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1.
Wellcome Open Res ; 6: 9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502788

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 calls for rapid and cost-effective methods to accurately identify infected individuals. The vast majority of patient samples is assessed for viral RNA presence by RT-qPCR. Our biomedical research institute, in collaboration between partner hospitals and an accredited clinical diagnostic laboratory, established a diagnostic testing pipeline that has reported on more than 252,000 RT-qPCR results since its commencement at the beginning of April 2020. However, due to ongoing demand and competition for critical resources, alternative testing strategies were sought. In this work, we present a clinically-validated procedure for high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-LAMP in 25 minutes that is robust, reliable, repeatable, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive.

2.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 465-472, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436361

ABSTRACT

Soon after the 2019 outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China, a protocol for real-time RT-PCR assay detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was established by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in Japan. The protocol used Charité's nucleocapsid (Sarbeco-N) and NIID nucleocapsid (NIID-N2) assays. During the following months, SARS-CoV-2 spread and caused a global pandemic, and various SARS-CoV-2 sequences were registered in public databases, such as the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). In this study, we evaluated the S2 assay (NIID-S2) that was newly developed to replace the Sarbeco-N assay and the performance of the NIID-N2 and NIID-S2 assays, referring to mismatches in the primer/probe targeted region. We found that the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the NIID-S2 set were comparable to those of the NIID-N2 assay, and the detection rate for clinical specimens was identical to that of the NIID-N2 assay. Furthermore, among the available sequences (approximately 192,000), the NIID-N2 and NIID-S2 sets had 2.6% and 1.2% mismatched sequences, respectively, although most of these mismatches did not affect the amplification efficiency, except the 3' end of the NIID-N2 forward primer. These findings indicate that the previously developed NIID-N2 assay is suitable for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 with support from the newly developed NIID-S2 set.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Humans , Japan , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 77-85, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 is currently causing a worldwide pandemic. The first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded in Ghana on March 12, 2020. Since then, the country has been combatting countrywide community spread. This report describes how the Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR) is supporting the Ghana Health Service (GHS) to diagnose infections with this virus in Ghana. METHODS: The National Influenza Centre (NIC) in the Virology Department of the NMIMR, adopted real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for the diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 in January 2020. Samples from suspected cases and contact tracing across Ghana were received and processed for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were 'pooled' to enable simultaneous batch testing of samples without reduced sensitivity. OUTCOMES: From February 3 to August 21, the NMIMR processed 283 946 (10%) samples. Highest number of cases were reported in June when the GHS embarked on targeted contact tracing which led to an increase in number of samples processed daily, peaking at over 7,000 samples daily. There were several issues to overcome including rapid consumption of reagents and consumables. Testing however continued successfully due to revised procedures, additional equipment and improved pipeline of laboratory supplies. Test results are now provided within 24 to 48 hours of sample submission enabling more effective response and containment. CONCLUSION: Following the identification of the first cases of SARS-CoV-2infection by the NMIMR, the Institute has trained other centres and supported the ramping up of molecular testing capacity in Ghana. This provides a blueprint to enable Ghana to mitigate further epidemics and pandemics. FUNDING: The laboratory work was supported with materials from the Ghana Health Service Ministry of Health, the US Naval Medical Research Unit #3, the World Health Organization, the Jack Ma Foundation and the University of Ghana Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research. Other research projects hosted by the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research contributed reagents and laboratory consumables. The funders had no role in the preparation of this manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , National Health Programs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389449

ABSTRACT

Several studies have described the long-term kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but long-term follow-up data, i.e., >6 months, are still sparse. Additionally, the literature is inconsistent regarding the waning effect of the serological response. The aim of this study was to explore the temporal dynamic changes of the immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized and non-hospitalized symptomatic patients over a period of 10 months. Six different analytical kits for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection were used. Positivity rates, inter-assay agreement and kinetic models were determined. A high inter-individual and an inter-methodology variability was observed. Assays targeting total antibodies presented higher positivity rates and reached the highest positivity rates sooner compared with assays directed against IgG. The inter-assay agreement was also higher between these assays. The stratification by disease severity showed a much-elevated serological response in hospitalized versus non-hospitalized patients in all assays. In this 10-month follow-up study, serological assays showed a clinically significant difference to detect past SARS-CoV-2 infection with total antibody assays presenting the highest positivity rates. The waning effect reported in several studies should be interpreted with caution because it could depend on the assay considered.

5.
J AOAC Int ; 104(4): 872-888, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Eurofins GeneScan Technologies' VIRSeek SARS-CoV-2 Mplex kit is a RT (reverse transcription) real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the detection of two targets on the N-gene (nucleocapsid) of SARS-CoV-2. An extraction control, that allows monitoring of the extraction procedure and PCR inhibition, is included. OBJECTIVE: In silico analysis and wet testing showed inclusivity and exclusivity of the assay. The complete workflow starting from surface swabbing (VIRSeek PATHOSwab kit), RNA extraction (VIRSeek RNAExtractor), RT-PCR (VIRSeek SARS-CoV-2 Mplex), and evaluation with FastFinder was validated in comparison to the CDC method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 on stainless steel. METHOD: In silico analysis was performed by using the MFOLD online program. The matrix study was performed for stainless steel inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 isolated from the first documented US case of a traveler from Wuhan, China. RESULTS: For inclusivity, 15 764 sequences were analyzed and all mismatches (0.37% of the sequences had single mismatches) were considered non-critical. Cross reactivity for closely related viruses and background organisms was performed, resulting in correct exclusion of all. No significant differences were observed for the probability of detection (POD) study when comparing to the CDC method. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the inclusivity and exclusivity study show that the assay is specific for detection of SARS-CoV-2. The POD study showed no statistically significant difference compared to the CDC reference method, results were identical for the uninoculated and the high level. For the fractional recovery level, the candidate method detected 9/17 samples leading to a POD of 0.47, the reference method detected 11/20 samples leading to a POD of 0.55. HIGHLIGHT: The complete workflow starting from swabbing of the surface (VIRSeek PATHOSwab kit), RNA extraction (VIRSeek RNAExtractor), RT-PCR (VIRSeek SARS CoV-2 Mplex) and evaluation with FastFinder was validated in comparison to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 on Stainless Steel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stainless Steel
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 603996, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389195

ABSTRACT

Seroprevalence studies are crucial both for estimating the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and to provide a measure for the efficiency of the confinement measures. Portuguese universities were closed on March 16th 2020, when Portugal only registered 62 SARS-CoV-2 infection cases per million. We have validated a SARS-CoV-2 ELISA assay to a stabilized full-length spike protein using 216 pre-pandemic and 19 molecularly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 positive individual's samples. At NOVA University of Lisbon, presential work was partially resumed on May 25th with staggered schedules. From June 15th to 30th, 3-4 weeks after the easing of confinement measures, we screened 1,636 collaborators of NOVA university of Lisbon for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike specific IgA and IgG antibodies. We found that spike-specific IgG in 50 of 1,636 participants (3.0%), none of which had anti-spike IgA antibodies. As participants self-reported as asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic, our study also provides a measurement of the prevalence of asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our study suggests that essential workers have a 2-fold increase in viral exposure, when compared to non-essential workers that observed confinement. Additional serological surveys in different population subgroups will paint a broader picture of the effect of the confinement measures in the broader community.

7.
J Clin Virol ; 127: 104383, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous nucleic acid amplification assays have recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and there is a need to assess their test performance relative to one another. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the test performance of the Hologic Panther Fusion SARS-CoV-2 assay targeting two regions of open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) to a high complexity molecular-based, laboratory-developed EUA from Stanford Health Care (SHC) targeting the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) gene. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a diagnostic comparison study by testing nasopharyngeal samples on the two assays. Assay agreement was assessed by overall percent agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 184 nasopharyngeal samples were tested using the two assays, of which 180 showed valid results and were included for the comparative analysis. Overall percent agreement between the assays was 98.3 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 95.2-99.7) and kappa coefficient was 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93-1.0). One sample was detected on the SHC laboratory developed test (LDT) and not on the Panther Fusion, and had a Ct of 35.9. Conversely, 2 samples were detected on the Panther Fusion and not on the LDT, and had Ct values of 37.2 and 36.6. CONCLUSION: The Panther Fusion SARS-CoV-2 assay and the SHC LDT perform similarly on clinical nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Other considerations, including reagent availability, turnaround time, labor requirements, cost and instrument throughput should guide the decision of which assay to perform.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Viral Envelope Proteins/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5538-5543, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363694

ABSTRACT

In the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic there is a mass screening of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) happening around the world due to the extensive spread of the infections. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostic tests to expedite the identification of cases and to facilitate early isolation and control spread. Hence this study evaluates six different rapid nucleic acid detection assays that are commercially available for SARS-CoV-2 virus detection. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 4981 participants and were tested for the SARS-CoV-2 virus by the gold standard real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and with one of these six rapid methods of detection. Evaluation of the rapid nucleic acid detection assays was done by comparing the results of these rapid methods with the gold standard RT-qPCR results for SARS-COV-2 detection. AQ-TOP had the highest sensitivity (98%) and a strong kappa value of 0.943 followed by Genechecker and Abbot ID NOW. The POCKIT (ii RT-PCR) assay had the highest test accuracy of 99.29% followed by Genechecker and Cobas Liat. Atila iAMP showed the highest percentage of invalid reports (35.5%) followed by AQ-TOP with 6% and POCKIT with 3.7% of invalid reports. Genechecker system, Abbott ID NOW, and Cobas Liat were found to have the best performance and agreement when compared with the standard RT-PCR for COVID-19 detection. With further research, these rapid tests have the potential to be employed in large-scale screening of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , United Arab Emirates
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5333-5338, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363672

ABSTRACT

The accurate laboratory detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a crucial element in the fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing on combined oral and nasopharyngeal swab (ONPS) suffers from several limitations, including the need for qualified personnel, the discomfort caused by invasive nasopharyngeal sample collection, and the possibility of swab and transport media shortage. Testing on saliva would represent an advancement. The aim of this study was to compare the concordance between saliva samples and ONPS for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 on various commercial and laboratory-developed tests (LDT). Individuals were recruited from eight institutions in Quebec, Canada, if they had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected on a recently collected ONPS, and accepted to provide another ONPS, paired with saliva. Assays available in the different laboratories (Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2, Cobas® SARS-CoV-2, Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct, Allplex™ 2019-nCoV, RIDA®GENE SARS-CoV-2, and an LDT preceded by three different extraction methods) were used to determine the concordance between saliva and ONPS results. Overall, 320 tests were run from a total of 125 saliva and ONPS sample pairs. All assays yielded similar sensitivity when saliva was compared to ONPS, with the exception of one LDT (67% vs. 93%). The mean difference in cycle threshold (∆C t ) was generally (but not significantly) in favor of the ONPS for all nucleic acid amplification tests. The maximum mean ∆​​​​​C t was 2.0, while individual ∆C t varied importantly from -17.5 to 12.4. Saliva seems to be associated with sensitivity similar to ONPS for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by various assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/instrumentation , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Mouth/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Quebec/epidemiology , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/standards
10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 706-713, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported worldwide. Negative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing associated with positive serology in most of the cases suggests a postinfectious syndrome. Because the pathophysiology of this syndrome is still poorly understood, extensive virological and immunological investigations are needed. METHODS: We report a series of 4 pediatric patients admitted to Geneva University Hospitals with persistent fever and laboratory evidence of inflammation meeting the published definition of MIS-C related to COVID-19, to whom an extensive virological and immunological workup was performed. RESULTS: RT-PCRs on multiple anatomical compartments were negative, whereas anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were strongly positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Both pseudoneutralization and full virus neutralization assays showed the presence of neutralizing antibodies in all children, confirming a recent infection with SARS-CoV-2. The analyses of cytokine profiles revealed an elevation in all cytokines, as reported in adults with severe COVID-19. Although differing in clinical presentation, some features of MIS-C show phenotypic overlap with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In contrast to patients with primary HLH, our patients showed normal perforin expression and natural killer (NK) cell degranulation. The levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (sIL-2R) correlated with the severity of disease, reflecting recent T-cell activation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MIS-C related to COVID-19 is caused by a postinfectious inflammatory syndrome associated with an elevation in all cytokines, and markers of recent T-cell activation (sIL-2R) occurring despite a strong and specific humoral response to SARS-CoV-2. Further functional and genetic analyses are essential to better understand the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 179-181, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QIAstat-Dx® Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 Panel (QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2), which is a closed, fully automated, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that detects severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 21 other pathogens that cause respiratory disease. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with or suspected of having coronavirus disease 2019 were collected and tested at Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, France. Using the World Health Organisation-approved real-time-PCR assay developed by the Charité Institute of Virology as the reference, positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 189 negative and 88 positive samples were analyzed. QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 had an NPA of 90.48% (95% confidence interval (CI), 85.37%, 94.26%) and a PPA of 94.32% (95% CI, 87.24%, 98.13%). Co-infections were detected by QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 in 4/277 specimens. The methods exhibited comparable failure rates (23/307 [7.5%] vs. 6/298 [2.0%] for QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 and reference methods, respectively). The turnaround time was shorter for QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 compared with the reference method (difference in mean -14:30 h [standard error, 0:03:23; 95% CI, -14:37, -14:24]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 shows good agreement with the reference assay, providing faster and accurate results for detecting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0007521, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276884

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic assays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are essential for patient management, infection prevention, and the public health response for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The efficacy and reliability of these assays are of paramount importance in both tracking and controlling the spread of the virus. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays rely on a fixed genetic sequence for primer and probe binding. Mutations can potentially alter the accuracy of these assays and lead to unpredictable analytical performance characteristics and false-negative results. Here, we identify a G-to-U transversion (nucleotide 26372) in the SARS-CoV-2 E gene in three specimens with reduced viral detection efficiency using a widely available commercial assay. Further analysis of the public GISAID repository led to the identification of 18 additional genomes with this mutation, which reflect five independent mutational events. This work supports the use of dual-target assays to reduce the number of false-negative PCR results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 28(12): 2047-2051, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275500

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection poses significant risks during surgical interventions. We investigated the intraperitoneal presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients who are COVID-19 positive. DESIGN: A prospective group study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology designated for patients with COVID-19, Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior, Warsaw. PATIENTS: Overall, 65 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection underwent cesarian section. The diagnosis was confirmed either by positive antigen test or by positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay performed within no more than 13 days before the operation. INTERVENTIONS: On the day of the operation, a nasopharyngeal swab was taken, and peritoneal fluid was collected at the beginning of the operation. Both the nasopharyngeal swab and peritoneal fluid samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 65 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection were enrolled in the study. The SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid test by nasopharyngeal swab produced positive results in 34 patients. In this group as well as in 31 nonconfirmed patients, all peritoneal fluid samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a low risk of COVID-19 transmission from the peritoneal cavity at the time of laparoscopy or laparotomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ascitic Fluid , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 580, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lateral flow assays can detect anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies to monitor transmission. However, standardized evaluation of their accuracy and tools to aid in interpreting results are needed. METHODS: We evaluated 20 IgG and IgM assays selected from available tests in April 2020. We evaluated the assays' performance using 56 pre-pandemic negative and 56 SARS-CoV-2-positive plasma samples, collected 10-40 days after symptom onset, confirmed by a molecular test and analyzed by an ultra-sensitive immunoassay. Finally, we developed a user-friendly web app to extrapolate the positive predictive values based on their accuracy and local prevalence. RESULTS: Combined IgG + IgM sensitivities ranged from 33.9 to 94.6%, while combined specificities ranged from 92.6 to 100%. The highest sensitivities were detected in Lumiquick for IgG (98.2%), BioHit for both IgM (96.4%), and combined IgG + IgM sensitivity (94.6%). Furthermore, 11 LFAs and 8 LFAs showed perfect specificity for IgG and IgM, respectively, with 15 LFAs showing perfect combined IgG + IgM specificity. Lumiquick had the lowest estimated limit-of-detection (LOD) (0.1 µg/mL), followed by a similar LOD of 1.5 µg/mL for CareHealth, Cellex, KHB, and Vivachek. CONCLUSION: We provide a public resource of the accuracy of select lateral flow assays with potential for home testing. The cost-effectiveness, scalable manufacturing process, and suitability for self-testing makes LFAs an attractive option for monitoring disease prevalence and assessing vaccine responsiveness. Our web tool provides an easy-to-use interface to demonstrate the impact of prevalence and test accuracy on the positive predictive values.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , User-Centered Design , User-Computer Interface
16.
Virus Res ; 302: 198484, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272769

ABSTRACT

Novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a global health challenge particularly for developing countries like Pakistan where overcrowded cities, inadequate sanitation, little health awareness and poor socioeconomic conditions exist. The SARS-CoV-2 has been known to spread primarily through direct contact and respiratory droplets. However, detection of SARS-CoV-2 in stool and sewage have raised the possibility of fecal-oral mode of transmission. Currently, quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is the only method being used for SARS-CoV-2 detection, which requires expensive instrumentation, dedicated laboratory setup, highly skilled staff, and several hours to report results. Considering the high transmissibility and rapid spread, a robust, sensitive, specific and cheaper assay for rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection is highly needed. Herein, we report a novel colorimetric RT-LAMP assay for naked-eye detection of SARS-COV-2 in clinical as well as sewage samples. Our SARS-CoV-2 RdRp-based LAMP assay could successfully detect the virus RNA in 26/28 (93%) of RT-PCR positive COVID-19 clinical samples with 100% specificity (n = 7) within 20 min. We also tested the effect of various additives on the performance of LAMP assay and found that addition of 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) could increase the sensitivity of assay up to 101 copies of target sequence. Moreover, we also successfully applied this assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 in sewage waters collected from those areas of Lahore, a city of Punjab province of Pakistan, declared as virus hotspots by local government. Our optimized LAMP assay could provide a sensitive first tier strategy for SARS-CoV-2 screening and can potentially help diagnostic laboratories in better handling of high sample turnout during pandemic situation. By providing rapid naked-eye SARS-CoV-2 detection in sewage samples, this assay may support pandemic readiness and emergency response to any possible virus outbreaks in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sewage/virology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Colorimetry , Feces/virology , Humans , Mass Screening , Pakistan/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(1): 61-68, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the diagnostic performance of eosinopenia, alone or combined with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and/or lymphocytes, as a marker of active COVID-19 in patients hospitalized for suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A prospective observational study including patients hospitalized for suspicion of COVID-19 in a COVID unit was performed from 20th March to 5th April 2020, in Perpignan, France. Patients for which there was a doubt upon diagnosis, who were recently under oral corticosteroids, had myeloid malignancy or human immunodeficient virus infection were excluded. SARS-CoV-2 detection was performed using an RT-PCR assay, from nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Complete blood count were performed for all patients. RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-one patient were included: 57 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, 64 patients were not. Eosinophil count was lower in the COVID-19 group (median: 0/µL versus 70/µL, p < 0.0001). To diagnose COVID-19, eosinopenia had a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 78.1% while lymphopenia's were 73.7% and 62.5% respectively. Using area under curve (AUC) of receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curves, eosinophil's optimal cut-off level was 10/µL, sensitivity and specificity were 86%, and 79.7% respectively. Regarding the eosinophil/PMN ratio, the optimal cut-off level was 3.344, sensitivity and specificity were 87.7% and 73.4% respectively. The AUC of lymphocyte/PMN ratio was significantly lower than eosinophil/PMN ratio's (0.621 versus 0.846, p = 0.0003). CONCLUSION: Eosinopenia - <10/µL - and eosinophil/PMN ratio are useful, low-cost, reproducible tools to help diagnose COVID-19, during an epidemic period, in a population of hospitalized patients admitted for suspicion of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eosinophils/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5917-5923, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272212

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, laboratory diagnosis has mainly been conducted using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Detecting the presence of an infectious virus in the collected sample is essential to analyze if a person can transmit infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there have been no quantitative investigations conducted for infectious SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. Therefore, in the present study, a rapid and simple focus-forming assay using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique was developed to quantify infectious SARS-CoV-2 titers in 119 samples (n = 52, nasopharyngeal swabs [NPS]; n = 67, saliva) from patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, the study findings were compared with the cycle threshold (Ct) values of real-time RT-PCR. The infectious virus titers in NPS samples and Ct values were inversely correlated, and no infectious virus could be detected when the Ct value exceeded 30. In contrast, a low correlation was observed between the infectious virus titers in saliva and Ct values (r = -0.261, p = 0.027). Furthermore, the infectious virus titers in the saliva were significantly lower than those in the NPS samples. Ten days after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, the infectious virus was undetectable, and Ct values were more than 30 in NSP and saliva samples. The results indicate that patients whose symptoms subsided 10 days after onset, with Ct values more than 30 in NSP and saliva samples, were less likely to infect others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Plaque Assay , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva/virology , Viral Load , Young Adult
19.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270651

ABSTRACT

Rapid and inexpensive immunodiagnostic assays to monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroconversion are essential for conducting large-scale COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance and profiling humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 infections or immunizations. Herein, a colorimetic serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgGs in patients' plasma was developed using short antigenic epitopes conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Four immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes, located on the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, were characterized for their IgG binding affinity and used as highly specific biological motifs on the nanoparticle to recognize target antibodies. Specific bivalent binding between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and epitope-functionalized AuNPs trigger nanoparticle aggregation, which manifests as a distinct optical transition in the AuNPs' plasmon characteristics within 30 min of antibody introduction. Co-immobilization of two epitopes improved the assay sensitivity relative to single-epitope AuNPs with a limit of detection of 3.2 nM, commensurate with IgG levels in convalescent COVID-19-infected patients. A passivation strategy was further pursued to preserve the sensing response in human plasma medium. When tested against 35 clinical plasma samples of varying illness severity, the optimized nanosensor assay can successfully identify SARS-CoV-2 infection with 100% specificity and 83% sensitivity. As the epitopes are conserved within the circulating COVID-19 variants, the proposed platform holds great potential to serve as a cost-effective and highly specific alternative to classical immunoassays employing recombinant viral proteins. These epitope-enabled nanosensors further expand the serodiagnostic toolbox for COVID-19 epidemiological study, humoral response monitoring, or vaccine efficiency assessment.

20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 375-377, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270184

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been spreading rapidly all over the world. In the absence of effective treatments or a vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop a more rapid and simple detection technology of COVID-19. We describe a WarmStart colorimetric reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The detection limit for this assay was 1 copy/µL SARS-CoV-2. To test the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the assay, 37 positive and 20 negative samples were used. The WarmStart colorimetric RT-LAMP had 100% sensitivity and specificity. End products were detected by direct observation, thereby eliminating the need for post-amplification processing steps. WarmStart colorimetric RT-LAMP provides an opportunity to facilitate virus detection in resource-limited settings without a sophisticated diagnostic infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Colorimetry/standards , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
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