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1.
EJHaem ; 1(1): 376-383, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898850

ABSTRACT

The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from mild symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome, hyperinflammation, and coagulation disorder. The hematopoietic system plays a critical role in the observed hyperinflammation, particularly in severely ill patients. We conducted a prospective diagnostic study performing a blood differential analyzing morphologic changes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 associated morphologic changes were defined in a training cohort and subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 45). Morphologic aberrations were further analyzed by electron microscopy (EM) and flow cytometry of lymphocytes was performed. We included 45 COVID-19 patients in our study (median age 58 years; 82% on intensive care unit). The blood differential showed a specific pattern of pronounced multi-lineage aberrations in lymphocytes (80%) and monocytes (91%) of patients. Overall, 84%, 98%, and 98% exhibited aberrations in granulopoiesis, erythropoiesis, and thrombopoiesis, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural equivalents of the observed changes and confirmed the multi-lineage aberrations already seen by light microscopy. The morphologic pattern caused by COVID-19 is characteristic and underlines the serious perturbation of the hematopoietic system. We defined a hematologic COVID-19 pattern to facilitate further independent diagnostic analysis and to investigate the impact on the hematologic system during the clinical course of COVID-19 patients.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833525

ABSTRACT

Projections of the stage of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and local, regional and national public health policies to limit coronavirus spread as well as "reopen" cities and states, are best informed by serum neutralizing antibody titers measured by reproducible, high throughput, and statically credible antibody (Ab) assays. To date, a myriad of Ab tests, both available and FDA authorized for emergency, has led to confusion rather than insight per se. The present study reports the results of a rapid, point-in-time 1,000-person cohort study using serial blood donors in the New York City metropolitan area (NYC) using multiple serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and high throughput serological assays (HTSAs). These were then tested and associated with assays for neutralizing Ab (NAb). Of the 1,000 NYC blood donor samples in late June and early July 2020, 12.1% and 10.9% were seropositive using the Ortho Total Ig and the Abbott IgG HTSA assays, respectively. These serological assays correlated with neutralization activity specific to SARS-CoV-2. The data reported herein suggest that seroconversion in this population occurred in approximately 1 in 8 blood donors from the beginning of the pandemic in NYC (considered March 1, 2020). These findings deviate with an earlier seroprevalence study in NYC showing 13.7% positivity. Collectively however, these data demonstrate that a low number of individuals have serologic evidence of infection during this "first wave" and suggest that the notion of "herd immunity" at rates of ~60% or higher are not near. Furthermore, the data presented herein show that the nature of the Ab-based immunity is not invariably associated with the development of NAb. While the blood donor population may not mimic precisely the NYC population as a whole, rapid assessment of seroprevalence in this cohort and serial reassessment could aid public health decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(11): 688-692, 2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780383

ABSTRACT

The study presents the results of the creation and evaluation of the diagnostic characteristics of the rapid immunochromatographic test for the qualitative detection and differentiation of IgM/IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum, plasma, and whole blood "ИХА-COVID-19-IgM / IgG". Have been tested some samples without antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and a samples with two and one type of specific antibodies. The coincidence of the results of immunochromatographic analysis with the results of the immunochemiluminescent method was 87.2%. Test kit can be use as the rapid diagnostic test in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the immune status of convalescents.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Humans
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 584-590, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With limited severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) testing capacity in the United States at the start of the epidemic (January-March 2020), testing was focused on symptomatic patients with a travel history throughout February, obscuring the picture of SARS-CoV-2 seeding and community transmission. We sought to identify individuals with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the early weeks of the US epidemic. METHODS: All of Us study participants in all 50 US states provided blood specimens during study visits from 2 January to 18 March 2020. Participants were considered seropositive if they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 ELISA in a sequential testing algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity of these ELISAs and the net sensitivity and specificity of the sequential testing algorithm were estimated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The estimated sensitivities of the Abbott and EUROIMMUN assays were 100% (107 of 107 [95% CI: 96.6%-100%]) and 90.7% (97 of 107 [83.5%-95.4%]), respectively, and the estimated specificities were 99.5% (995 of 1000 [98.8%-99.8%]) and 99.7% (997 of 1000 [99.1%-99.9%]), respectively. The net sensitivity and specificity of our sequential testing algorithm were 90.7% (97 of 107 [95% CI: 83.5%-95.4%]) and 100.0% (1000 of 1000 [99.6%-100%]), respectively. Of the 24 079 study participants with blood specimens from 2 January to 18 March 2020, 9 were seropositive, 7 before the first confirmed case in the states of Illinois, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Mississippi. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified SARS-CoV-2 infections weeks before the first recognized cases in 5 US states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 871-881, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in blood donors in 6 US metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time. METHODS: During March-August 2020, approximately ≥1000 serum specimens were collected monthly from each region and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a well-validated algorithm. Regional seroprevalence estimates were weighted based on demographic differences compared with the general population. Seroprevalence was compared with reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates over time. RESULTS: For all regions, seroprevalence was <1.0% in March 2020. New York, New York, experienced the biggest increase (peak seroprevalence, 15.8% in May). All other regions experienced modest increases in seroprevalence (1%-2% in May-June to 2%-4% in July-August). Seroprevalence was higher in younger, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic donors. Temporal increases in donor seroprevalence correlated with reported case rates in each region. In August, 1.3-5.6 estimated cumulative infections (based on seroprevalence data) per COVID-19 case were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in seroprevalence were found in all regions, with the largest increase in New York. Seroprevalence was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing of blood donor samples can be used to estimate the seroprevalence in the general population by region and demographic group. The methods derived from the RESPONSE seroprevalence study served as the basis for expanding SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveillance to all 50 states and Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(1): 269-281, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591653

ABSTRACT

The immune system plays a crucial role in the response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with significant differences among patients. The study investigated the relationships between lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and disease outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The measurements of peripheral blood lymphocytes subsets and cytokine levels were performed by flow cytometry for 57 COVID-19 patients. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the severity of the disease (nonsevere vs. severe). Total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients and statistical differences were found among different severity of illness and survival states (P ˂ 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in severe and death groups and negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets counts. The percentages of Th17 in the peripheral blood of patients were higher than those of healthy controls whereas the percentages of Th2 were lower. For the severe cases, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of IL-6 was the largest among all the immune parameters (0.964; 95% confidence interval: 0.927-1.000, P < 0.0001). In addition, the preoperative IL-6 concentration of 77.38 pg/ml was the optimal cutoff value (sensitivity: 84.6%, specificity: 100%). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC curves, IL-6 > 106.44 pg/ml and CD8+ T cell counts <150 cells/µl were found to be associated with mortality. Measuring the immune parameters and defining a risk threshold can segregate patients who develop a severe disease from those with a mild pathology. The identification of these parameters may help clinicians to predict the outcome of the patients with high risk of unfavorable progress of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Africa, Northern , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4039-e4046, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure and thromboembolism are frequent in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-infected patients. Vitamin K activates both hepatic coagulation factors and extrahepatic endothelial anticoagulant protein S, required for thrombosis prevention. In times of vitamin K insufficiency, hepatic procoagulant factors are preferentially activated over extrahepatic proteins. Vitamin K also activates matrix Gla protein (MGP), which protects against pulmonary and vascular elastic fiber damage. We hypothesized that vitamin K may be implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), linking pulmonary and thromboembolic disease. METHODS: A total of 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were compared with 184 historic controls. Inactive vitamin K-dependent MGP (desphospho-uncarboxylated [dp-uc] MGP) and prothrombin (PIVKA-II) were measured inversely related to extrahepatic and hepatic vitamin K status, respectively. Desmosine was measured to quantify the rate of elastic fiber degradation. Arterial calcification severity was assessed using computed tomography. RESULTS: dp-ucMGP was elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with controls (P < .001), with even higher dp-ucMGP in patients with poor outcomes (P < .001). PIVKA-II was normal in 82.1% of patients. dp-ucMGP was correlated with desmosine (P < .001) and with coronary artery (P = .002) and thoracic aortic (P < .001) calcification scores. CONCLUSIONS: dp-ucMGP was severely increased in COVID-19 patients, indicating extrahepatic vitamin K insufficiency, which was related to poor outcome; hepatic procoagulant factor II remained unaffected. These data suggest pneumonia-induced extrahepatic vitamin K depletion leading to accelerated elastic fiber damage and thrombosis in severe COVID-19 due to impaired activation of MGP and endothelial protein S, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin K 1/analogs & derivatives
8.
Toxicol Rep ; 8: 646-656, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525967

ABSTRACT

Humans are frequently exposed to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs). QACs are ubiquitously used in medical settings, restaurants, and homes as cleaners and disinfectants. Despite their prevalence, nothing is known about the health effects associated with chronic low-level exposure. Chronic QAC toxicity, only recently identified in mice, resulted in developmental, reproductive, and immune dysfunction. Cell based studies indicate increased inflammation, decreased mitochondrial function, and disruption of cholesterol synthesis. If these findings translate to human toxicity, multiple physiological processes could be affected. This study tested whether QAC concentrations could be detected in the blood of 43 human volunteers, and whether QAC concentrations influenced markers of inflammation, mitochondrial function, and cholesterol synthesis. QAC concentrations were detected in 80 % of study participants. Blood QACs were associated with increase in inflammatory cytokines, decreased mitochondrial function, and disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in a dose dependent manner. This is the first study to measure QACs in human blood, and also the first to demonstrate statistically significant relationships between blood QAC and meaningful health related biomarkers. Additionally, the results are timely in light of the increased QAC disinfectant exposure occurring due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. MAIN FINDINGS: This study found that 80 % of study participants contained QACs in their blood; and that markers of inflammation, mitochondrial function, and sterol homeostasis varied with blood QAC concentration.

9.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(4): e1271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence of dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment urges investigations on neutrophil characteristics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated neutrophils from the blood of COVID-19 patients receiving general ward care and from patients hospitalised at intensive care units (ICUs) to explore the kinetics of circulating neutrophils and factors important for neutrophil migration and activation. METHODS: Multicolour flow cytometry was exploited for the analysis of neutrophil differentiation and activation markers. Multiplex and ELISA technologies were used for the quantification of protease, protease inhibitor, chemokine and cytokine concentrations in plasma. Neutrophil polarisation responses were evaluated microscopically. Gelatinolytic and metalloproteinase activity in plasma was determined using a fluorogenic substrate. Co-culturing healthy donor neutrophils with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) allowed us to investigate viral replication in neutrophils. RESULTS: Upon ICU admission, patients displayed high plasma concentrations of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the chemokine CXCL8, accompanied by emergency myelopoiesis as illustrated by high levels of circulating CD10-, immature neutrophils with reduced CXCR2 and C5aR expression. Neutrophil elastase and non-metalloproteinase-derived gelatinolytic activity were increased in plasma from ICU patients. Significantly higher levels of circulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in patients at ICU admission yielded decreased total MMP proteolytic activity in blood. COVID-19 neutrophils were hyper-responsive to CXCL8 and CXCL12 in shape change assays. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 failed to replicate inside human neutrophils. CONCLUSION: Our study provides detailed insights into the kinetics of neutrophil phenotype and function in severe COVID-19 patients, and supports the concept of an increased neutrophil activation state in the circulation.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1909-1912, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522148

ABSTRACT

Maternal and cord blood sera were collected from 20 parturients who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. All women and infants were positive for anti S- and anti-receptor binding domain antibody-specific immunoglobulin G. Cord blood antibody concentrations were correlated to maternal levels and to time since vaccination. Antenatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination may provide maternal and neonatal protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
12.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0194, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus. Patients admitted to the ICU suffer from microvascular thrombosis, which may contribute to mortality. Our aim was to profile plasma thrombotic factors and endothelial injury markers in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients to help understand their thrombotic mechanisms. DESIGN: Daily blood coagulation and thrombotic factor profiling with immunoassays and in vitro experiments on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. SETTING: Tertiary care ICU and academic laboratory. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted to the ICU suspected of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, using standardized hospital screening methodologies, had daily blood samples collected until testing was confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 negative on either ICU day 3 or ICU day 7 if the patient was coronavirus disease 2019 positive. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects and ICU patients that were either coronavirus disease 2019 positive or coronavirus disease 2019 negative were enrolled. Cohorts were well balanced with the exception that coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients were more likely than coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients to suffer bilateral pneumonia. Mortality rate for coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients was 40%. Compared with healthy control subjects, coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients had higher plasma von Willebrand factor (p < 0.001) and glycocalyx-degradation products (chondroitin sulfate and syndecan-1; p < 0.01). When compared with coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients, coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients had persistently higher soluble P-selectin, hyaluronic acid, and syndecan-1 (p < 0.05), particularly on ICU day 3 and thereafter. Thrombosis profiling on ICU days 1-3 predicted coronavirus disease 2019 status with 85% accuracy and patient mortality with 86% accuracy. Surface hyaluronic acid removal from human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells with hyaluronidase treatment resulted in depressed nitric oxide, an instigating mechanism for platelet adhesion to the microvascular endothelium. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombosis profiling identified endothelial activation and glycocalyx degradation in coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients. Our data suggest that medications to protect and/or restore the endothelial glycocalyx, as well as platelet inhibitors, should be considered for further study.

13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2311: 185-193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482181

ABSTRACT

Studies of blood-brain barrier (BBB) require developing of a novel and convenient in vitro endothelial cell model. We isolated primary human and rodent brain microvascular endothelial cells and developed methods for culturing, characterization, and high-efficiency transfection of endothelial cells. Here, we describe the improved methods to obtain in vitro human and rodent BBB models to study expression of endogenous and exogenous genes of interest.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/physiology , Brain/blood supply , Cell Separation , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Microvessels/cytology , Transfection , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fetus , Gestational Age , Humans , Mice , Rats
14.
J Invest Surg ; 33(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455005

ABSTRACT

Background: Bipolar sealing devices are routinely used to seal blood vessels. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of colonic sealing with the use of the bipolar energy devices in rats as model for experimental appendectomy. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats underwent a cecal resection with four different bipolar sealing devices or a linear stapler. The harvesting procedure was performed immediately or at postoperative day (POD) 7. The sealing front bursting pressure (BP) was measured in both groups. At POD7, the resection line was clinically examined and the hydroxyproline (HDP) levels were determined. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was used for histopathological evaluation of the sealing front as well. Results: There was no mortality and no insufficiency. The BPs between the bipolar sealing devices showed no statistical differences. The early phase of the seal (POD 0) provides a low BP with an 30.8% increase until POD 7. The BPs in the stapler group showed significant better values. The hydroxyproline levels did not differ statistically between the groups. Histopathologically, there were more signs of ischemic necrosis in the stapler group than in the sealing devices groups. Conclusion: The resection and sealing of the cecum as an experimental appendectomy model with the use of bipolar energy devices proved feasible and safe in rats. The different energy devices in this study produce comparable results. To justify clinical practice in humans, several studies on the underlying mechanisms of early stage wound healing are needed.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/instrumentation , Cecum/surgery , Electrocoagulation/instrumentation , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Wound Closure Techniques/instrumentation , Animals , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Electrocoagulation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Hemostasis, Surgical/adverse effects , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Male , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Surgical Staplers/adverse effects , Wound Closure Techniques/adverse effects
15.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 34(6): 960-965, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The standard treatment for patients with placenta percreta is cesarean hysterectomy that can cause severe bleeding. New-generation vessel sealing systems like LigaSure can cut and seal vascular structures and tissues. The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare hysterectomies performed with traditional instruments and those performed with LigaSure instruments to determine the possible advantages with the latter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with placenta percreta who underwent elective cesarean hysterectomy by the same surgeon were divided into two groups based on the type of instruments used. Group 1, the standard conventional hysterectomy group, operated with conventional instruments for cutting and tying; and Group 2, the LigaSure hysterectomy group, operated with the new-generation bipolar sealing and cutting instruments. The groups were retrospectively compared for bleeding, operating time, and complications. RESULTS: In Group 2, the operating time, intraoperative and total transfused erythrocyte suspension units, total fluid in the drain, and total hospital stay were lower than in Group 1 (p < .05), as was the need for internal iliac artery ligation (p = .013). The complication rates were similar between the two groups (p > .05). CONCLUSION: The use of LigaSure open instruments in cesarean hysterectomies in patients with placenta percreta may reduce operating times and the amount of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Placenta Accreta , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Ligation , Placenta Accreta/surgery , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
16.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 480-483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435869

ABSTRACT

Ocular tissues can serve as a reservoir for the SARS-CoV-2 virus which can not only cause conjunctivitis but also serve as a source of infection transmission to others. Additionally, the eye and its tear drainage apparatus can track the SARS-CoV-2 from the eye into the respiratory tract of the patient. The potential ocular presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in the eye of a patient can target ACE2 receptors in the endothelium of the conjunctival vessels and use the lacrimal sac a potential space to evade immune detection and clinical isolation. The recently reported case of COVID-19 after the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 from a COVID-19 patient should alert the healthcare professionals dealing with COVID-19 patients that wearing masks alone cannot guarantee protection against infection transmission. Further studies, like isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from the eyes of patients with COVID-19, are needed to identify the eyes as a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctiva , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1337-e1344, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs within the first weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution over time after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are poorly characterized. METHODS: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 and 6 months postinfection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). RESULTS: Levels of seroneutralization and IgG rates against the ancestral strain decreased significantly over time. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2. IgG levels correlated with seroneutralization, and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of seroneutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission to intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation. In addition, sera collected at 6 months were tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and showed efficient neutralizing effects against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants but significantly weaker activity against the B.1.351 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity. Our results indicate a sustained humoral response against the ancestral strain and the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19. A weaker protection was, however, observed for the B.1.351 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 910-915, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reports on the association of the ABO phenotypes with infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus have mostly come from countries with high infection rates. This study examined the possible association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ABO phenotype in Black Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This report is from a single centre where both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were quarantined. At the time of this report, Oyo State, Nigeria had carried out 15 733 tests of which 3119 were positive for the virus with 1952 recoveries and 37 deaths. The ABO distribution of patients was compared with that of a blood donor population. RESULTS: Of the 302 participants, 297 (98%) had their blood group determined, asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals were 123 (40·7%) and 179 (59·3%) respectively. Blood group O was significantly less represented among the patients (P < 0·01) while blood groups B and AB were significantly more represented (P < 0·01, P = 0·03 respectively). Patients with anti-B (groups A and O) were significantly less represented than those without anti-B (B and/or AB): B and AB (P < 0·001), B (P = 0·002), AB (P = 0·01). There was no difference in the blood group distribution of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (χ2 (3, N = 302) = 2·29; P = 0·51), but symptomatic patients with anti-A (groups B and O) were more represented than asymptomatic patients with anti-A (χ2 4·89; P = 0·03). CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of blood group O and more potent beta haemolysins (anti-B antibodies) are likely reasons for the lower infectivity by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and severity of COVID-19 disease in the community.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Blood Donors , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 107-118, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389067

ABSTRACT

Viruses have caused the death of millions of people worldwide. Specifically, human viruses are grouped into 21 families, including the family of coronaviruses (CoVs). In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, a new human CoV was identified, SARS-CoV-2. The first step of the infection mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 in the human host is adhesion, which occurs through the S glycoprotein that is found in diverse human organs. Another way through which SARS-CoV-2 could possibly attach to the host's cells is by means of the histo-blood group antigens. In this work, we have reviewed the mechanisms by which some viruses bind to the histo-blood group antigens, which could be related to the susceptibility of the individual and are dependent on the histo-blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Genome, Viral/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(7): 6, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388618

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in human retina. Methods: Human post-mortem eyes from 13 non-diabetic control cases and 11 diabetic retinopathy cases were analyzed for the expression of ACE2. To compare the vascular ACE2 expression between different organs that involve in diabetes, the expression of ACE2 was investigated in renal specimens from nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy patients. Expression of TMPRSS2, a cell-surface protease that facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry, was also investigated in human nondiabetic retinas. Primary human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and primary human retinal pericytes (HRPCs) were further used to confirm the vascular ACE2 expression in human retina. Results: We found that ACE2 was expressed in multiple nonvascular neuroretinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and photoreceptor outer segments in both nondiabetic and diabetic retinopathy specimens. Strikingly, we observed significantly more ACE2 positive vessels in the diabetic retinopathy specimens. By contrast, in another end-stage organ affected by diabetes, the kidney, ACE2 in nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy showed apical expression of ACE2 tubular epithelial cells, but no endothelial expression in glomerular or peritubular capillaries. Western blot analysis of protein lysates from HRECs and HRPCs confirmed expression of ACE2. TMPRSS2 expression was present in multiple retinal neuronal cells, vascular and perivascular cells, and Müller glia. Conclusions: Together, these results indicate that retina expresses ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Moreover, there are increased vascular ACE2 expression in diabetic retinopathy retinas.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retina/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Binding Sites , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Diabetic Nephropathies/enzymology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/virology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/enzymology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Pericytes/enzymology , Pericytes/virology , Retinal Vessels/enzymology , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Retinal Vessels/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
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