Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter
1.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 849-861, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402984

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that ABO blood group may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with group O individuals less likely to test positive and group A conferring a higher susceptibility to infection and propensity to severe disease. The level of evidence supporting an association between ABO type and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 ranges from small observational studies, to genome-wide-association-analyses and country-level meta-regression analyses. ABO blood group antigens are oligosaccharides expressed on red cells and other tissues (notably endothelium). There are several hypotheses to explain the differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection by ABO type. For example, anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies (e.g. present in group O individuals) could bind to corresponding antigens on the viral envelope and contribute to viral neutralization, thereby preventing target cell infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV spike (S) proteins may be bound by anti-A isoagglutinins (e.g. present in group O and group B individuals), which may block interactions between virus and angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-receptor, thereby preventing entry into lung epithelial cells. ABO type-associated variations in angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 activity and levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII could also influence adverse outcomes, notably in group A individuals who express high VWF levels. In conclusion, group O may be associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and group A may be associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection along with severe disease. However, prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to verify several of the proposed associations. Based on the strength of available studies, there are insufficient data for guiding policy in this regard.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 134, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387323

ABSTRACT

Understanding the factors that contribute to efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells may provide insights on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and pathogenesis, and reveal targets of intervention. Here, we analyze host and viral determinants essential for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues. We identify heparan sulfate as an important attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, we show that sialic acids present on ACE2 prevent efficient spike/ACE2-interaction. While SARS-CoV infection is substantially limited by the sialic acid-mediated restriction in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues, infection by SARS-CoV-2 is limited to a lesser extent. We further demonstrate that the furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 spike is required for efficient virus replication in human lung but not intestinal tissues. These findings provide insights on the efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lungs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Furin/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestines/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology
4.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 546-559, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319033

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and accessory proteases (TMPRSS2 and CTSL) are needed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cellular entry, and their expression may shed light on viral tropism and impact across the body. We assessed the cell-type-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL across 107 single-cell RNA-sequencing studies from different tissues. ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL are coexpressed in specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells in the nasal passages, airways and alveoli, and in cells from other organs associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission or pathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 lung single-cell RNA-sequencing studies with 1,320,896 cells from 377 nasal, airway and lung parenchyma samples from 228 individuals. This revealed cell-type-specific associations of age, sex and smoking with expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL. Expression of entry factors increased with age and in males, including in airway secretory cells and alveolar type 2 cells. Expression programs shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues included genes that may mediate viral entry, key immune functions and epithelial-macrophage cross-talk, such as genes involved in the interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and complement pathways. Cell-type-specific expression patterns may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and our work highlights putative molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/statistics & numerical data , Single-Cell Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Virus Internalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Datasets as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity/genetics , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298152

ABSTRACT

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels responsible for rapid neural and neuromuscular signal transmission. Although it is well documented that 16 subunits are encoded by the human genome, their presence in airway epithelial cells (AECs) remains poorly understood, and contribution to pathology is mainly discussed in the context of cancer. We analysed nAChR subunit expression in the human lungs of smokers and non-smokers using transcriptomic data for whole-lung tissues, isolated large AECs, and isolated small AECs. We identified differential expressions of nAChRs in terms of detection and repartition in the three modalities. Smoking-associated alterations were also unveiled. Then, we identified an nAChR transcriptomic print at the single-cell level. Finally, we reported the localizations of detectable nAChRs in bronchi and large bronchioles. Thus, we compiled the first complete atlas of pulmonary nAChR subunits to open new avenues to further unravel the involvement of these receptors in lung homeostasis and respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Lung/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , Adult , Age Factors , Cell Cycle , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/chemistry , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Signal Detection, Psychological , Smoking , Transcription, Genetic
6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(12): 1539-1546, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269381

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have become the greatest current threat to global public health. The highly infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus primarily attacks pulmonary tissues and impairs gas exchange leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and systemic hypoxia. The current pharmacotherapies for COVID-19 largely rely on supportive and anti-thrombi treatment and the repurposing of antimalarial and antiviral drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir. For a better mechanistic understanding of COVID-19, our present review focuses on its primary pathophysiologic features: hypoxia and cytokine storm, which are a prelude to multiple organ failure and lethality. We discussed a possible link between the activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, since HIF-1α is shown to suppress the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and upregulate disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). In addition, the protein targets of HIF-1α are involved with the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and the subsequent inflammatory process. Furthermore, we hypothesized a potential utility of so-called "hypoxic conditioning" to activate HIF-1α-induced cytoprotective signaling for reduction of illness severity and improvement of vital organ function in patients with COVID-19. Taken together, we would propose further investigations into the hypoxia-related molecular mechanisms, from which novel targeted therapies can be developed for the improved management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/virology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11130, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246392

ABSTRACT

The sex discordance in COVID-19 outcomes has been widely recognized, with males generally faring worse than females and a potential link to sex steroids. A plausible mechanism is androgen-induced expression of TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 in pulmonary tissues that may increase susceptibility or severity in males. This hypothesis is the subject of several clinical trials of anti-androgen therapies around the world. Here, we investigated the sex-associated TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression in human and mouse lungs and interrogated the possibility of pharmacologic modification of their expression with anti-androgens. We found no evidence for increased TMPRSS2 expression in the lungs of males compared to females in humans or mice. Furthermore, in male mice, treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide did not decrease pulmonary TMPRSS2. On the other hand, ACE2 and AR expression was sexually dimorphic and higher in males than females. ACE2 was moderately suppressible with enzalutamide administration. Our work suggests that sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes attributable to viral entry are independent of TMPRSS2. Modest changes in ACE2 could account for some of the sex discordance.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgens , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Smokers
8.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 1677-1687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether COVID-19 comorbidities and risk factors such as old age, male gender, smoking, obesity, eosinophils and blood types have direct contact with expression of ACE2 and pro-inflammation cytokines in human lung tissues were still unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC underwent thoracotomy for pulmonary nodules were included. Blinded histological assessments were performed by two pathologists. Clinical features and results of the immunohistochemical staining of ACE2 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: ACE2 expressed in alveolar macrophages (most obvious), alveolar epithelia and vascular endothelia, but not in small-airway epithelia. ACE2 expressions are positively related to age (r =0.26, P =0.040), weight (r =0.43, P<0.001), as well as BMI (r = 0.38, P =0.002), and male patients show higher expressions of ACE2 in lungs (P <0.05). ACE2 expressions are negatively related to peripheral eosinophils (r = -0.30, P =0.017). There was no correlation between ABO blood types and ACE2 expression in normal lung tissues (P > 0.05). IL-13 and IL-6R expression in lung tissue increased with age (r =0.26, P <0.05, for both). CONCLUSION: Our pathological evidences showed that the alveolar epithelia, vascular endothelia, and alveolar macrophages are susceptible in human lungs for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk factors such as high body weight/BMI, old age, male gender, and eosinopenia may be related to ACE2 expression in human lungs, and associated with more chance to develop the severe cases. IL-6R expression in lung tissue also increased with age. Therefore, weight control and smoking cessation are essential to reduce the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in obesity, old or male patients. Peripheral eosinophils monitor is also quite necessary to detect severe tendency in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L349-L357, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225725

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 hinders oxygen transport to the consuming tissues by at least two mechanisms: In the injured lung, saturation of hemoglobin is compromised, and in the tissues, an associated anemia reduces the volume of delivered oxygen. For the first problem, increased hemoglobin oxygen affinity [left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC)] is of advantage, for the second, however, the contrary is the case. Indeed a right shift of the ODC has been found in former studies for anemia caused by reduced cell production or hemolysis. This resulted from increased 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) concentration. In three investigations in COVID-19, however, no change of hemoglobin affinity was detected in spite of probably high [2,3-BPG]. The most plausible cause for this finding is formation of methemoglobin (MetHb), which increases the oxygen affinity and thus apparently compensates for the 2,3-BPG effect. However, this "useful effect" is cancelled by the concomitant reduction of functional hemoglobin. In the largest study on COVID-19, even a clear left shift of the ODC was detected when calculated from measurements in fresh blood rather than after equilibration with gases outside the body. This additional "in vivo" left shift possibly results from various factors, e.g., concentration changes of Cl-, 2,3-BPG, ATP, lactate, nitrocompounds, glutathione, glutamate, because of time delay between blood sampling and end of equilibration, or enlarged distribution space including interstitial fluid and is useful for O2 uptake in the lungs. Under discussion for therapy are the affinity-increasing 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF), erythropoiesis-stimulating substances like erythropoietin, and methylene blue against MetHb formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Oxygen/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biological Transport , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans
10.
Biophysics (Oxf) ; 66(1): 155-163, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206008

ABSTRACT

It is shown that the inhalation of gaseous nitric oxide (gNO) or sprayed aqueous solutions of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione or N-acetyl-L-cysteine by animals or humans provokes no perceptible hypotensive effects. Potentially, these procedures may be useful in COVID-19 treatment. The NO level in complexes with hemoglobin in blood decreases as the gNO concentration in the gas flow produced by the Plazon system increases from 100 to 2100 ppm, so that at 2000 ppm more than one-half of the gas can be incorporated into dinitrosyl complexes formed in tissues of the lungs and respiratory tract. Thus, the effect of gNO inhalation may be similar to that observed after administration of solutions of dinitrosyl iron complexes, namely, to the presence of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands in lung and airway tissues. With regard to the hypothesis posited earlier that these complexes can suppress coronavirus replication as donors of nitrosonium cations (Biophysics 65, 818, 2020), it is not inconceivable that administration of gNO or chemically synthesized dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands may help treat COVID-19. In tests on the authors of this paper as volunteers, the tolerance concentration of gNO inhaled within 15 min was approximately 2000 ppm. In tests on rats that inhaled sprayed aqueous solutions of dinitrosyl iron complexes, their tolerance dose was approximately 0.4 mmol/kg body weight.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 12466-12478, 2021 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202267

ABSTRACT

Activated protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with potent cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. K150del, a natural variant of APC, is associated with reduced anticoagulant activity. We performed a comprehensive study to analyze the functional alterations of the K150del mutant. Transcriptome analysis of HEK 293T cells treated with wild and mutant APC revealed differentially expressed genes enriched in inflammatory, apoptotic, and virus defense-related signaling pathways. Both wild and mutant APC displayed concentration-dependent cytoprotective effects. Low concentrations of K150del mutant resulted in decreased anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, whereas its higher concentrations restored these effects. Expression of virus defense-related genes improved in mouse lung tissues after repeated administration of the APC variant. These results suggest that the APC K150del mutant could help clinicians to accurately predict disease risks and serve as a potential auxiliary therapeutic in viral infections, including 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protein Kinase C/genetics , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202187

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, infects host cells using the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor after priming by host proteases, including TMPRSS2. COVID-19 affects multiple organ systems, and male patients suffer increased severity and mortality. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. PCOS is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic comorbidities, both being risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 pathology. We hypothesize that elevated androgens in PCOS regulate SARS-CoV-2 entry proteins in multiple tissues increasing the risk for this population. Female mice were treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 90 days. Body composition was measured by EchoMRI. Fasting glucose was determined by an enzymatic method. mRNA and protein levels of ACE2, Tmprss2, Cathepsin L, Furin, Tmprss4, and Adam17 were quantified by RT-qPCR, Western-blot, or ELISA in tissues, serum, and urine. DHT treatment increased body weight, fat and lean mass, and fasting glucose. Ace2 mRNA was upregulated in the lung, cecum, heart, and kidney, while downregulated in the brain by DHT. ACE2 protein was upregulated by DHT in the small intestine, heart, and kidney. The SARS-CoV-2 priming proteases Tmprss2, Cathepsin L, and Furin mRNA were upregulated by DHT in the kidney. ACE2 sheddase Adam17 mRNA was upregulated by DHT in the kidney, which corresponded with increased urinary ACE2 in DHT treated mice. Our results highlight the potential for increased cardiac, renal, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in PCOS women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hyperandrogenism/pathology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/urine , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Virus Internalization
13.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 791-802, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than the general population, with lung epithelial cells or enterocytes being the main targets. However, the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 entry-related genes in aerodigestive cancers have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: In this study, the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 receptors and cofactors, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), basigin (BSG) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), were comprehensively assessed. We compared BSG and TMPRSS2 expressions between aerodigestive cancers and matched normal tissues through Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA2). Furthermore, expressions in healthy colon tissues at different anatomical locations were explored using the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) dataset. In addition, expressions among different tumor stages and the prognostic values were detected through GEPIA2. Moreover, the correlation between gene expression and immune infiltration was explored via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). Finally, expressions in primary colorectal cancer (CRC), lung metastasis and liver metastasis were investigated using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset GSE41258. RESULTS: Similar to ACE2, TMPRSS2 and BSG were also highly expressed in the digestive tracts. Intriguingly, BSG/TMPRSS2 expression in adjacent normal colon tissue or lung tissue was higher than that in corresponding healthy tissue, whereas they varied not among different tumor stages and correlated not with prognosis in aerodigestive cancers. Moreover, ACE2 was expressed at higher levels in lung metastases from CRC than in normal lung tissues. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 entry genes were highly expressed in CRC, and we reported for the first time higher expression of ACE2 in lung metastases from CRC than in normal lung, indicating that these patients may be more susceptible to extrapulmonary or pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since our study is a bioinformatic analysis, further experimental evidences and clinical data are urgently needed.

14.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(4): 310-317, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175474

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has spread to many countries around the world, developing into a global pandemic with increasing numbers of deaths reported worldwide. To data, although some vaccines have been developed, there are no ideal drugs to treat novel coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)). By examining the structure of the coronavirus and briefly describing its possible pathogenesis based on recent autopsy reports conducted by various teams worldwide, this review analyzes the possible structural and functional changes of the human body upon infection with SARS-CoV-2. We observed that the most prominent pathological changes in COVID-19 patients are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) of the lungs and microthrombus formation, resulting in an imbalance of the ventilation/perfusion ratio and respiratory failure. Although direct evidence of viral infection can also be found in other organs and tissues, the viral load is relatively small. The conclusion that the injuries of the extra-pulmonary organs are directly caused by the virus needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Human Body , Humans , Immune Evasion , Lung/virology , Viral Load
15.
Sci Immunol ; 6(58)2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172732

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present a wide range of acute clinical manifestations affecting the lungs, liver, kidneys and gut. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2, the best-characterized entry receptor for the disease-causing virus SARS-CoV-2, is highly expressed in the aforementioned tissues. However, the pathways that underlie the disease are still poorly understood. Here, we unexpectedly found that the complement system was one of the intracellular pathways most highly induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial cells. Infection of respiratory epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2 generated activated complement component C3a and could be blocked by a cell-permeable inhibitor of complement factor B (CFBi), indicating the presence of an inducible cell-intrinsic C3 convertase in respiratory epithelial cells. Within cells of the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients, distinct signatures of complement activation in myeloid, lymphoid and epithelial cells tracked with disease severity. Genes induced by SARS-CoV-2 and the drugs that could normalize these genes both implicated the interferon-JAK1/2-STAT1 signaling system and NF-κB as the main drivers of their expression. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, normalized interferon signature genes and all complement gene transcripts induced by SARS-CoV-2 in lung epithelial cell lines, but did not affect NF-κB-regulated genes. Ruxolitinib, alone or in combination with the antiviral remdesivir, inhibited C3a protein produced by infected cells. Together, we postulate that combination therapy with JAK inhibitors and drugs that normalize NF-κB-signaling could potentially have clinical application for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Complement Activation , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Complement C3a/metabolism , Complement Factor B/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology
16.
Life Sci ; 276: 119428, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157591

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of oxygenation failure primarily characterized by rapid inflammation resulting from a direct pulmonary or indirect systemic insult. ARDS has been a major cause of death in the recent COVID-19 outbreak wherein asymptomatic respiratory tract infection progresses to ARDS from pneumonia have emphasized the need for a reliable therapy for the disease. The disease has a high mortality rate of approximately 30-50%. Despite the high mortality rate, a dearth of effective pharmacotherapy exists that demands extensive research in this area. The complex ARDS pathophysiology which remains to be understood completely and the multifactorial etiology of the disease has led to the poor diagnosis, impeded drug-delivery to the deeper pulmonary tissues, and delayed treatment of the ARDS patients. Besides, critically ill patients are unable to tolerate the off-target side effects. The vast domain of nanobiotechnology presents several drug delivery systems offering numerous benefits such as targeted delivery, prolonged drug release, and uniform drug-distribution. The present review presents a brief insight into the ARDS pathophysiology and summarizes conventional pharmacotherapies available to date. Furthermore, the review provides an updated report of major developments in the nanomedicinal approaches for the treatment of ARDS. We also discuss different nano-formulations studied extensively in the ARDS preclinical models along with underlining the advantages as well as challenges that need to be addressed in the future.


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2409-2414, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148418

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) outbreak, which seriously affected people's lives across the world, has not been effectively controlled. Previous studies have demonstrated that SARS-COV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infecting host cells mainly rely on binding to receptor proteins, namely ACE2 and TMPRSS2. COVID-19 transmission is faster than the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pneumonia outbreak in 2002. This is mainly attributed to the different pathways of virus-infected host cells, coupled with patients' atypical clinical characteristics. SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and contact, infecting lung tissues before damaging other body organs, such as the liver, brain, kidney and heart. The present study identified potential target genes for SARS-COV-2 receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in normal human lung tissue. The findings provide novel insights that will guide future drug development approaches for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Correlation of Data , Gene Expression , Humans , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140681

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with lung inflammation, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, thereby raising concerns of elevated risk of COVID-19-associated mortality among lung cancer patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into lung cells. The single-cell expression landscape of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung cancer patients remains unknown. We sought to delineate single-cell expression profiles of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We examined the expression levels and cellular distribution of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2-priming proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in 5 LUADs and 14 matched normal tissues by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. scRNA-seq of 186,916 cells revealed epithelial-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4. Analysis of 70,030 LUAD- and normal-derived epithelial cells showed that ACE2 levels were highest in normal alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and that TMPRSS2 was expressed in 65% of normal AT2 cells. Conversely, the expression of TMPRSS4 was highest and most frequently detected (75%) in lung cells with malignant features. ACE2-positive cells co-expressed genes implicated in lung pathobiology, including COPD-associated HHIP, and the scavengers CD36 and DMBT1. Notably, the viral scavenger DMBT1 was significantly positively correlated with ACE2 expression in AT2 cells. We describe normal and tumor lung epithelial populations that express SARS-CoV-2 receptor and proteases, as well as major host defense genes, thus comprising potential treatment targets for COVID-19 particularly among lung cancer patients.

19.
Life Sci ; 274: 119341, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic surges on as vast research is produced to study the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and the disease state it induces. Still, little is known about the impact of COVID-19-induced microscale damage in the lung on global lung dynamics. This review summarizes the key histological features of SARS-CoV-2 infected alveoli and links the findings to structural tissue changes and surfactant dysfunction affecting tissue mechanical behavior similar to changes seen in other lung injury. Along with typical findings of diffuse alveolar damage affecting the interstitium of the alveolar walls and blood-gas barrier in the alveolar airspace, COVID-19 can cause extensive microangiopathy in alveolar capillaries that further contribute to mechanical changes in the tissues and may differentiate it from previously studied infectious lung injury. Understanding microlevel damage impact on tissue mechanics allows for better understanding of macroscale respiratory dynamics. Knowledge gained from studies into the relationship between microscale and macroscale lung mechanics can allow for optimized treatments to improve patient outcomes in case of COVID-19 and future respiratory-spread pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Pulmonary Ventilation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246265, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117479

ABSTRACT

Medicinal uses and applications of metals and their complexes are of increasing clinical and commercial importance. The ligation behavior of quercetin (Q), which is a flavonoid, and its Zn (II) (Q/Zn) complex were studied and characterized based on elemental analysis, molar conductance, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, electronic spectra, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FTIR spectral data revealed that Q acts as a bidentate ligand (chelating ligand) through carbonyl C(4) = O oxygen and phenolic C(3)-OH oxygen in conjugation with Zn. Electronic, FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectral data revealed that the Q/Zn complex has a distorted octahedral geometry, with the following chemical formula: [Zn(Q)(NO3)(H2O)2].5H2O. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. A total of 70 male albino rats were divided into seven groups: control, diabetic untreated group and diabetic groups treated with either MSCs and/or Q and/or Q/Zn or their combination. Serum insulin, glucose, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were determined. Pancreatic and lung histology and TEM for pancreatic tissues in addition to gene expression of both SOD and CAT in pulmonary tissues were evaluated. MSCs in combination with Q/Zn therapy exhibited potent protective effects against STZ induced hyperglycemia and suppressed oxidative stress, genotoxicity, glycometabolic disturbances, and structural alterations. Engrafted MSCs were found inside pancreatic tissue at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, Q/Zn with MSC therapy produced a synergistic effect against oxidative stress and genotoxicity and can be considered potential ameliorative therapy against diabetes with pulmonary dysfunction, which may benefit against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , C-Peptide/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Insulin/blood , Insulin/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Rats , Zinc/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL