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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833525

ABSTRACT

Projections of the stage of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and local, regional and national public health policies to limit coronavirus spread as well as "reopen" cities and states, are best informed by serum neutralizing antibody titers measured by reproducible, high throughput, and statically credible antibody (Ab) assays. To date, a myriad of Ab tests, both available and FDA authorized for emergency, has led to confusion rather than insight per se. The present study reports the results of a rapid, point-in-time 1,000-person cohort study using serial blood donors in the New York City metropolitan area (NYC) using multiple serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and high throughput serological assays (HTSAs). These were then tested and associated with assays for neutralizing Ab (NAb). Of the 1,000 NYC blood donor samples in late June and early July 2020, 12.1% and 10.9% were seropositive using the Ortho Total Ig and the Abbott IgG HTSA assays, respectively. These serological assays correlated with neutralization activity specific to SARS-CoV-2. The data reported herein suggest that seroconversion in this population occurred in approximately 1 in 8 blood donors from the beginning of the pandemic in NYC (considered March 1, 2020). These findings deviate with an earlier seroprevalence study in NYC showing 13.7% positivity. Collectively however, these data demonstrate that a low number of individuals have serologic evidence of infection during this "first wave" and suggest that the notion of "herd immunity" at rates of ~60% or higher are not near. Furthermore, the data presented herein show that the nature of the Ab-based immunity is not invariably associated with the development of NAb. While the blood donor population may not mimic precisely the NYC population as a whole, rapid assessment of seroprevalence in this cohort and serial reassessment could aid public health decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Anal Chem ; 93(24): 8585-8594, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253862

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has revealed the urgent need for accurate, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tests for epidemic understanding and management by monitoring the population worldwide. Though current diagnostic methods including real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provide sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, they require relatively long processing time, equipped laboratory facilities, and highly skilled personnel. Laser-scribed graphene (LSG)-based biosensing platforms have gained enormous attention as miniaturized electrochemical systems, holding an enormous potential as point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools. We describe here a miniaturized LSG-based electrochemical sensing scheme for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis combined with three-dimensional (3D) gold nanostructures. This electrode was modified with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody following the proper surface modifications proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations as well as electrochemical techniques. The system was integrated into a handheld POC detection system operated using a custom smartphone application, providing a user-friendly diagnostic platform due to its ease of operation, accessibility, and systematic data management. The analytical features of the electrochemical immunoassay were evaluated using the standard solution of S-protein in the range of 5.0-500 ng/mL with a detection limit of 2.9 ng/mL. A clinical study was carried out on 23 patient blood serum samples with successful COVID-19 diagnosis, compared to the commercial RT-PCR, antibody blood test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG and IgA test results. Our test provides faster results compared to commercial diagnostic tools and offers a promising alternative solution for next-generation POC applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Point-of-Care Systems , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Gold , Humans , Lasers , Nanostructures , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as a rapidly spreading infection. Today it is relatively easy to isolate Covid-19 symptomatic cases, while remains problematic to control the disease spread by infected but symptom-free individuals. The control of this possible path of contagion requires drastic measures of social distancing, which imply the suspension of most activities and generate economic and social issues. This study is aimed at estimating the percentage of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a geographic area with relatively low incidence of Covid-19. METHODS: Blood serum samples from 388 healthy volunteers were analyzed for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG by using an ELISA assay based on recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. RESULTS: We found that 7 out of 388 healthy volunteers, who declared no symptoms of Covid-19, like fever, cough, fatigue etc., in the preceding 5 months, have bona fide serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, that is 1.8% of the asymptomatic population (95% confidence interval: 0.69-2.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated range of asymptomatic individuals with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG should be between 26,565 and 112, 350. In the same geographic area, there are 4665 symptomatic diagnosed cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1112-1117, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In liver transplant (LT) recipients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), fatal outcome has been reported in a substantial subset of patients. Whether LT recipients are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 compared with the general population is controversial. Here we report the results of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurvey in a large LT recipient cohort. METHODS: A total of 219 LT recipients were enrolled between May 5, 2020, and August 6, 2020, at the University Hospital Heidelberg. Serum blood samples were collected and tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. RESULTS: Taking into account known risk factors of arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or leukopenia, LT recipients a priori represented a high-risk cohort for severe COVID-19 with 101 of 219 (46.1%) presenting with more than 2 risk factors for severe COVID-19. Out of 219 LT recipients, 8 (3.7%) either had a positive test result for nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA or anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum IgG. Five of eight (62.5%) did not show any clinical signs of infection, three of eight (37.5%) had self-limited disease, and none required hospitalization for COVID-19. Two of eight (25%) had known exposure to infected health care staff as the probable source of infection. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, LT recipients showed a SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate similar to that of the general population with a substantial percentage of unrecognized infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , Risk Factors , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1099-1103, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645860

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Background cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses may reduce the specificity of COVID-19 rapid serologic tests. The vast majority of women attend prenatal care, which is a unique source of population-based blood samples appropriate for validation studies. We used stored 2018 serum samples from an existing pregnancy cohort study to evaluate the specificity of COVID-19 serologic rapid diagnostic tests. METHODS: We randomly selected 120 stored serum samples from pregnant women enrolled in a cohort in 2018 in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, at least 1 year before the COVID-19 pandemic. We used stored serum to evaluate four lateral flow rapid diagnostic tests, following manufacturers' instructions. Pictures were taken for all tests and read by two blinded trained evaluators. RESULTS: We evaluated 120, 80, 90, and 90 samples, respectively. Specificity for both IgM and IgG was 100% for the first two tests (95% confidence intervals [CI] 97.0-100 and 95.5-100, respectively). The third test had a specificity of 98.9% (95% CI 94.0-100) for IgM and 94.4% (95% CI 87.5-98.2) for IgG. The fourth test had a specificity of 88.9% (95% CI 80.5-94.5) for IgM and 100% (95% CI 96.0-100) for IgG. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 serologic rapid tests are of variable specificity. Blood specimens from sentinel prenatal clinics provide an opportunity to validate serologic tests with population-based samples.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prenatal Care/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Young Adult
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