during 2020 has been rapidly attending to the impact of COVID-19 on various dimensions of wellbeing (e.g., physical, psychological, lifestyle and routines) on adults and children around the world. However, less attention has focused on the psychoeducational impact on children and their families. To our knowledge, no currently available studies have looked specifically at the impact of COVID-19 on students with dyslexia and their families. Research on this topic is needed to offer greater support for this population of students and their families. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychoeducational impact of the required COVID-19 quarantine in Spain among children with dyslexia and their families. METHOD: A sample of 32 children with dyslexia and their mothers participated in this study. MEASURES: Children and adolescents with dyslexia and their mother completed several measures before the required national quarantine in Spain and again during the quarantine. Children completed measures of depression, state anxiety, reading activity, and reading motivation. Mothers provided demographic information and completed measures related to students' emotional and behavioral difficulties as well as parenting stress, parental distress, and a questionnaire about educational problems during quarantine. RESULTS: Major findings showed that during quarantine, children with dyslexia had increased levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and parents perceived their children as having more emotional symptoms, hyperactivity-inattention, and conduct problems. During quarantine, children and adolescents with dyslexia also showed less reading activity and less reading motivation. Parents also reported significantly more stress, during quarantine compared to pre-quarantine conditions. Some demographic and psychological variables predicted children's state anxiety as well parental stress. The questionnaire related to impacts of quarantine also revealed several important findings. For example, nearly all parents of children with dyslexia reported (a) difficulties in establishing study routines, (b) that the quarantine negatively affected their child's learning, and (c) that they did not receive sufficient help from teachers on how to support their child's learning. Additionally, the vast majority of the parents were very worried about the child's learning and school success, the child's motivation and interest in reading, the child's peer relations, and the professional skills of the child's teacher. CONCLUSION: This study offers a preliminary investigation into this topic and elucidates several psychoeducational challenges that children with dyslexia and their families have experienced during the quarantine in Spain. Study findings highlight the need to provide immediate support for children with dyslexia and emphasizes the importance of developing prevention programs to mitigate any future negative impacts of COVID-19 on children with dyslexia and their parents.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 675839, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264391

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing and school suspension due to the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) may have a negative impact on children's behavior and well-being. Problematic smartphone use (PSU), problematic social media use (PSMU) and perceived weight stigma (PWS) are particularly important issues for children, yet we have a poor understanding of how these may have been affected by lockdowns and physical isolation resulting from COVID-19. This research aimed to understand how these psychosocial and behavioral variables may be associated with psychological distress, and how these associations may have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 489 children completed a three-wave longitudinal study from January 2020 to June 2020. The first wave was conducted before the COVID-19 outbreak. The second wave was conducted during the outbreak. The third wave was conducted during post-COVID-19 lockdown. Questionnaires measured psychological distress, PSU, PSMU, and PWS. Results: PSU, PSMU, PWS and psychological distress were all significantly associated with each other. PSU was significantly higher during outbreak. PWS was significantly higher before outbreak. We found an increased association between PSMU and PWS across three waves in all three models. The association between PSU and depression/anxiety decreased across three waves; however, association between PSMU and depression/anxiety increased across three waves. Conclusions: COVID-19 initiated school suspension and associated lockdowns appear to have exacerbated PSU and depression among children. However, PWS was reduced during this period. Children should use smartphones and social media safely and cautiously, and be aware of the potential exposure to weight stigmatization.

15.
Reprod Sci ; 29(2): 627-632, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260623

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to investigate a possible correlation between anxiety status and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels among healthcare professionals who provide medical care directly to COVID-19-positive patients during the recent pandemic. Fifty-two healthcare professionals (nurses, midwives, and residents) who provide medical care directly to COVID-19-positive patients in inpatient clinics or intensive care units were enrolled in this study. Serum AMH levels were analyzed to reflect ovarian reserve. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively) were completed by participants to assess their anxiety status. A linear regression model with participant age as the constant variable was applied to analyze the relationship between inventory scale scores and AMH levels. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean AMH value was significantly lower for the participants in the moderate/severe anxiety group compared to the minimal/mild anxiety group (p = 0.007). A linear regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between AMH levels and both BAI (B = -0.030, standard error = 0.010, p = 0.004) and STAI-S and STAI-T scores when age was controlled (both p = 0.003). The severity of anxiety experienced during the recent COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare professionals, who provide medical care directly to COVID-19-positive patients, is found to be related to low AMH levels.


Subject(s)
Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Anxiety/blood , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Midwifery , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Biomarkers/blood , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Ovarian Reserve , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261296

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019) was identified. As there is no any drug to treat this pandemic, the healthcare professionals are disproportionately at higher risk. The mental health outcome is expected to be high. Anxiety is expected to have a significant impact on health professionals, especially among those who work without adequate resources for self-protection. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research was to assess self-reported anxiety symptoms and associated factors among Ethiopian healthcare professionals in the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We have conducted an online cross-sectional study to collect information from healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during the early stage of the outbreak from April 7, 2020 to May 19, 2020. GAD-7 was used for measurement of anxiety. We have used a cut of point of 10 and above to report anxiety symptoms. We have used Google Forms for online data collection and SPSS-22 for analysis. To determine associated factors for anxiety, a binary logistic regression model was used. Variables with p-value < 0.2 during the bivariable binary logistic regression were exported for further analysis in the multivariable binary logistic regression. Finally, variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight healthcare professionals filled the online questionnaire; Majority (71.1%) were males. Significant number of respondents (78.9%) reported lack of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) at the work place. The prevalence of anxiety was 26.8%. Being female (AOR: 1.88; 95% C.I:1.11, 3.19), visiting/treating 30-150 patients per day (AOR: 3.44; 95% C.I:1.51, 7.84), those employed at private healthcare institutions (AOR: 2.40; 95% C.I:1.17, 4.90), who do not believe that COVID-19 is preventable (AOR: 2.04; 95% C.I:1.04, 4.03) and those who reported lack of PPE (AOR: 1.98; 95% C.I:1.04, 3.79) were more likely to be anxious. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety prevalence among healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during early stage of COVID-19 pandemic was high. This study shows that lack of preventive equipment, being female, contact with many patients, low self-efficacy and working in private health facilities were risk factors for anxiety. Anxiety prevention among health professionals during COVID-19 pandemic requires a holistic approach including provision of sufficient PPE, improving self-efficacy and addressing problems both at public and private institutions and focusing more on female health professionals.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , Prevalence , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 635877, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259375

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the effects of an innovative mind-body practice named the brain wave modulation technique (BWM-T) on stress, anxiety, global distress, and affect. The technique was administered online through a web-based video conferencing platform. The intervention started on week four of the first quarantine in Italy (week commencing 30th March 2020), for a duration of 4 weeks and ended before lockdown measures were loosened. 310 people participated in the study, mean age 28.73 years old (SD = 9.16), 77.8% women. Of these, about half were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other half served as controls. Participants completed online psychological tests before and after the intervention. 266 people (144 experimental, 122 controls) completed the post-intervention tests. Consistent with our hypothesis, the study's findings indicate a reduction in the levels of stress, anxiety, global distress, and negative affect in the experimental group, compared to the control group. Moreover, the experimental group also showed higher levels of positive affect, compared to controls after the intervention. The present findings add to the current literature in suggesting that the BWM-T reduced stress not only when administered face-to face but also when administered online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, we also noted that the BWM-T has an effect on anxiety, global distress, and affect, which we had not investigated in previous studies.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 564227, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259365

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers who are on the front line of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are also undergoing shift schedules face long work hours with few pauses, experience desynchronization of their circadian rhythm, and an imbalance between work hours effort and reward in saving lives, resulting in an impact on work capacity, aggravated by the lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), few resources and precarious infrastructure, and fear of contracting the virus and contaminating family members. Some consequences are sleep deprivation, chronic insomnia, stress-related sleep disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. These sleep alterations critically affect mental health, precipitating or perpetuating anxiety, stress, and depression, resulting in the inability to regulate positive and negative emotions. Pre-existing sleep disorders are an important risk factor for the development and maintenance of PSTD when individuals are exposed to an important stressor such as a COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, how an individual regulates the emotion associated with worries during daytime functioning impacts nighttime sleep, precipitating and perpetuating difficulties in sleeping. All of these changes in sleep and emotional regulation also alter the immune system. Sleep deprivation is commonly associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, due to the desynchronizations in circadian rhythms, causing possible psychophysiological disorders and impaired neuroimmune-endocrine homeostasis. From this perspective, we clarify in this article how sleep disorders affect the immune system and emotional regulation, explaining their phenomenological and neurobiological mechanisms, and discussing elements of cognitive and behavioral coping for health professionals to adopt and manage a healthier sleep pattern in the COVID-19 outbreak.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1050, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infections are spreading rapidly worldwide, and primary and middle schools are closed in many countries. After the state of emergency was lifted in Japan, schools have reopened, and teachers are conducting face-to-face classes while maintaining safety precautions. This study aimed to assess the factors contributing to infection-related anxiety and educational anxiety among teachers conducting face-to-face classes during the COVID-19 pandemic after schools reopened. METHODS: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 263 primary and middle school teachers in the Shinagawa area of Tokyo (October 10-30, 2020). The questionnaire assessed the type of school (primary or middle school), sex, age, and factors contributing to infection-related anxiety and educational anxiety that arose from the pandemic. The levels of anxiety and the factors contributing to anxiety were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very anxious). RESULTS: In an analysis of the data of 237 participants excluding the missing data, many teachers reported feeling infection- and education-related anxiety. A majority of the participants were women (n = 152, 64.1%), and the mean age of the participants was 39.8 ± 11.3 years. A stepwise multiple regression analysis identified six factors for infection-related anxiety as significant (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.001). Among these variables, the largest partial regression coefficient value was reported for the following reason: "I feel anxious because we cannot ensure the safety of teachers themselves or of their families" (ß = 0.37, p < 0.001). For educational anxiety, four of six reasons were identified as significant (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.001). Among these, "anxiety about the students' home situations" (ß = 0.41, p < 0.001) and "delay in education (students' side)" (ß = 0.27, p < 0.001) had stronger associations with anxiety compared to the others. CONCLUSION: In-person education during the COVID-19 pandemic has caused teachers to experience anxiety. This report provides useful information by highlighting the reasons for infection-related anxiety and educational anxiety that teachers experience in face-to-face classes during a pandemic. Even if the coverage of a COVID-19 vaccine becomes widespread worldwide, we will still be combating COVID-19 infections for at least a few years. Given concerns regarding such infections, to ensure students' right to education, it is essential to understand why teachers feel anxious and to determine appropriate measures to decrease such anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Tokyo
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256411

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and related factors of mental health impact among medical staffs who experienced the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in China is unknown. Therefore, this survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and related factors of depressive, anxiety, acute stress, and insomnia symptoms in medical staffs in Kashi, Xinjiang, China during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among medical staffs working in First People's Hospital of Kashi, Xinjiang. The questionnaire collected demographic data and self-design questions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Impact of Events Scale-6, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory-15, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire were used to measure psychological symptoms or characteristics. Binary logistic regression was carried out to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia. In total, data from 123 participants were finally included, among which the prevalence rate of depressive, anxiety, acute stress, and insomnia symptoms is 60.2, 49.6, 43.1, and 41.1%, respectively. The regression model revealed that minority ethnicity, being worried about infection, spending more time on following pandemic information, and neurotic personality were positively associated with the mental health symptoms, while extraversion personality, higher education level, and better social support were negatively associated. In our study, the prevalence of mental health impact was high among medical staffs in Kashi, China who experienced the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Several factors were found to be associated with mental health conditions. These findings could help identify medical staffs at risk for mental health problems and be helpful for making precise mental health intervention policies during the resurgence. Our study may pave way for more research into Xinjiang during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Medical Staff , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
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