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1.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 32(2): 551-555, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279005

ABSTRACT

Although novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the respiratory system, it can affect multiple organ systems, leading to serious complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure. Nearly 20 to 55% of patients with COVID-19 experience coagulation disorders that cause high mortality in line with the severity of the clinical picture. Thromboembolism can be observed in both venous and arterial systems. The vast majority of thromboembolic events are associated with the venous system and are often observed as pulmonary embolism. Arterial thromboembolisms often involve the arteries in the lower extremities, followed by those in the upper extremities. Herein, we report a rare case of COVID-19 pneumonia whose left arm was amputated at the forearm level after arterial thromboembolism in the left upper extremity. This case report is valuable, as it is the first reported case of upper extremity arterial thromboembolism in Turkey, as well as the only case in the literature in which the patient underwent four surgical interventions and is still alive.


Subject(s)
Amputation/methods , Brachial Artery , COVID-19 , Reoperation/methods , Thrombectomy , Thromboembolism , Upper Extremity , Aged , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Artery/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Humans , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/methods , Thromboembolism/complications , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Upper Extremity/pathology , Upper Extremity/surgery
2.
Front Surg ; 8: 679757, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259416

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous and arterial thromboembolism is commonly reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients, although there are still no definitive statistical data regarding its incidence. Case presentation: we report a case of a patient who fell ill with Covid during hospitalization for a pneumonectomy complicated by empyema and bronchopleural fistula. The patient, despite being cured of COVID, died after 14 days for pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusion: Our case strengthens the suggestion of adequate thromboprophylaxis in all hospitalized COVID patients and of increasing prophylaxis in critically ill patients even in the absence of randomized studies.

3.
Blood ; 137(20): 2838-2847, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236540

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality from subclinical thrombotic events occur frequently in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients. Whether the risk extends postdischarge has been controversial. Our prospective registry included consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized within our multihospital system from 1 March to 31 May 2020. We captured demographics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, medications, postdischarge thromboprophylaxis, and 90-day outcomes. Data from electronic health records, health informatics exchange, radiology database, and telephonic follow-up were merged. Primary outcome was a composite of adjudicated VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality (ACM). Principal safety outcome was major bleeding (MB). Among 4906 patients (53.7% male), mean age was 61.7 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (38.6%), diabetes (25.1%), obesity (18.9%), and cancer history (13.1%). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 13.2%. VTE rate was 1.55%; ATE, 1.71%; ΑCM, 4.83%; and MB, 1.73%. Composite primary outcome rate was 7.13% and significantly associated with advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 3.66; 95% CI, 2.84-4.71), prior VTE (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.00-4.47), intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.78-2.93), chronic kidney disease (CKD; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.47-3.0), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.10-3.80), carotid occlusive disease (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.14), IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06-2.14), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.04-2.17). Postdischarge anticoagulation was significantly associated with reduction in primary outcome (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47-0.81). Postdischarge VTE, ATE, and ACM occurred frequently after COVID-19 hospitalization. Advanced age, cardiovascular risk factors, CKD, IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4, and ICU stay increased risk. Postdischarge anticoagulation reduced risk by 46%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
4.
Fam Med Community Health ; 9(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, potential aspirin targets on this pathogenesis and the potential role of aspirin in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: The online databases PubMed, OVID Medline and Cochrane Library were searched using relevant headlines from 1 January 2016 to 1 January 2021. International guidelines from relevant societies, journals and forums were also assessed for relevance. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: A review of the selected literature revealed that clinical deterioration in COVID-19 is attributed to the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and dysregulated inflammation. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory effects, antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulant properties as well as pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. During the COVID-19 pandemic, low-dose aspirin is used effectively in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement, prevention of pre-eclampsia and postdischarge treatment for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Prehospital low-dose aspirin therapy may reduce the risk of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, whereas aspirin association with mortality is still debatable. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a low-dose aspirin regimen for primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients aged 40-70 years who are at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, or an intermediate risk with a risk-enhancer and have a low risk of bleeding. Aspirin's protective roles in COVID-19 associated with acute lung injury, vascular thrombosis without previous cardiovascular disease and mortality need further randomised controlled trials to establish causal conclusions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
5.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(12): 1684-1695, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with significant risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality particularly among hospitalized patients with critical illness and elevated D-dimer (Dd) levels. Conflicting data have yet to elucidate optimal thromboprophylaxis dosing. HEP-COVID (NCT04401293) is a phase 3, multicenter, pragmatic, prospective, randomized, pseudo-blinded, active control trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus prophylactic-/intermediate-dose LMWH or unfractionated heparin (UFH) for prevention of a primary efficacy composite outcome of VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality 30 ± 2 days post-enrollment. Eligible patients have COVID-19 diagnosis by nasal swab or serologic testing, requirement for supplemental oxygen per investigator judgment, and Dd >4 × upper limit of normal (ULN) or sepsis-induced coagulopathy score ≥4. Subjects are randomized to enoxaparin 1 mg/kg subcutaneous (SQ)/two times a day (BID) (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 30 mL/min) or 0.5 mg/kg (CrCl 15-30 mL/min) versus local institutional prophylactic regimens including (1) UFH up to 22,500 IU (international unit) daily (divided BID or three times a day), (2) enoxaparin 30 and 40 mg SQ QD (once daily) or BID, or (3) dalteparin 2,500 IU or 5,000 IU QD. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. Events are adjudicated locally. Based on expected 40% relative risk reduction with treatment-dose compared with prophylactic-dose prophylaxis, 308 subjects will be enrolled (assuming 20% drop-out) to achieve 80% power. Distinguishing design features include an enriched population for the composite endpoint anchored on Dd >4 × ULN, stratification by intensive care unit (ICU) versus non-ICU, and the ability to capture asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis via screening ultrasonography prior to discharge.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Humans , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
6.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13767, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168101

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significantly increased risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism, particularly in severely sick patients. Recently, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) cases have been reported in the context of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These cases either had an active COVID infection with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or were symptomatic (fever, respiratory symptoms, myalgia) during the presentation. We present here a 41-year-old male with CVST who had negative RT-PCR and positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) COVID-19 antibodies. He was neither diagnosed nor had a flu-like illness before admission. This case highlights that CVST can be a late sequela of previously undiagnosed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection.

7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 80-87, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes thromboembolic complications during or post-infection period despite a lack of conventional risk factors. The study aims to learn fundamental changes in COVID-19 patients who underwent embolectomy in terms of clinical characteristics and clot composition. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study design, we evaluated 21 patients who underwent embolectomy in our clinic between March 12, 2020, and December 31, 2020. Demographics, characteristics, and laboratory values were abstracted and analyzed. Histopathological assessment was held in the pathology department. RESULTS: Of these 21 patients, 11 (52.3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 10 (47.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative. There is no statistical difference in terms of anatomic distribution, diagnostic method, length of hospital stay, amputation or mortality levels. Thromboembolic material of COVID-19 patients include significantly less red blood cell (RBC) (21.2-32.6%; P= 0.01), more lymphocyte (14.1-2.6%; P< 0.001), and more leukocyte (27.1-22.1%; P= 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the fibrin ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory cells are prominent in arterial thromboembolic material of COVID-19 patients. A combination of hyperinflammation and prothrombotic status may be responsible for this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/pathology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/surgery , Length of Stay , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/surgery , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 88-94, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder. Hematologic and cardiovascular involvement of COVID-19 causes thromboembolic events across multiple organs which mainly manifest as venous thromboembolism, and rarely, peripheral arterial thromboembolic events. In-situ thrombosis of a healthy, non-atherosclerotic native artery is rare, and COVID-19 has been reported to be a cause of this phenomenon. We aimed to report our institutional experience with COVID-19 patients who developed acute limb ischemia (ALI) during hospitalization or after discharge. METHODS: This was a single-center cross-sectional study. Records of all patients ≥18 years of age admitted to a tertiary center with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection between September 1 and December 31, 2020 were retrospectively examined. Data regarding patient demographics, co-morbidities and outcomes were collected. Patients were followed-up during index hospitalization and for 30 days postdischarge. Acute limb ischemia was diagnosed by means of duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the presence of a clinical suspicion. RESULTS: A total of 681 consecutive patients (38.5% women) were hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period. Median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-74). In-hospital mortality occurred in 94 (13.8%) patients. Ninety (13.2%) patients required intensive care unit admission at some point of their hospital stay. Six (0.9%) patients (one woman) with a median age of 62 years experienced ALI (IQR, 59-64.3). All patients were receiving low molecular weight heparin when they developed ALI. The median of duration between COVID-19 diagnosis and ALI symptom onset was 13 days (IQR, 11.3-14). Three patients underwent emergent surgical thrombectomy combined with systemic anticoagulation, and 3 received systemic anticoagulation alone. Two patients with ALI did not survive to hospital discharge. Among survivors, 1 patient underwent bilateral major amputations, and another underwent a minor amputation within 1 month of hospital discharge. Symptoms of ALI completely resolved in 2 patients without sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder with involvement of hematologic and cardiovascular systems. Despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis, hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of ALI, and subsequent limb loss or even death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Ischemia/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/therapy , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Thorax ; 76(10): 970-979, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of venous thromboembolic event (VTE) and arterial thromboembolic event (ATE) thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this meta-analysis, we systematically searched for observational studies describing the prevalence of VTE and ATE in COVID-19 up to 30 September 2020. RESULTS: We analysed findings from 102 studies (64 503 patients). The frequency of COVID-19-related VTE was 14.7% (95% CI 12.1% to 17.6%, I2=94%; 56 studies; 16 507 patients). The overall prevalence rates of pulmonary embolism (PE) and leg deep vein thrombosis were 7.8% (95% CI 6.2% to 9.4%, I2=94%; 66 studies; 23 117 patients) and 11.2% (95% CI 8.4% to 14.3%, I2=95%; 48 studies; 13 824 patients), respectively. Few were isolated subsegmental PE. The VTE prevalence was significantly higher in intensive care unit (ICU) (23.2%, 95% CI 17.5% to 29.6%, I2=92%, vs 9.0%, 95% CI 6.9% to 11.4%, I2=95%; pinteraction<0.0001) and in series systematically screening patients compared with series testing symptomatic patients (25.2% vs 12.7%, pinteraction=0.04). The frequency rates of overall ATE, acute coronary syndrome, stroke and other ATE were 3.9% (95% CI 2.0% to to 3.0%, I2=96%; 16 studies; 7939 patients), 1.6% (95% CI 1.0% to 2.2%, I2=93%; 27 studies; 40 597 patients) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.5% to 1.5%, I2=84%; 17 studies; 20 139 patients), respectively. Metaregression and subgroup analyses failed to explain heterogeneity of overall ATE. High heterogeneity limited the value of estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted in the ICU for severe COVID-19 had a high risk of VTE. Conversely, further studies are needed to determine the specific effects of COVID-19 on the risk of ATE or VTE in less severe forms of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Humans , Prevalence , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
10.
Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med ; 5(1): 17-21, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076829

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has been associated with a variety of prothrombotic sequelae. The pathogenesis of this hypercoagulability has not yet been fully elucidated, but it is thought to be multifactorial with overactivation of the complement pathways playing a central role. There is emerging evidence that the resulting complications are not confined to the venous circulation, and even in patients without typical respiratory symptoms or traditional risk factors, there is a significant rate of arterial thromboembolic disease in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE REPORT: We describe a patient presenting with bilateral leg pain without any respiratory symptoms or fever who ultimately was found to be COVID-19 positive and had thromboembolism of the aorta and bilateral iliac occlusion. This report reviews available evidence on the prevalence of arterial thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients and some proposed mechanisms of the pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. CONCLUSION: It is important that the emergency physician maintain a high degree of suspicion for arterial thromboembolic disease in patients who are infected with COVID-19 even in the absence of typical respiratory symptoms. Additionally, COVID-19 should be considered in patients with unexplained thromboembolic disease, as this may increase the detection of COVID-19.

11.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2021: 8737580, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an increased prevalence of thromboembolic disease in critically ill patients with the novel SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). However, the use of enhanced anticoagulation therapy in these patients remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of thromboembolic phenomena (TEP) and hemorrhagic events (HEs) in intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients. METHODS: One hundred and sixty ICU patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. Clinical examination results, laboratory data, and imaging studies (computed tomography/Doppler ultrasound scans) for these patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Outcome measures including days on mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and day-28 mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty patients (37.5%) developed TEP including thirty patients with deep vein thrombosis, 55 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 7 patients with arterial thromboembolism. Cardiac arrhythmias, lymphocytopenia, and increased D-dimers were more frequently observed in the TEP group compared to the non-TEP group of patients (all p < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a cutoff D-dimer level of 3.0 µg/mL for predicting PE were 74.5%, 95.1%, 86.8%, and 91.9%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced HEs, which were more frequently observed in the TEP group (p < 0.05). Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher in the TEP group (60%) compared to the non-TEP group (30%) of patients (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of TEP and HEs in mechanically ventilated critically ill COVID-19 patients were 37. 5% and 8.1%. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher in the TEP group (60%) compared to the non-TEP group (30%) of patients.

12.
J Vasc Surg ; 73(2): 381-389.e1, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the arterial complications and hypercoagulability associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We sought to characterize our experience with arterial thromboembolic complications in patients with hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: All patients admitted from March 1 to April 20, 2020, and who underwent carotid, upper, lower and aortoiliac arterial duplex, computed tomography angiogram or magnetic resonance angiography for suspected arterial thrombosis were included. A retrospective case control study design was used to identify, characterize and evaluate potential risk factors for arterial thromboembolic disease in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Demographics, characteristics, and laboratory values were abstracted and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 424 patients underwent 499 arterial duplex, computed tomography angiogram, or magnetic resonance angiography imaging studies with an overall 9.4% positive rate for arterial thromboembolism. Of the 40 patients with arterial thromboembolism, 25 (62.5%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative or admitted for unrelated reasons and 15 (37.5%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. The odds ratio for arterial thrombosis in COVID-19 was 3.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-6.78; P = .001). Although not statistically significant, in patients with arterial thromboembolism, patients who were SARS-CoV-2 positive compared with those testing negative or not tested tended to be male (66.7% vs 40.0%; P = .191), have a less frequent history of former or active smoking (42.9% vs 68.0%; P = .233) and have a higher white blood cell count (14.5 vs 9.9; P = .208). Although the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients trended toward a higher the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (8.9 vs 4.1; P = .134), creatinine phosphokinase level (359.0 vs 144.5; P = .667), C-reactive protein level (24.2 vs 13.8; P = .627), lactate dehydrogenase level (576.5 vs 338.0; P = .313), and ferritin level (974.0 vs 412.0; P = .47), these differences did not reach statistical significance. Patients with arterial thromboembolic complications and SARS-CoV-2 positive when compared with SARS-CoV-2 negative or admitted for unrelated reasons were younger (64 vs 70 years; P = .027), had a significantly higher body mass index (32.6 vs 25.5; P = .012), a higher d-dimer at the time of imaging (17.3 vs 1.8; P = .038), a higher average in hospital d-dimer (8.5 vs 2.0; P = .038), a greater distribution of patients with clot in the aortoiliac location (5 vs 1; P = .040), less prior use of any antiplatelet medication (21.4% vs 62.5%; P = .035), and a higher mortality rate (40.0% vs 8.0%; P = .041). Treatment of arterial thromboembolic disease in COVID-19 positive patients included open thromboembolectomy in six patients (40%), anticoagulation alone in four (26.7%), and five (33.3%) did not require or their overall illness severity precluded additional treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for acute arterial thromboembolic complications despite a lack of conventional risk factors. A hyperinflammatory state may be responsible for this phenomenon with a preponderance for aortoiliac involvement. These findings provide an early characterization of arterial thromboembolic disease in SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/therapy
13.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(1): 273-278, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023386

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has impacted millions of people worldwide. This novel virus has a variety of presentations and complications. Notably, patients with this infection have an associated coagulopathy, presenting with symptoms such as gastrointestinal bleeds, deep vein thrombosis, ischemic cerebrovascular events, and pulmonary embolism. Although there are documented cases of venous thromboembolism in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, the authors present an interesting case of upper extremity arterial thromboembolism in a 75-year-old patient surgically treated for arterial thrombus removal. We also discuss diagnosis, medical management, and surgical approach to an upper extremity arterial thromboembolism in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019, to highlight the challenges of hypercoagulability in such patients.

14.
Shock ; 55(6): 700-716, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998566

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to a significant coagulopathy, a phenomenon termed "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy." COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events, a source of significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. Further evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. This presents a unique set of challenges for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on laboratory coagulation disruptions associated with COVID-19 and the clinical effects of thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral arterial thrombosis, and acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19. Endothelial injury and augmented innate immune response are implicated in the development of diffuse macro- and microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy is an important determinant of appropriate treatment and monitoring of these complications. We highlight the importance of diagnosis and management of dysregulated coagulation in COVID-19 to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients with thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy
15.
Thromb J ; 18(1): 38, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977680

ABSTRACT

Among the pathways and mediators that may be dysregulated in COVID-19 infection, there are proinflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte apoptosis, and the coagulation cascade. Venous and arterial thromboembolisms also are frequent in COVID-19 patients with the increased risk of some life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. In this regard, overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α induce cytokine storms, increase the risk of clot formation, platelet activation, and multiorgan failure that may eventually lead to death among these patients. Surface S protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to its target transmembrane receptor, named as angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2(, on various cells such as lymphocyte, alveolar cells, monocytes/macrophages, and platelets. Notably, the activation of the coagulation cascade occurs through tissue factor (TF)/FVIIa-initiated hemostasis. Accordingly, TF plays the major role in the activation of coagulation system during viral infection. In viral infections, the related coagulopathy multiple factors such as inflammatory cytokines and viral specific TLRs are involved, which consequently induce TF expression aberrantly. SARS-COV-2 may directly infect monocytes/ macrophages. In addition, TF expression/release from these cells may play a critical role in the development of COVID-19 coagulopathy. In this regard, the use of TF- VIIa complex inhibitor may reduce the cytokine storm and mortality among COVID-19 patients.

16.
Thromb J ; 18(1): 34, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the incidence of thromboembolism has been increasingly reported. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolism among COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Scopus, and grey literature were searched until June 2020. Observational studies reported on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or arterial thromboembolism (ATE) were included. The pool incidences and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies were included. In the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, the pooled incidence of VTE was 28% (95% CI, 22-34%). Subgroups based on compression ultrasound (CUS) screening revealed a higher incidence of DVT in the CUS screening group than in the no CUS screening group (32% [95% CI, 18-45%] vs. 6% [95% CI, 4-9%]). The pooled incidence of ATE in ICU was 3% (95% CI, 2-5%). In the non-ICU setting, the pooled incidence of VTE was 10% (95% CI, 6-14%,). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VTE in COVID-19 patients was higher in the ICU setting than in the non-ICU setting, and also significantly higher in studies that incorporated the CUS screening protocol. The incidence of ATE in the ICU setting was low. VTE prophylactic measures should be given to all hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

17.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 77: 454-458, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926900

ABSTRACT

INTRODUTION: COVID-19 infection may predispose to venous and arterial thromboembolism due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, immobilization and disseminated intravascular coagulation; however, there are few reports of lower limb ischemia as the main manifestation of the disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Male patient, 69 years old, asthmatic, ex-smoker and bearer of systemic arterial hypertension, has been admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset of pain in the right lower limb (RLL), associated with cyanosis and reduced temperature of the limb. He has been tested for COVID-19 in the OR with positive result for IGG and IGM. Computed tomography angiography (AngioCT) was performed, showing signs of arterial embolization to both limbs, right internal iliac artery, and superior mesenteric artery. Faced with the threat of limb loss and the absence of signs and symptoms of visceral ischemia, the patient underwent full anticoagulation and RLL thromboembolectomy and tricompartmental fasciotomy. He was discharged after 7 days of hospitalization and demonstrated no other signs and symptoms of COVID-19, following outpatient follow-up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 is associated with high risk of thrombotic complications being related to the clinical severity of the patient, with few studies that show symptoms of sudden pain in the lower limb without other complaints. CONCLUSION: Individuals infected with COVID-19 are at risk for arterial thromboembolic events, and knowledge of such cases is essential in order to create specific protocols for prophylaxis of thrombotic events in these patients, in addition to increasing the suspicion of infection in individuals with acute arterial occlusion, mostly during pandemic times.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 281-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is commonly complicated with pro-thrombotic state and endothelial dysfunction. While several studies reported a high incidence of venous thromboembolic events. The occurrence of arterial thromboses are yet rarely described and could be underestimated. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and biological characteristics of COVID-19 patients presenting with an associated arterial thromboembolic event. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentric study in 3 centers between France and Italy. All patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and arterial thromboembolic events were included in the analysis. RESULTS: From March 8th to April 25th 2020, we identified 20 patients (24 events) with arterial thromboembolic events over 209 admitted patients (9.6%) with severe COVID-19 infection. Arterial thrombotic events included acute coronary occlusions (n = 9), stroke (n = 6), limb ischemia (n = 3), splenic infarcts (n = 3), aortic thrombosis (n = 2) and occlusive mesenteric ischemia (n = 1). At the time of the event, 10/20 (50%) of patients received thromboprohylaxis, 2/20 (10%) were receiving treatment dose anticoagulation and 5/20 (25%) were receiving antiplatelet therapy. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest that serious arterial thrombotic events might occur in Covid-19 patients. However, the exact incidence of such events and the best way to prevent them yet remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Occlusion/virology , Ischemia/virology , Mesenteric Ischemia/virology , Splenic Infarction/virology , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aorta , Extremities/blood supply , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 69: 85-88, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739101

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few cases of arterial thromboembolisms have been reported after novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in case of severe infection or in elderly patients. We report a case of femoral arterial thrombosis in a young patient after nonsevere infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A common femoral artery thrombosis extended in the first third of superficial and profunda femoral arteries associated with tibial posterior and popliteal artery thrombosis was diagnosed in a 24-year-old man complaining of right lower limb pain for one month. The evolution was good after anticoagulation and antiaggregant treatments and thrombectomy. Etiologic assessment was negative except for nonsevere COVID-19. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 accesses host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein, abundant in the lungs, which is also expressed by endothelial cells and is associated with important inflammatory syndrome and coagulopathy, leading to vascular lesions. Thrombosis prevalence is not fully established and seems to be higher in case of major inflammation and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Arterial thromboembolisms are described in many vascular territories, each time in elderly patients, or in case of severe infection. We described a femoral arterial thrombosis in a young patient with negative etiological assessment except nonsevere COVID-19. Treatment consists in anticoagulation and antiaggregant drugs and thrombectomy. Preventing venous thromboembolism treatment is recommended in case of severe infection or in the ICU, but there is no clear recommendation for arterial thromboembolism prevention. This case should lead us to be very careful of the arterial event risk even if the infection is nonsevere and the patient is young.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Femoral Artery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombosis/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
20.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 290-294, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predisposes to arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. We describe the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of acute arterial ischemia and concomitant infection at the epicenter of cases in the United States. METHODS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection between March 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020 with an acute arterial thromboembolic event were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, anatomical location of the thromboembolism, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Over the 11-week period, the Northwell Health System cared for 12,630 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A total of 49 patients with arterial thromboembolism and confirmed COVID-19 were identified. The median age was 67 years (58-75) and 37 (76%) were men. The most common preexisting conditions were hypertension (53%) and diabetes (35%). The median D-dimer level was 2,673 ng/mL (723-7,139). The distribution of thromboembolic events included upper 7 (14%) and lower 35 (71%) extremity ischemia, bowel ischemia 2 (4%), and cerebral ischemia 5 (10%). Six patients (12%) had thrombus in multiple locations. Concomitant deep vein thrombosis was found in 8 patients (16%). Twenty-two (45%) patients presented with signs of acute arterial ischemia and were subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. The remaining 27 (55%) developed ischemia during hospitalization. Revascularization was performed in 13 (27%) patients, primary amputation in 5 (10%), administration of systemic tissue- plasminogen activator in 3 (6%), and 28 (57%) were treated with systemic anticoagulation only. The rate of limb loss was 18%. Twenty-one patients (46%) died in the hospital. Twenty-five (51%) were successfully discharged, and 3 patients are still in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: While the mechanism of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear, the occurrence of such complication is associated with acute arterial ischemia which results in a high limb loss and mortality.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures
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