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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(13-14): NP12284-NP12309, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002030

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to correlate several factors - including depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem levels in both men and women - with the occurrence of domestic violence against women (VAW) during quarantine. This cross-sectional study was carried out in April 2020, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic when lockdown procedures were implemented; 86 married couples participated in this study amounting to 172 responses in total. A different questionnaire was set for women and men; the couple filled out their respective questionnaire simultaneously, but privately where one did not see the answers of the other. Inclusion criteria included married couples of all ages that are living together during the lockdown of COVID-19. The results of this study showed that a higher total abuse score was found in 39 females (45.3%; CI: 0.34 - 0.56). Being a Muslim female (Beta =24.80) and females having higher anxiety (Beta=0.97) were significantly associated with higher total abuse scores, whereas higher stress score in female (Beta=-0.61) was significantly associated with lower total abuse scores. In conclusion, this study focuses on VAW as a serious problem while demonstrating its further emergence during quarantine. This study also focused on the effects brought on by lockdown policies, including social and economic factors, and their implications in the increase of VAW during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine
2.
Front Psychol ; 11: 582014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760251

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively impacted global economies and employment. In the UK, it is predicted that approximately eight million jobs were furloughed as a result of the outbreak and the associated restriction of movement or shielding measures. This study aimed to investigate the impact of changes in employment status on cognitive and emotional health as well as perceptions of work. Furthermore, it examined the relationships between women's job security and anxiety, depression and cognitive function. Women living with breast cancer (N = 234) completed online questionnaires to measure their cognitive function, general emotional well-being, COVID-19 related emotional vulnerability (COVID-EMV), work ability and COVID-19 related perceptions of work. Our results revealed that threat to job security was predictive of depression and cognitive function in the entire sample Such that those with higher levels of perceived job security had lower depression and better cognitive function. Further, women who were furloughed or unable to continue work reported higher job insecurity compared to those who had worked throughout the pandemic. Greater rumination was also associated with worse anxiety and depression as well as poorer cognitive function. Finally, moderation analysis highlighted that women who had better cognitive functioning were less likely to experience anxiety when their job security was high. Given our findings, we suggest that employers provide women with accessible interventions to enhance cognitive and emotional resilience and thus help protect against the detrimental effects of job insecurity created by the COVID-19 outbreak.

3.
Curr Psychol ; 41(2): 1057-1064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

4.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 1047-1055, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) has been associated with psychological distress during its rapid rise period in Pakistan. The present study aimed to assess the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the three metropolitan cities of Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based study was conducted in 276 HCWs from April 10, 2020, to June 5, 2020. Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) were used for the mental health assessment of the HCWs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis (MLRA) was performed to measure the association between the demographics and the occurrence of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS). RESULTS: The frequency of DAS in the HCWs was 10.1%, 25.4%, and 7.3%, respectively. The MLRA showed that the depression in HCWs was significantly associated with the profession (P<0.001). The anxiety in HCWs was significantly associated with their age (P=0.005), profession (P<0.05), and residence (P<0.05). The stress in HCWs was significantly associated with their age (P<0.05). LIMITATION: This study was conducted in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, when the number of COVID-19 cases was on the rise in Pakistan and it only represents a definite period (April to June 2020). CONCLUSION: The symptoms of DAS are present in the HCWs of Pakistan and to manage the psychological health of HCWs, there is a need for the initiation of psychological well-being programs.

5.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e5-e10, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing stressor that may have detrimental effects on mental health. Theoretical and empirical literature implies that individuals who are characterized by catastrophic appraisals of somatic cues, a tendency known as anxiety sensitivity, as well as by older subjective age, might be particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety during the pandemic. Furthermore, subjective age might moderate the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Yet, research to date has not explored the contribution of both anxiety sensitivity and subjective age in explaining distress following stress in general, nor in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Filling this gap, a convenience sample of 828 participants (Mage = 43.98, SD = 14.06) filled questionnaires measuring background variables, COVID-19-related stressors, anxiety sensitivity, subjective age, and anxiety and depression symptoms during the pandemic. RESULTS: Positive associations were found between anxiety sensitivity and subjective age, on the one hand, and anxiety and depression symptoms, on the other. Furthermore, subjective age moderated the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Although higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to depression and anxiety during the pandemic, these relations were significantly stronger among participants with an older subjective age. DISCUSSION: The findings are consistent with theories that view subjective age as an intraindividual construct involved in modulating important mental health outcomes in the context of coping with stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Psychotherapeut (Berl) ; 65(4): 291-296, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680760

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resulting constraints on personal (i.e. face to face) treatment, video consultations have recently gained a major role in the delivery of healthcare services; however, until now, most psychotherapists have little experience with conducting video consultations, not least because of poor possibilities for reimbursement from the statutory health insurance. This article provides (1) an overview of the effectiveness of psychotherapy interventions delivered via video consultations for depression and anxiety disorders, (2) recommendations for setting up and conducting these consultations and (3) first experiences of psychotherapists from a German feasibility study and from the provision in routine care in hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14887, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence and worldwide spread of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, it has caused people to experience adverse psychological effects. This study aimed to assess anxiety levels during COVID-19 in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including nephrotic syndrome (NS) and kidney transplantation (Tx). METHODS: A case-controlled, cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 10-18 years, who had a diagnosis of CKD or NS, or Tx, and followed in our center between April and July 2020. A healthy control group was recruited with age- and gender-matched children. A questionnaire with printed and online versions was designed in three parts: the first addressed demographic characteristics, the second addressed opinions about the pandemic, and the third was the Turkish version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale - Child Version. RESULTS: A total of 88 children completed the questionnaire. The patient and control groups were similar in terms of gender, age, household members and history of psychiatric treatment. Both groups stated that coronavirus is a risky disease for children (63.6%), and that they were afraid of contagion (69.3%). Only half of them were receiving realistic and informative answers from family members. In the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale - Child Version, 66% of them received a high score on at least one subscale. The social phobia scores of the control group were higher than those of the patient group, although the proportion of high scores was similar in both groups. The ratio of high-scored participants was higher in CKD patients for panic disorder, and was lower in the immunosuppressive agent group for social phobia. CONCLUSION: The current COVID-19 pandemic is a disaster that children encounter for the first time in their lives. It does not exclusively cause anxiety among children with chronic kidney diseases but also affects healthy children.

8.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(2): e149-e152, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672370

ABSTRACT

GOALS: The goal of this study was to describe the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on ability to engage in activities and the influence on psychological distress and gastrointestinal symptoms among individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. BACKGROUND: Individuals with IBS and comorbid anxiety and/or depression report increased symptoms and decreased quality of life compared with individuals with IBS alone. The current COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to further influence symptoms among individuals with IBS and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. STUDY: Individuals who met the Rome-IV IBS criteria and reported mild to severe anxiety and/or depression were included. Participants completed an online survey with questions about anxiety, depression, impact of COVID on activities and symptoms, and demographics. RESULTS: Fifty-five individuals participated in the study. The COVID-19 pandemic most commonly influenced their ability to spend time with friends and family, shop for certain types of food, and access health care. Participants also reported increased stress (92%), anxiety (81%), and depressive symptoms (67%). Finally, around half the sample reported increases in abdominal pain (48%), diarrhea (45%), or constipation (44%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is related to self-reported increases in psychological distress and gastrointestinal symptoms among individuals with IBS and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Additional research is needed to intervene on these symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 730-740, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637711

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The prevalence of perinatal anxiety and depressive symptoms have been speculated to increase during an infectious disease outbreak but remains unknown in the context of the COVID-19 situation. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety and depressive symptoms among pregnant women and postpartum mothers during the COVID-19 period. METHODS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched for articles from November 2019 to December 2020. Twenty-six observational studies and brief reports were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of anxiety was greater than depression in both antenatal and postnatal periods, and the prevalence of depression was higher in the antenatal period than the postnatal period. The pooled prevalence for antenatal anxiety symptoms, antenatal depressive symptoms and postnatal depressive symptoms were 40% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.27-0.52), 27% (95% CI: 0.20-0.33) and 17% (95% CI: 0.10-0.24), respectively. Europe (56%, 95% CI: 0.28-0.85) had significantly higher prevalence of antenatal anxiety than Asia (16%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.23). CONCLUSIONS: The heightened prevalence of perinatal psychological disorders served as an impetus for healthcare professionals and policy makers to ramp up their support and mitigation strategies for pregnant women and mothers in times of health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 721-729, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636188

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother's and child's physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide an insight into mental well-being of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19 by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (N=330) completed questionnaires between 8 April and 6 May. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (N=1428). Mental well-being was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. Multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference=1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference=4.0 points). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women questioned during the COVID-19 pandemic showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a non-pandemic period in 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
11.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Sex Med ; 9(1): 100295, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic include pandemic triggered feelings of fear, uncertainty, and anxiety added to the effects of restricting the population's activities in lockdown. AIM: We aimed to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on sexual satisfaction of females and males in Egypt and to evaluate possible predictive factors. METHODS: Married men and females in Egypt were invited to respond to an online questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed medical history, socioeconomic status, sexual performance satisfaction before and during the lockdown in addition to validated Arabic questionnaires for depression, sexual function in males and females, and sexual satisfaction (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Female Sexual Function Index, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Index of Sexual Satisfaction, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measures were frequency of depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and sexual satisfaction in males and females during COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 479 females and 217 males completed the questionnaire. Sexual satisfaction was significantly higher before (91.2%, 73.5%) than during lockdown (70.5%, 56.2%) in both males and females, respectively. During lockdown, significantly more males (70.5%) reported being satisfied with their sexual performance than females (56.2%) (P < .001). More than half of the male subjects (68.2%) had no erectile dysfunction while 97.3% females scored ≤26.5 on the Female Sexual Function Index scale suggestive of sexual difficulties. Sexual stress was significantly greater in females (70.8%) than males (63.1%). Educational level, occupation, anxiety, and erectile dysfunction were independently associated with sexual stress in males. Being a housewife or unemployed, husband's age >35 years, marriage duration of 5-10 years, anxiety, and female sexual dysfunction were predictors of sexual relation stress in females. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic was associated with lower sexual satisfaction in both genders. Females however suffered more anxiety and depression and thereby greater risk of sexual function difficulties and sexual dissatisfaction. Intervention strategies in order to lessen the suffering of affected individuals particularly after the pandemic are recommended. Omar SS, Dawood W, Eid N, et al. Psychological and Sexual Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Egypt: Are Women Suffering More. Sex Med 2021;9:100295.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22841, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis, arbitrary charges, annoying queues, and clinic waiting times among others are long-standing phenomena in the medical industry across the world. These factors can contribute to patient anxiety about misdiagnosis by clinicians. However, with the increasing growth in use of big data in biomedical and health care communities, the performance of artificial intelligence (Al) techniques of diagnosis is improving and can help avoid medical practice errors, including under the current circumstance of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to visualize and measure patients' heterogeneous preferences from various angles of AI diagnosis versus clinicians in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. We also aim to illustrate the different decision-making factors of the latent class of a discrete choice experiment (DCE) and prospects for the application of AI techniques in judgment and management during the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and in the future. METHODS: A DCE approach was the main analysis method applied in this paper. Attributes from different dimensions were hypothesized: diagnostic method, outpatient waiting time, diagnosis time, accuracy, follow-up after diagnosis, and diagnostic expense. After that, a questionnaire is formed. With collected data from the DCE questionnaire, we apply Sawtooth software to construct a generalized multinomial logit (GMNL) model, mixed logit model, and latent class model with the data sets. Moreover, we calculate the variables' coefficients, standard error, P value, and odds ratio (OR) and form a utility report to present the importance and weighted percentage of attributes. RESULTS: A total of 55.8% of the respondents (428 out of 767) opted for AI diagnosis regardless of the description of the clinicians. In the GMNL model, we found that people prefer the 100% accuracy level the most (OR 4.548, 95% CI 4.048-5.110, P<.001). For the latent class model, the most acceptable model consists of 3 latent classes of respondents. The attributes with the most substantial effects and highest percentage weights are the accuracy (39.29% in general) and expense of diagnosis (21.69% in general), especially the preferences for the diagnosis "accuracy" attribute, which is constant across classes. For class 1 and class 3, people prefer the AI + clinicians method (class 1: OR 1.247, 95% CI 1.036-1.463, P<.001; class 3: OR 1.958, 95% CI 1.769-2.167, P<.001). For class 2, people prefer the AI method (OR 1.546, 95% CI 0.883-2.707, P=.37). The OR of levels of attributes increases with the increase of accuracy across all classes. CONCLUSIONS: Latent class analysis was prominent and useful in quantifying preferences for attributes of diagnosis choice. People's preferences for the "accuracy" and "diagnostic expenses" attributes are palpable. AI will have a potential market. However, accuracy and diagnosis expenses need to be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Diagnosis , Patient Preference , Physicians , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Choice Behavior , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/economics , Female , Health Expenditures , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(12): 1355-1362, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574147

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to detect anxiety levels of the physicians during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to assess the knowledge, perspective, and willingness of the physicians about telemedicine. Materials and Methods: This was a survey study of physicians from different specialties who provided patient care during the pandemic in Turkey. A total of 824 physicians responded to questionnaire, which consisted of 5 sections: (1) demographic characteristics; (2) anxiety level; (3) knowledge; (4) perspective; and (5) willingness to use telemedicine. Results: Fifty-six percent of the participants were found to experience mild-to-severe anxiety during the pandemic. It was found that the early career physicians most likely report anxiety about COVID-19 (p = 0.012). Physicians working in training and research hospital settings had higher Beck Anxiety Inventory scores compared to their colleagues working in private health care institutions (p = 0.011). Anxiety levels of physicians were not affected by working experience, existence of comorbidities, or living conditions of the participants (p = 0.138, p = 0.317, and p = 0.123, respectively). The results showed that the participants had a low level of knowledge about telemedicine. Only 61.1% of the physicians stated that they had heard of telemedicine before. The physicians who experienced telemedicine before (N = 76, 9.2% of all the participants) were more likely to find telemedicine beneficial both in pandemic (p < 0.001) and postpandemic period (p = 0.002). Conclusions: About half of our physicians had different levels of anxiety during the pandemic, and this anxiety seemed to be more related to infecting their relatives. Participants thought that providing health care services with telemedicine during the pandemic period would be beneficial and reduce the spread of hospital-acquired COVID-19. However, there was no consensus among the participants regarding the use of telemedicine in the postpandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Curr Psychol ; 40(12): 6308-6323, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: In the wake of COVID-19, organizations all over India have closed their premises and shifted to work from home policy to curb the further spread of the virus. This has led to increased stress and anxiety among employees, which explicably affects their satisfaction with life. Thus, the present study analyses the effect of COVID-19 induced stressors (role overload, lifestyle choices, family distraction, and occupational discomfort) on employees' distress levels and job performance. Subsequently, the impact of such distress and job performance on the employees' life satisfaction is analyzed during the lockdown period. METHODOLOGY: Data was collected from 433 working professionals of private and public organizations in the Delhi and NCR region of India during India's third and fourth phase of lockdown via a survey, which was distributed online. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was applied first to establish the validity of this study's model (measurement model validity) and subsequently test the hypothesized relationships in the model (structural model). RESULTS: The COVID-19 induced stressors, i.e., role overload, lifestyle choices, and occupational discomfort, were significant predictors of distress during the lockdown. It has been found that role overload and change in lifestyle choice did not significantly affect job performance. Family distraction, occupational discomfort, and distress were significant in impacting job performance, with distress being the most significant one. During the COVID-19 pandemic, life satisfaction has reduced due to a significant increase in distress levels and lowered job performances. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-01567-0.

16.
Curr Psychol ; 40(12): 6282-6290, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525628

ABSTRACT

In order to propose better mental health interventions under the pandemic threat, the present study aimed to investigate whether depression and anxiety are associated to Chinese adults' perceptions of government's pandemic responses and the personal lifestyle changes imposed by those responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a telephone survey with random sampling and obtained a probability community sample of 616 adults (39.1% men; M age = 41.7, SD age = 16.3) in Macao, China in April 2020. The prevalence of 8.8% probable depression and 12.0% probable anxiety was observed in this sample. Positive perceptions toward government's pandemic responses were found to be negatively associated with probable depression and probable anxiety (ORu = .36 and .41, p < .05). Three lifestyle-changing stressors (i.e., increased family conflict, friendship deterioration, and weight gain), were commonly reported (29.9, 27.5, and 43.0% respectively), and displayed positive associations with probable depression (ORu = 1.67 to 1.87, p < .05) and probable anxiety (ORu = 1.54 to 2.10, p < .05). Our findings suggest protective effects of perceived trust and satisfaction regarding government's pandemic responses against mental distress and the potential mental health threats from three pandemic-specific lifestyle-changing stressors. These findings can inform clinicians and policymakers to better prepare for the mental health impacts of the current and future pandemics.

17.
Curr Psychol ; 40(12): 6259-6270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525623

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of depression and anxiety has been shown to be higher in the urban population compared with the rural population. The present study investigated the prevalence of depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and depression with comorbid anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in a random sample drawn from several urban communities in Malaysia. This study also determined the association between the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and depression with comorbid anxiety symptoms. We recruited 326 participants, who were administered a sociodemographic characteristics questionnaire; the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess the presence or absence of depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and depression with comorbid anxiety symptoms; and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQoL-BREF) to assess their QoL. The following prevalence values were obtained among the participants: depression symptoms, 23.9%; anxiety symptoms, 41.7%; and depression with comorbid anxiety symptoms, 19.9%. Those assessed after the declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic showed increased odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.41-6.35, p = 0.006) and depressive with comorbid anxiety symptoms (adjusted OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.37-7.45, p = 0.005), while the presence of comorbid stress increased the odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted OR = 16.00, 95% CI = 7.84-32.63, p < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (adjusted OR = 19.72, 95% CI = 9.75-39.89, p < 0.001), and depressive with comorbid anxiety symptoms (adjusted OR = 40.44, 95% CI = 15.90-102.87, p < 0.001). Higher psychological QoL reduced the odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99, p = 0.032) and depressive with comorbid anxiety symptoms (adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.98, p = 0.041), whereas higher physical health QoL (adjusted OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97, p = 0.021) and social relationship QoL (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90, p = 0.009) reduced the odds of anxiety symptoms. Based on our findings, we recommended several measures to curb psychological complications among the urban population, particularly as the battle to contain COVID-19 is ongoing.

18.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77: S404-S412, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prospective study was conducted during the second phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among healthcare workers (HCWs) and factors that influence the outcome. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 1124 HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 30, 2020, to April 2, 2020). Demographic data, questions on COVID-19 and scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were analysed using the chi-square test (Bonferroni correction) and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The study consists of 1124 HCWs, including 749 doctors, 207 nurses, 135 paramedics, 23 administrators and ten supporting staff members. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were reported as 37.2% and 31.4%, respectively. The risk factors for anxiety were female gender (30.6% vs 45.5%), age group (20-35 years) (50.4% vs 61.2%), unmarried (21.2% vs 30.6%) and job profile (nurse) (14.7% vs 26.4%). The protective factor was having service of more than 20 years (23.4% vs 14.8%). The risk factors for depression were age group (20-35 years) (51.3% vs 61.3%) and employed at a primary care hospital (16.2% vs 23.4%). The protective factors were job profile (doctor) (69.9% vs 59.6%) and having service of more than 20 years (22.3% vs 15.5%). CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of the HCWs reported anxiety and depressive symptoms. The risk factors for anxiety symptoms were female gender, younger age and job profile (nurse) and for depressive symptoms were younger age and working at a primary care hospital. Future research studies should identify strategies for providing a safer and supportive work environment for HCWs to face epidemics/pandemics.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 242-254, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of COVID-19 has brought huge changes to people's lifestyles, college students have also been affected seriously. Evidence about these significant changes indicated that college students were more prone to feel anxious and depressed. To derive a precise assessment of the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom among college students worldwide, we conducted this meta-analysis. METHODS: Based on the guidance of PRISMA, literature was searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycArticles (last search November 6, 2020). These articles after the screening were analyzed by a random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom. Also, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were performed in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the pooled anxiety symptom prevalence was 31% (95% CI: 23-39%), pooled depressive symptom prevalence was 34% (95% CI: 27-41%). Subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom among different countries' college students were different, and the pooled depressive symptom prevalence of females was higher compared with males. LIMITATIONS: The prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom in worldwide college students could be better assessed by a standard and reliable questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the prevalence of anxiety symptom and depressive symptom during the COVID-19 pandemic is relatively high. Except for interventions that should be taken to control the pandemic urgently, mental health services are also needed to decrease the risk of anxiety and depression among college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
20.
Sex Disabil ; 39(3): 461-478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525567

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the changes in sexual functioning and alexithymia levels in patients with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 162 patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected using the Information Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For 83.3% of the participants, there was a decrease in sexual functioning after diabetes, 69.8% after the COVID-19 pandemic, and 67.2% due to both conditions. The majority of the patients stated the reasons for experiencing sexual problems related to not seeing sexuality as a priority (77.1%), and stress/anxiety experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic (67.9%). Moreover, patients' alexithymia, anxiety, and depression levels were found to be high during the pandemic, when the study was conducted. A positive correlation was identified between alexithymia and anxiety and depression. Further, multiple regression results indicated that about 50% of alexithymia levels could be explained by anxiety and depression levels. The anxiety, depression, and alexithymia scores of those who had decreased sexual functioning before and during the pandemic period were statistically significantly higher than those who did not have any change (p < 0.01). During the COVID-19 pandemic when the study was conducted, high levels of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression were observed in participants, and it was found that their sexual functioning was negatively affected. Healthcare professionals should evaluate their patients in extraordinary situations such as epidemics and pandemics in terms of sexual functioning as well as other vital functions.

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