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1.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 151, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the relatively preserved respiratory system compliance despite severe hypoxemia, with specific pulmonary vascular dysfunction, suggests a possible hemodynamic mechanism for VA/Q mismatch, as hypoxic vasoconstriction alteration. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-almitrine combination to restore oxygenation in severe COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) patients. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric preliminary pilot study in intubated patients with severe C-ARDS. Respiratory mechanics was assessed after a prone session. Then, patients received iNO (10 ppm) alone and in association with almitrine (10 µg/kg/min) during 30 min in each step. Echocardiographic and blood gases measurements were performed at baseline, during iNO alone, and iNO-almitrine combination. The primary endpoint was the variation of oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). RESULTS: Ten severe C-ARDS patients were assessed (7 males and 3 females), with a median age of 60 [52-72] years. Combination of iNO and almitrine outperformed iNO alone for oxygenation improvement. The median of PaO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 102 [89-134] mmHg at baseline, to 124 [108-146] mmHg after iNO (p = 0.13) and 180 [132-206] mmHg after iNO and almitrine (p < 0.01). We found no correlation between the increase in oxygenation caused by iNO-almitrine combination and that caused by proning. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study of severe C-ARDS patients, iNO-almitrine combination was associated with rapid and significant improvement of oxygenation. These findings highlight the role of pulmonary vascular function in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902541

ABSTRACT

The 1918 influenza killed approximately 50 million people in a few short years, and now, the world is facing another pandemic. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an international outbreak of a respiratory illness termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rapidly spread to cause the worst pandemic since 1918. Recent clinical reports highlight an atypical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients characterized by severe hypoxemia, an imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system, an increase in thrombogenic processes, and a cytokine release storm. These processes not only exacerbate lung injury but can also promote pulmonary vascular remodeling and vasoconstriction, which are hallmarks of pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is a complication of ARDS that has received little attention; thus, we hypothesize that PH in COVID-19-induced ARDS represents an important target for disease amelioration. The mechanisms that can promote PH following SARS-CoV-2 infection are described. In this review article, we outline emerging mechanisms of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and outline potential treatment options that have been clinically tested.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Kallikrein-Kinin System/physiology , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Vasoconstriction/drug effects
3.
Acad Radiol ; 27(10): 1449-1455, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679392

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Mounting evidence supports the role of pulmonary hemodynamic alternations in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in pulmonary blood volumes measured on computed tomography (CT) are associated with histopathological markers of pulmonary vascular pruning, suggesting that quantitative CT analysis may eventually be useful in the assessment pulmonary vascular dysfunction more broadly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Building upon previous work, automated quantitative CT measures of small blood vessel volume and pulmonary vascular density were developed. Scans from 103 COVID-19 patients and 107 healthy volunteers were analyzed and their results compared, with comparisons made both on lobar and global levels. RESULTS: Compared to healthy volunteers, COVID-19 patients showed significant reduction in BV5 (pulmonary blood volume contained in blood vessels of <5 mm2) expressed as BV5/(total pulmonary blood volume; p < 0.0001), and significant increases in BV5-10 and BV 10 (pulmonary blood volumes contained in vessels between 5 and 10 mm2 and above 10 mm2, respectively, p < 0.0001). These changes were consistent across lobes. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients display striking anomalies in the distribution of blood volume within the pulmonary vascular tree, consistent with increased pulmonary vasculature resistance in the pulmonary vessels below the resolution of CT.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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