Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26
Filter
1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 83-91, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) occurs in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Risks and outcomes remain poorly understood. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to 5 Johns Hopkins hospitals was conducted between March and August 2020. CAPA was defined using composite clinical criteria. Fine and Gray competing risks regression was used to analyze clinical outcomes and, multilevel mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression was used to compare longitudinal disease severity scores. RESULTS: In the cohort of 396 people, 39 met criteria for CAPA. Patients with CAPA were more likely than those without CAPA to have underlying pulmonary vascular disease (41% vs 21.6%, respectively; P = .01), liver disease (35.9% vs 18.2%; P = .02), coagulopathy (51.3% vs 33.1%; P = .03), solid tumors (25.6% vs 10.9%; P = .02), multiple myeloma (5.1% vs 0.3%; P = .03), and corticosteroid exposure during the index admission (66.7% vs 42.6%; P = .005), and had lower body mass indexes (median, 26.6 vs 29.9 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]; P = .04). Patients with CAPA had worse outcomes, as measured by ordinal severity of disease scores, requiring longer time to improvement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.081.091.1; P < .001), and advancing in severity almost twice as quickly (subhazard ratio, 1.31.82.5; P < .001). They were intubated twice as long as those without CAPA (subhazard ratio, 0.40.50.6; P < .001) and had longer hospital stays (median [interquartile range], 41.1 [20.5-72.4) vs 18.5 [10.7-31.8] days; P < .001). CONCLUSION: CAPA is associated with poor outcomes. Attention to preventive measures (screening and/or prophylaxis) is warranted in people with high risk of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496680

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a leading public health problem that currently affects over 650 million individuals worldwide. Although interest in the adverse effects of obesity has grown exponentially in recent years, less attention has been given to studying its management in individuals with CKD. This relatively unexplored area should be considered a high priority because of the rapid growth and high prevalence of obesity in the CKD population, its broad impact on health and outcomes, and its modifiable nature. This article begins to lay the groundwork in this field by providing a comprehensive overview that critically evaluates the available evidence related to obesity and kidney disease, identifies important gaps in our knowledge base, and integrates recent insights in the pathophysiology of obesity to help provide a way forward in establishing guidelines as a basis for managing obesity in CKD. Finally, the article includes a kidney-centric algorithm for management of obesity that can be used in clinical practice.

3.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(17): 4133-4142, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270279

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic, affecting all the individuals across the planet. COVID-19 has gained significant attention due to its high prevalence among individuals with diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and can be associated with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The association of COVID-19 and NAFLD has also gained more attention because NAFLD is highly associated with the epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is a potential risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19, independent of metabolic syndrome. Importantly, it is not yet clear whether the epidemics of obesity and NAFLD have perpetuated the current pandemic of COVID-19. Further research is urgently needed to assess the following: (1) Whether NAFLD is a high risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection; (2) Whether NAFLD is associated with the severe form of COVID-19; and (3) Whether the presence of NAFLD can explain the racial variation in the morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This review summarizes the interactions between COVID-19 and NAFLD, mechanism of liver injury by COVID-19, and effect of lockdown due to COVID- 19 on patients with NAFLD.

4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101373, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242880

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is relevant in older people. Attention was given to the nursing homes in which frailer people are usually admitted. In this review, we discuss the approaches for daily problems found in nursing home as geriatricians and potentially new research directions. We start with the problem of the older people affected by dementia and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for which also the execution of a simple diagnostic test (such as nasopharyngeal swab) could be problematic. Another important problem is the management of wandering patients for which the re-organization of the spaces and vaccination could be the solutions. The relationship with families is another important problem, also from a medico-legal point of view, that can be faced using video conferencing tools. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stratifying prognosis in older nursing home residents for the best management and therapeutically approach, including palliative care, also using telemedicine and the inclusion of prognostic tools in daily clinical practice. Finally, we approached the therapeutical issues in older people that suggests the necessity of future research for finding older-friendly medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/therapy , Geriatricians , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e048124, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand National Health Service (NHS) staff experiences of working in critical care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured telephone interviews and rapid analysis, interpreted using Baehr's sociological lens of 'communities of fate'. PARTICIPANTS: Forty NHS staff working in critical care, including 21 nurses, 10 doctors and advanced critical care practitioners, 4 allied health professionals, 3 operating department practitioners and 2 ward clerks. Participants were interviewed between August and October 2020; we purposefully sought the experiences of trained and experienced critical care staff and those who were redeployed. SETTING: Four hospitals in the UK. RESULTS: COVID-19 presented staff with a situation of extreme stress, duress and social emergency, leading to a shared set of experiences which we have characterised as a community of fate. This involved not only fear and dread of working in critical care, but also a collective sense of duty and vocation. Caring for patients and families involved changes to usual ways of working, revolving around: reorganisation of space and personnel, personal protective equipment, lack of evidence for treating COVID-19, inability for families to be physically present, and the trauma of witnessing extreme patient acuity and death on a large scale. The stress and isolation of working in critical care during COVID-19 was mitigated by strong teamwork, camaraderie, pride and fulfilment. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has changed working practices in critical care and profoundly affected staff physically, mentally and emotionally. Attention needs to be paid to the social and organisational conditions in which individuals work, addressing both practical resourcing and the interpersonal dynamics of critical care provision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
6.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(4): 486-495, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201389

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to determine the effect of burnout and stress levels on law enforcement officers' perceptions and behaviors to emphasize the need for adequate attention and care in these individuals during the COVID-19 outbreak. The research group of this cross-sectional study conducted in July-August 2020 was formed by the law enforcement officers. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Burnout Measure-Short Version (BM-SV) and a personal data form prepared by the researchers were used in the study. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 16.0 software package program. The PSS scores were higher and significant in the group whose working hours were not increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic and they thought that there was a decrease in crime rates and did not need psychological support (p ≤ .05). The PSS scores were higher and significant in the group who took the warnings about COVID-19 into consideration, were afraid of contracting the virus, did not care about the progress of the epidemic and used the mask correctly. Additionally, the BM-SV scores were higher and significant in the group who stated that they were not afraid of contracting the virus (p ≤.05). A comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention system including epidemiological monitoring/observing, screening, referral and targeted interventions should be established to reduce the perceived level of stress and burnout in law enforcement and prevent further mental health problems.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Police/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154368

ABSTRACT

The strong spread of COVID-19 and the significant number of deaths associated with it could be related to improper lifestyles, which lead to a low-grade inflammation (LGI) that not only increases the risk of chronic diseases, but also the risk of facing complications relating to infections and a greater susceptibility to infections themselves. Recently, scientific research has widely demonstrated that the microbiota plays a fundamental role in modulating metabolic responses in the immune system. There is, in fact, a two-way interaction between lifestyle, infection, and immunity. The immune response is compromised if nutrition is unbalanced or insufficient, because diet affects the intestinal flora predisposing people to infections and, at the same time, the nutritional state can be aggravated by the immune response itself to the infection. We evaluate the link between balanced diet, the efficiency of the immune system, and microbiota with the aim of providing some practical advice for individuals, with special attention to the elderly. A correct lifestyle that follows the Mediterranean model, which is especially rich in plant-based foods along with the use of extra-virgin olive oil, are the basis of preventing LGI and other chronic pathologies, directly influencing the intestinal microbiota and consequently the immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Virus Diseases , Aged , Diet , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Olive Oil , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Integr Psychol Behav Sci ; 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137191

ABSTRACT

Psychological factors are important for the prevention of disease. This study aims to identify the psychological perceptions of people who are ignoring the warnings of novel COVID-19 infection. A qualitative content analysis was carried out from May to July 2020. The interviewees were selected purposefully from Isfahan, Iran. The saturation point was achieved in 20 semi-structured interviews. The thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the transcribed documents using MAXQDA software (version 12).The results revealed 2 themes and 6 sub-themes related to the psychological beliefs of individuals with no attention to corona alerts. Themes and sub-themes included Biased cognitive processing (biased beliefs, attention biases, metacognitive beliefs and Depressogenic schemata), low compassion, and empathy for oneself and others (Negative Emotions towards Oneself, low altruism). To ensure a positive attitude towards precautionary measures in society, the thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors of people who ignore coronavirus alerts need to be changed. This is achieved through the use of mass media and virtual networks, by encouraging people to change their negative attitude towards the use of preventive measures, individual and social protection campaigns, and by fostering a sense of responsibility.

9.
Case Rep Psychiatry ; 2021: 5588612, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133366

ABSTRACT

Disruptive behaviors can be associated with significant functional impairment. Early intervention for young children is essential to prevent long-term consequences. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a psychotherapeutic intervention, which has shown to be effective for children with externalizing symptoms. We present the treatment course of PCIT for two kindergarten children. The first has Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and the second has frontal lobe epilepsy. Both presented with attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity associated with significant impairment in multiple settings. Two certified PCIT therapists provided 17 sessions to the parents of the first patient and 25 sessions to the parents of the second patient. Most of the sessions were in-person; however, some were "virtual" due to the circumstances associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents of both patients achieved the "mastery" criteria. In both cases, PCIT contributed to improving the disruptive behaviors. PCIT may serve as an effective therapeutic option for young children with externalizing symptoms in Dubai.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 220-227, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still spreading worldwide and posing a threat to individuals' physical and mental health including problematic internet use (PIU). A potentially high-risk group for PIU are those with symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD symptoms), because of restrictions in their physical activity levels and engagement in computer diversions requiring only short attention spans. METHODS: We used convenience sampling in a cross-sectional survey of university students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We assessed PIU using the Internet Addiction Test and ADHD symptoms using the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Screening Scale. Using logistic regression and linear regression analyses we adjusted for demographic, epidemic-related and psychological covariates in models of the association between ADHD symptoms and PIU. RESULTS: Among 11,254 participants, we found a 28.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-29.2%) prevalence of PIU, relatively higher than before the pandemic. In our final logistic regression model, participants with ADHD symptoms had approximately two times the risk for PIU (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89-2.83). Similarly, individuals with depression, anxiety, insomnia, PTSD symptoms and feeling stress during the pandemic had a higher risk of PIU, while those exercising regularly during the pandemic had a lower risk. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and reliance on internet based self-reports for ADHD symptoms and PIU assessments, without direct structured interviews for validation, are limitations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PIU was high during COVID-19, and those people with ADHD symptoms and other mental illness symptoms appear to be at higher risk of PIU. Regular exercise may reduce that PIU risk and hence should be recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090337

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: COVID-19 may deteriorate some aspects among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although some positive aspects were reported during the pandemic, it remains unclear how COVID-19 qualitatively influences their living context; (2) Methods: this study employed interviews with four participants with ADHD during the declaration of emergency issued in Japan. The study was a part of ongoing coaching as a psychosocial intervention for ADHD, which was initiated long before the pandemic. The data were the answers to the question: "how are things going with participants during this pandemic?". In a qualitative analysis, the researchers coded the data to identify different themes and sub-themes; (3) Results and Discussion: the qualitative data analysis yielded five themes: (1) Terrible feeling caused by frustration, stress, and anger; (2) Closeness due to the internal difficulties and conflict; (3) Deteriorating ADHD symptoms and executive function related matters; (4) Condition is the same as usual; and (5) Positive aspects associated with the self-lockdown. As a whole, these results show that the COVID-19 pandemic could be a factor in inducing psychological distress in the participants who adjust relatively better at work/school but did not do well at home before the pandemic; (4) Conclusions: this study indicates the need for special support for individuals with ADHD, especially those who originally had difficulties at home.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
12.
Qual Quant ; 55(6): 2001-2016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061581

ABSTRACT

In this paper I exploit Google searches for the topics "symptoms", "unemployment" and "news" as a proxy for how much attention people pay to the health and economic situation and the amount of news they consume, respectively. I then use an integrable nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra model to study the interactions among these searches in three U.S. States (Mississippi, Nevada and Utah), the District of Columbia and in the U.S. as a whole. I find that the results are very similar in all areas analyzed, and for different specifications of the model. Prior to the pandemic outbreak, the interactions among health searches, unemployment searches and news consumption are very weak, i.e. an increase in searches for one of these topics does not affect the amount of searches for the others. However, from around the beginning of the pandemic these interactions intensify greatly, suggesting that the pandemic has created a tight link between the health and economic situation and the amount of news people consume. I observe that from March 2020 unemployment predates searches for news and for symptoms. Consequently, whenever searches for unemployment increase, all the other searches decrease. Conversely, when searches for any of the other topics considered increase, searches for unemployment also increase. This underscores the importance of mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on unemployment to avoid that this issue swallows all others in the mind of the people.

13.
J Homosex ; 68(4): 592-611, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050028

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States disproportionately impacts marginalized communities, no empiric US-based research has focused specifically on transgender and gender nonbinary (TGNB) people. We examined the pandemic's impact on an established longitudinal cohort of TGNB individuals (N = 208) by administering an online survey between March-June 2020. We used multivariable linear regression to examine reduced LGBTQ/TGNB community support and disruptions in gender-affirming health care as predictors of psychological distress during the pandemic. We found that the pandemic exacerbated ongoing mental health disparities for TGNB individuals. Furthermore, reduced LGBTQ/TGNB support was associated with increased psychological distress during the pandemic. Interruption and/or delay in gender-affirming health care was not associated with increased psychological distress during the pandemic. Special attention is needed to address the unique ways in which TGNB individuals were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes increasing access to LGBTQ/TGNB community support and addressing long-standing health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Transgender Persons/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transsexualism , United States/epidemiology
14.
Heliyon ; 7(1): e06008, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047601

ABSTRACT

Recently, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has attracted the attention of scientists where it has a high mortality rate among older adults and individuals suffering from chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney diseases (CKD). It is important to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which COVID-19 affects the kidneys and accordingly develop proper nutritional and pharmacological strategies. Although numerous studies have recently recommended several approaches for the management of COVID-19 in CKD, its impact on patients with renal diseases remains the biggest challenge worldwide. In this paper, we review the most recent evidence regarding causality, potential nutritional supplements, therapeutic options, and management of COVID-19 infection in vulnerable individuals and patients with CKD. To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19-induced kidney dysfunction, and current treatments are yet limited to anti-inflammatory (e.g. ibuprofen) and anti-viral medications (e.g. Remdesivir, and Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine) that may increase the chance of treatment. In conclusion, the knowledge about kidney damage in COVID-19 is very limited, and this review improves our ability to introduce novel approaches for future clinical trials for this contiguous disease.

15.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 21(4): 1470320320981321, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) in patients with COVID-19 infection remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on the effects of ACEI/ARB on disease symptoms and laboratory tests in hypertensive patients infected with COVID-19 virus and those who did not use ACEI/ARB. METHODS: We systematically searched the relevant literatures from Pubmed, Embase, EuropePMC, CNKI, and other databases during the study period of 31 December 2019 (solstice, 15 March 2020), and analyzed the differences in symptoms and laboratory tests between patients with COVID-19 and hypertension who used ACEI/ARB drugs and those who did not. All statistical analyses were performed with REVMAN5.3. RESULTS: We included a total of 1808 patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19 in six studies. Analysis results show that ACEI/ARB drugs group D-dimer is lower (SMD = -0.22, 95%CI: -0.36 to -0.06), and the chances of getting fever is lower (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55 to 0.98). Meanwhile, laboratory data and symptoms were not statistical difference, but creatinine tends to rise (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.41). CONCLUSION: We found that the administration of ACEI/ARB drugs had positive effect on reducing D-dimer and the number of people with fever. Meanwhile it had no significant effect on other laboratory tests (creatinine excepted) or symptoms in patients with COVID-19, while special attention was still needed in patients with renal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Publication Bias , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
16.
Curr Drug Metab ; 21(14): 1127-1135, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are often co-administered with other drugs in the treatment of malaria, chronic inflammatory diseases, and COVID-19. Therefore, their metabolic properties and the effects on the activity of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes and drug transporters should be considered when developing the most efficient treatments for patients. METHODS: Scientific literature on the interactions of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with human P450 enzymes and drug transporters, was searched using PUBMED.Gov (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and the ADME database (https://life-science.kyushu.fujitsu.com/admedb/). RESULTS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are metabolized by P450 1A2, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4/5 in vitro and by P450s 2C8 and 3A4/5 in vivo by N-deethylation. Chloroquine effectively inhibited P450 2D6 in vitro; however, in vivo inhibition was not apparent except in individuals with limited P450 2D6 activity. Chloroquine is both an inhibitor and inducer of the transporter MRP1 and is also a substrate of the Mate and MRP1 transport systems. Hydroxychloroquine also inhibited P450 2D6 and the transporter OATP1A2. CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine caused a statistically significant decrease in P450 2D6 activity in vitro and in vivo, also inhibiting its own metabolism by the enzyme. The inhibition indicates a potential for clinical drug-drug interactions when taken with other drugs that are predominant substrates of the P450 2D6. When chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are used clinically with other drugs, substrates of P450 2D6 enzyme, attention should be given to substrate-specific metabolism by P450 2D6 alleles present in individuals taking the drugs.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions/physiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 131, 2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887661

ABSTRACT

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic created major global health crises, with serious effects on all aspects of life. The pandemic reached the Israeli occupied West Bank of Palestine in early March 2020, and lockdown immediately ensued. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and predictors of distress and insecurity among Birzeit University's community during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Methods: An online survey completed in March-April 2020 using standardized and previously validated distress and insecurity scales. The survey was placed on the University portal accessed by students, faculty and employees, and was sent by email to faculty and employees. Data were weighted to reflect the University community's distribution. Findings: There were 1,851 participants in the study: 84% were undergraduate students, 10% graduate students, and 6% faculty and employees. Sixty two percent were women. Ages ranged from 17 to 70 years (mean 24 ± 9.7). Prevalence of moderate/high distress and insecurity were 40% and 48% respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that women, those under 35 years old and those with worse reported income, had significantly higher odds of distress and insecurity compared to their counterparts. Undergraduate students or living with a person at home with high risk of illness with COVID-19 were associated with higher odds of distress compared to their counterparts (OR = 1.56, 95%CI[1.13-2.15]) and (OR = 1.34, 95%CI[1.11-1.62]) respectively. A COVID-19 worry score was significantly associated with higher odds of distress and insecurity (OR = 1.77, 95%CI[1.46-2.14]) and (OR = 4.3, 95%CI[3.53-5.23]) respectively. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need to pay attention not only to physical health but also to mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among young people, women, those with lower economic status, and those living with high risk persons during the pandemic. We hope that this study will inform the policies and interventions of the Palestinian Authority, local non-governmental organization, international groups working in the occupied Palestinian territory, and beyond.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Universities , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Faculty/psychology , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/trends , Middle East/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology
18.
New Microbes New Infect ; 38: 100792, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867014

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide, and led to ever-increasing mortality. SARS-CoV-2 infection perturbs the function of the body's vital organs, making patients of all ages susceptible to the disease. Nevertheless, individuals developing critical illness with poor outcomes were mostly the elderly and people with co-morbid conditions, who constituted the vast majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatalities. Complications of COVID-19 mostly involve the respiratory, renal and cardiovascular systems, and in severe cases secondary infections leading to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which may precede the death of the patient. Multi-organ failure in individuals with COVID-19 could be a consequence of their co-morbidities. A patient's pre-existing conditions may affect the disease prognosis, requiring immediate attention to accurately detect and evaluate them in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. This review addresses several issues in relation to manifestations of the body's vital organs along with potential diagnostic blood factors in SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is hoped that the review will lead to more comprehensive understanding of this complex disease.

19.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 45(9): 983-989, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We recently transitioned from in-person delivery of a brief behavioral parent intervention to telepsychology delivery to meet families' needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this topical review, we describe how we used treatment fidelity as a guiding principle to orient adaptations for telepsychology, as well as preliminary findings and early lessons learned in this implementation. Methods: Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methods, we adapted a brief parent training group (Bootcamp for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; BC-ADHD) to three groups of caregivers (i.e., 5-7 families) of school-aged children with ADHD (n = 20; 85% males). Families were from the following ethnic backgrounds: 75% White non-Hispanic, 15% White Hispanic, and 10% Black. Clinicians completed measures on their implementation experience. Observers completed measures on content/process fidelity and attendance. Caregivers completed measures on demographics, treatment satisfaction, and telepsychology experience. RESULTS: Telepsychology BC-ADHD can be implemented with comparably high levels of content and process fidelity and treatment satisfaction to in-person groups; and it appears to be feasible and acceptable to caregivers. Caregiver and clinician qualitative feedback revealed themes of appreciating the convenience of telepsychology, while experiencing some challenges in relating to others and sharing over video. CONCLUSIONS: When treatment fidelity is used as a guiding tool, telepsychology parent training groups can be delivered with high fidelity and appear to be acceptable and feasible to caregivers and clinicians. Future research using larger and more diverse samples, multimethod and multi-informant measurement approaches, and controlled designs is needed to further assess the generalizability and efficacy of telepsychology parent training groups.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Behavior Therapy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(9)2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769368

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a new highly contagious RNA viral disease that has caused a global pandemic. Human-to-human transmission occurs primarily through oral and nasal droplets and possibly through the airborne route. The disease may be asymptomatic or the course may be mild with upper respiratory symptoms, moderate with non-life-threatening pneumonia, or severe with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The severe form is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While patients who are unstable and in acute distress need immediate in-person attention, many patients can be evaluated at home by telemedicine or videoconferencing. The more benign manifestations of Covid-19 may be managed from home to maintain quarantine, thus avoiding spread to other patients and health care workers. This document provides an overview of the clinical presentation of Covid-19, emphasizing telemedicine strategies for assessment and triage of patients. Advantages of the virtual visit during this time of social distancing are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Telemedicine/methods , Triage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods , Triage/methods , Triage/organization & administration
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL