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1.
Neurophotonics ; 8(2): 025002, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666346

ABSTRACT

Significance: High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) has been shown to approach the resolution and localization accuracy of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging in the adult brain by exploiting densely spaced, overlapping samples of the probed tissue volume, but the technique has to date required large and cumbersome optical fiber arrays. Aim: To evaluate a wearable HD-DOT system that provides a comparable sampling density to large, fiber-based HD-DOT systems, but with vastly improved ergonomics. Approach: We investigated the performance of this system by replicating a series of classic visual stimulation paradigms, carried out in one highly sampled participant during 15 sessions to assess imaging performance and repeatability. Results: Hemodynamic response functions and cortical activation maps replicate the results obtained with larger fiber-based systems. Our results demonstrate focal activations in both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin with a high degree of repeatability observed across all sessions. A comparison with a simulated low-density array explicitly demonstrates the improvements in spatial localization, resolution, repeatability, and image contrast that can be obtained with this high-density technology. Conclusions: The system offers the possibility for minimally constrained, spatially resolved functional imaging of the human brain in almost any environment and holds particular promise in enabling neuroscience applications outside of the laboratory setting. It also opens up new opportunities to investigate populations unsuited to traditional imaging technologies.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3443-3447, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 affects the brain in various ways, amongst which delirium is worrying. An assessment was made of whether a specific, long-lasting, COVID-19-related brain injury develops in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients after life-saving re-oxygenation. METHODS: Ten COVID+ patients (COVID+) with unusual delirium associated with neuroimaging suggestive of diffuse brain injury and seven controls with non-COVID encephalopathy were studied. The assessment took place when the intractable delirium started at weaning off ventilation support. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed followed by standard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses and assessment of CSF erythropoietin concentrations (as a marker for the assessment of tissue repair), and of non-targeted CSF metabolomics using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Patients were similar as regards severity scores, but COVID+ were hospitalized longer (25 [11.75; 25] vs. 9 [4.5; 12.5] days, p = 0.03). On admission, but not at MRI and lumbar puncture performance, COVID+ were more hypoxic (p = 0.002). On MRI, there were leptomeningeal enhancement and diffuse white matter haemorrhages only in COVID+. In the latter, CSF erythropoietin concentration was lower (1.73 [1.6; 2.06] vs. 3.04 [2.9; 3.91] mIU/ml, p = 0.01), and CSF metabolomics indicated (a) increased compounds such as foodborne molecules (sesquiterpenes), molecules from industrialized beverages and micro-pollutants (diethanolamine); and (b) decreased molecules such as incomplete breakdown products of protein catabolism and foodborne molecules (glabridin). At 3-month discharge, fatigue, anxiety and depression as well as MRI lesions persisted in COVID+. CONCLUSIONS: Some COVID+ are at risk of a specific delirium. Imperfect brain repair after re-oxygenation and lifestyle factors might influence long-lasting brain injuries in a context of foodborne micro-pollutants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Environmental Pollutants , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
4.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11452, 2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389783

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have shown various neurological manifestations in about 36.4% of patients infected with SARS-Cov-2. However, peripheral neuropathy was only reported once before. A 40-year-old healthy woman presented with two weeks of cough, nasal congestion, sore throat, intermittent fevers, fatigue, and myalgia but no weakness. She tested positive for the SARS-Cov-2. Physical exam showed no neurologic deficit. Two weeks later, respiratory symptoms were improving but she developed sudden leg pain, numbness, and weakness. She described it as a "pain crisis". Neurological exam showed bilateral symmetrical, non-ascending lower extremity weakness and normal, symmetric reflexes. She had normal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine, spinal fluid analysis, serum studies including creatinine kinase and C-reactive protein. She had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, low serum copper (72.9 (ref: 80.0-155.0 ug/dL)) and low vitamin B6 (14.6 (ref: 20.0-125.0 nmol/L)). A diagnosis of SARS-Cov-2-associated peripheral neuropathy was considered. We pursued empiric treatment with intravenous steroids (1000 mg methylprednisolone for three days), followed by a total of 2 g/kg of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) given over five days. Pain management was done with gabapentin and ketorolac. We replaced copper and vitamin B6. Six weeks later, she reported improvement and was closer to baseline, but she endorsed residual, exertional, mild bilateral lower extremity pain, numbness, and weakness. Previous reports of treatment of SARS-Cov-2-associated neuropathy included corticosteroids and IVIG. Our patient saw the most symptomatic improvement with gabapentin. In our case, the preserved reflexes, lack of ascending pattern, sudden onset of symptoms, and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) argued against Guillain-Barre syndrome. Copper deficiency can result in myelopathy but not peripheral neuropathy, so is unlikely the sole explanation. Awareness and early treatment of peripheral neuropathy in SARS-Cov-2 can result in improved clinical outcomes for patients.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(2): 143-150, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307571

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Age-related sporadic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has gained increasing attention over the past decades because of its increasing prevalence associated with an aging population. The widespread application of and advances in brain magnetic resonance imaging in recent decades have significantly increased researchers' understanding in the in vivo evolution of CSVD, its impact upon the brain, its risk factors, and the mechanisms that explain the various clinical manifestation associated with sporadic CSVD. In this review, we aimed to provide an update on the pathophysiology, risk factors, biomarkers, and the determinants and spectrum of the clinical manifestation of sporadic CSVD.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Pandemics , Aged , Aging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
6.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304575

ABSTRACT

Herein, the authors present the case of a 54-year-old male diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during a screening test. The patient was asked to self-isolate at home and report with any exacerbations of symptoms. He presented later with pneumonia complicated by encephalopathy at days 14 and 15 from initial diagnosis, respectively. MRI of the brain showed bithalamic and gangliocapsular FLAIR signal abnormality with mild right-sided thalamic and periventricular diffusion restriction. A CT venogram was obtained given the distribution of edema and demonstrated deep venous thrombosis involving the bilateral internal cerebral veins and the vein of Galen. CSF workup was negative for encephalitis, as the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and bacterial cultures were negative. A complete hypercoagulable workup was negative, and the venous thrombosis was attributed to a hypercoagulable state induced by COVID-19. The mental decline was attributed to bithalamic and gangliocapsular venous infarction secondary to deep venous thrombosis. Unfortunately, the patient's condition continued to decline, and care was withdrawn.

7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 31: 100683, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term effects of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on organ health, exercise capacity, cognition, quality of life and mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: Fifty-eight COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 30 age, sex, body mass index comorbidity-matched controls were enrolled for multiorgan (brain, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spirometry, six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), quality of life, cognitive and mental health assessments. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months from disease-onset, 64% of patients experienced breathlessness and 55% reported fatigue. On MRI, abnormalities were seen in lungs (60%), heart (26%), liver (10%) and kidneys (29%). Patients exhibited changes in the thalamus, posterior thalamic radiations and sagittal stratum on brain MRI and demonstrated impaired cognitive performance, specifically in the executive and visuospatial domains. Exercise tolerance (maximal oxygen consumption and ventilatory efficiency on CPET) and six-minute walk distance were significantly reduced. The extent of extra-pulmonary MRI abnormalities and exercise intolerance correlated with serum markers of inflammation and acute illness severity. Patients had a higher burden of self-reported symptoms of depression and experienced significant impairment in all domains of quality of life compared to controls (p<0.0001 to 0.044). INTERPRETATION: A significant proportion of patients discharged from hospital reported symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, depression and had limited exercise capacity. Persistent lung and extra-pulmonary organ MRI findings are common in patients and linked to inflammation and severity of acute illness. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford and Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centres, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, UKRI, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation.

8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(9): 3527-3530, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274855

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognised and can arise as a result of direct viral invasion, para-infectious or postinfectious immune mechanisms. We report a delayed presentation of COVID-19 postinfectious immune-mediated encephalitis and status epilepticus occurring in a 47-year-old woman 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid with features of encephalitis evident in both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram. She made a complete recovery following treatment with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Diagnosis of COVID-19 postinfectious encephalitis may prove challenging in patients presenting many weeks following the initial infection. A high index of clinical suspicion and testing intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are key to its diagnosis. Early immunotherapy is likely to result in a good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 52: 102984, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is suspected that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at greater risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to disability and immunotherapy. The relationship between MS and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain. The aim of the study was to collect and analyze this relationship. METHODS: All MS patients of the Neurological Outpatient Clinic in Zabrze, Poland, were regularly questioned for the symptoms of COVID-19 and contact with an infected person. Patients that presented with COVID-19 symptoms or confirmed contact with an infected person were referred for the COVID-19 test. All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 41) were included in the analysis. Medical records of the study group were analyzed. Patient condition was monitored in the outpatient clinic after recovery. In 26 subjects, additional examinations, including brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroneurography (ENG), electroencephalography (EEG), color duplex Doppler (CDD), visual evoked potentials (VEPs), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and psychological assessment were performed following recovery. RESULTS: Only one patient required hospitalization during COVID-19 infection, whereas 87.80% of patients did not require treatment for COVID-19. In all patients, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were below 10 mg/L. In 2.44% of patients, oxygen partial pressure was below 95%. In most MS patients, the results of further examinations after COVID-19 infection were similar to those prior to infection. Psychological assessment revealed that anxiety was found in 42.31% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: A mild course of COVID-19 in MS patients seems common despite disease-modifying drug treatment and disability. Self-isolation is recommended to reduce the number of infected patients. COVID-19 infection did not worsen the course of MS in most subjects. Patients with MS may require additional psychological support during the pandemic due to their susceptibility to anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Poland , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106650, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post COVID-19 seizures are relatively rare. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of acute symptomatic seizures among patients with COVID-19 and to discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 439 cases with COVID-19 that were admitted to Assiut and Aswan University hospitals during the period from 1 June to 10 August 2020, 19 patients (4.3 %) presented with acute symptomatic seizures. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and conventional electroencephalography (EEG). Laboratory investigations included: blood gases, complete blood picture, serum D-Dimer, Ferritin, C-reactive protein, renal and liver functions, and coagulation profile. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 3 had new onset seizures without underlying pathology (0.68 % out of the total 439 patients); 2 others (0.46 %) had previously diagnosed controlled epilepsy with breakthrough seizures. The majority of cases (14 patients, 3.19 %) had primary pathology that could explain the occurrence of seizures: 5 suffered a post COVID-19 stroke (3 ischemic and 2 hemorrhagic stroke); 6 patients had COVID-related encephalitis; 2 patients were old ischemic stroke patients; 1 patient had a brain tumor and developed seizures post COVID-19. CONCLUSION: acute symptomatic seizure is not a rare complication of post COVID-19 infection. Both new onset seizures and seizures secondary to primary brain insult (post COVID encephalitis or recent stroke) were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Egypt/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199757

ABSTRACT

Prevention strategies for COVID-19 transmission are at the forefront of healthcare paradigms worldwide, the main emphasis of which is vaccination. We present an interesting case of a 37-year-old man who, 3 weeks following his first dose of the chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine, ChAdOx1, presented to hospital with a rapidly progressive ascending muscle weakness and back pain in the absence of any other triggers. He also had a negative COVID-19 swab during admission. A diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was confirmed by correlating the clinical features with cerebrospinal fluid analysis, nerve conduction studies and MRI of the brain and whole spine. The patient received treatment with 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin and did not require any respiratory support. He was also regularly reviewed by a multidisciplinary team consisting of neurologists, speech and language therapists, and physiotherapists and is on the course to a recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Adenoviruses, Simian , Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Pan troglodytes
12.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 507-509, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193170

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents respiratory symptoms as the most common clinical manifestations. Similar to some other viral infections, it can cause severe neurological damages. Here, we describe a 40-year-old man case who initially was admitted to a major hospital with presenting 7 days with weak flu-like symptoms (cough) and fever then presented neurology signs for 3 days. Physical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral vasculopathy. Molecular testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The patient received supportive cares and was treated with routine antiplatelet therapy. He was improved and discharged 10 days after admission with no symptoms. Our findings report a 40-year-old man with flu-like symptoms that indicate cerebral vasculopathy that was discharged with no symptoms. Therefore, physicians should be monitor patients with worsening or progressive central nervous system results. The pathobiology of this virus is still incompletely known; therefore, extensive studies are needed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 on the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Arteritis/virology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Humans , Iran , Male , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Neurol Sci ; 42(7): 2611-2614, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188106

ABSTRACT

Amongst the neurologic complications of COVID-19 disease, very few reports have shown the presence of the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Seizure and rarely status epilepticus can be associated with COVID-19 disease. Here we present a 73-year-old male with prior history of stroke who has never experienced seizure before. He had no systemic presentation of COVID-19 disease. The presenting symptoms were two consecutive generalized tonic-clonic seizures that after initial resolution turned into a nonconvulsive status epilepticus despite antiepileptic treatment (a presentation similar to NORSE (new-onset refractory status epilepticus)). There was no new lesion in the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The CSF analysis only showed an increased protein levels and positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of 2019-nCoV. Patient recovered partially after anesthetic, IVIG, steroid, and remdesivir. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a refractory status epilepticus with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the CSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Status Epilepticus , Aged , Humans , Male , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/diagnostic imaging , Seizures/drug therapy , Status Epilepticus/complications , Status Epilepticus/diagnostic imaging , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
14.
Neurol Sci ; 42(7): 2619-2623, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188105

ABSTRACT

We report here the first case of a young individual otherwise healthy, who presented with frequent focal seizures with impaired awareness as a possible long-term complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. Seizures were documented by electroencephalography and responded clinically and neuro-physiologically to antiseizure therapy. The patient underwent an extensive investigation including cerebrospinal fluid examination, conventional and quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-FDG positron emission tomography. Beyond the clinical interest, this case contributes to clarify the possible pathways by which SARS-CoV-2 may enter the central nervous system and cause long-term neurological complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology
15.
Med Dosim ; 46(4): 374-376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179897

ABSTRACT

In this brief report, we describe the case of a previously healthy 51-year gentleman who was treated with stereotactic radiosurgery to a dose of 12 Gy to a small right-sided vestibular schwannoma. MRI of the brain performed after treatment revealed stable treated disease but subsequently, the patient developed symptomatic COVID-19 based on PCR along with multiple cranial neurologic deficits, including right facial paralysis, hemifacial anesthesia, and anesthesia of the ipsilateral hard palate and tongue. MRI of the brain was repeated and demonstrated radiation necrosis in the adjacent brainstem for which he was treated with Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E, dexamethasone, and Bevacizumab with only partial improvement. The dose-volume metrics of the brainstem from his radiotherapy plan as well as the trajectory of his imaging findings do not match this clinical picture from radiotherapy alone. We review the basic pathogenesis of the inflammatory response to infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as the pathogenesis of radiation necrosis. Heightened awareness about potential risks with high-dose radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic COVID-19 should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiosurgery , Humans , Male , Necrosis , Radiosurgery/adverse effects , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178321

ABSTRACT

Globally, at the time of writing (20 March 2021), 121.759.109 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported to the WHO, including 2.690.731 deaths. Globally, on 18 March 2021, a total of 364.184.603 vaccine doses have been administered. In Italy, 3.306.711 confirmed COVID-19 cases with 103.855 deaths have been reported to WHO. In Italy, on 9 March 2021, a total of 6.634.450 vaccine doses have been administered. On 15 March 2021, Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) decided to temporarily suspend the use of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine throughout the country as a precaution, pending the rulings of the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This decision was taken in line with similar measures adopted by other European countries due to the death of vaccinated people. On 18 March 2021, EMA's safety committee concluded its preliminary review about thromboembolic events in people vaccinated with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca at its extraordinary meeting, confirming the benefits of the vaccine continue to outweigh the risk of side effects, however, the vaccine may be associated with very rare cases of blood clots associated with thrombocytopenia, i.e., low levels of blood platelets with or without bleeding, including rare cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with multi-district thrombosis 12 days after the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine administration. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple subacute intra-axial hemorrhages in atypical locations, including the right frontal and the temporal lobes. A plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) of the right coronary artery was performed, without stent implantation, with restoration of distal flow, but with persistence of extensive thrombosis of the vessel. A successive thorax angio-CT added the findings of multiple contrast filling defects with multi-vessel involvement: at the level of the left upper lobe segmental branches, of left interlobar artery, of the right middle lobe segmental branches and of the right interlobar artery. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the same day showed the presence of an acute basilar thrombosis associated with the superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. An abdomen angio-CT showed filling defects at the level of left portal branch and at the level of right suprahepatic vein. Bilaterally, it was adrenal hemorrhage and blood in the pelvis. An evaluation of coagulation factors did not show genetic alterations so as the nasopharyngeal swab ruled out a COVID-19 infection. The patient died after 5 days of hospitalization in intensive care.

17.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 253-262, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging disease. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in infants remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 have adverse brain development. METHODS: This multicenter observational study was conducted at two designated maternal and children's hospitals in Hubei Province, mainland China from February 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were enrolled. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and volumes of grey and white matters, and physical growth parameters were observed at 44 weeks corrected gestational age. RESULTS: Of 72 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19, 8 (11%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, 8 (11%) were critically ill, and no deaths were reported. Among the eight neonates that underwent brain MRI at corrected gestational age of 44 weeks, five neonates were diagnosed with COVID-19. Among these five neonates, three presented abnormal MRI findings including abnormal signal in white matter and delayed myelination in newborn 2, delayed myelination and brain dysplasia in newborn 3, and abnormal signal in the bilateral periventricular in newborn 5. The other three neonates without COVID-19 presented no significantly changes of brain MRI findings and the volumes of grey matter and white matter compared to those of healthy newborns at the equivalent age (P > 0.05). Physical growth parameters for weight, length, and head circumference at gestational age of 44 weeks were all above the 3rd percentile for all neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 had abnormal brain MRI findings but these neonates did not appear to have poor physical growth. These findings may provide the information on the follow-up schedule on the neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2, but further study is required to evaluate the association between the abnormal MRI findings and the exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain/abnormalities , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 108-112, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174389

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with vascular and thrombotic complications, some of which may result from endothelial dysfunction, including the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We report a case series of 8 patients with COVID-19 and PRES diagnosed at two academic medical centers between March and July of 2020. The clinical, laboratory and radiographic data, treatment, and short-term outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age was 57.9 ± 12 years, and 50% were women. Four patients had previous vascular comorbidities. All the patients suffered from severe pneumonia, requiring intensive care unit admission. Five patients were not hypertensive at presentation (all SBP < 127 mmHg). Neurologic symptoms included seizures in 7 patients; impaired consciousness in 5 patients; focal neurological signs in 3 patients; and visual disturbances in 1 patient. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging which indicated asymmetric T2 prolongation or diffusion changes (50%), extensive fronto-parieto-occipital involvement (25%), vascular irregularities (12.5%) and intracranial hemorrhage (25%). Four patients were treated with tocilizumab. Three patients were discharged without neurologic disability, 2 patients had persistent focal neurologic deficits and 2 expired. One patient's prognosis remains guarded. Together, these data support the relationship between PRES and endothelial dysfunction associated with severe COVID-19. In patients with severe COVID-19, PRES can be triggered by uncontrolled hypertension, or occur independently in the setting of systemic illness and certain medications. Like other infectious processes, critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be at greater risk of PRES because of impaired vasoreactivity or the use of novel agents like Tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/etiology , Vision Disorders/etiology
19.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(6): 1400-1404, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164371

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been noted to present with neurological symptoms in nearly 30% of patients. While children are more likely to be asymptomatic, neurological involvement has been observed. We present the case of a 23-month-old previously healthy female who was brought to the emergency room for a new-onset facial droop. The patient tested positive for COVID-19 but was otherwise asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with and without contrast revealed abnormal enhancement along the canalicular segment of the right cranial VII extending to the first genu suggestive of cranial nerve neuritis. Given that our case involves a pediatric patient with no significant comorbidities presenting with facial drop, COVID-19 should be considered on the differential when evaluating causes of new onset peripheral nerve palsies.

20.
Germs ; 11(1): 111-115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159528

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several publications described neurological manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2. Immune-mediated neurological damages caused by COVID-19 are increasingly recognized. CASE REPORT: A young male presented in March 2020 with a new-onset seizure. Later, he started to experience a severe headache. During the second admission in May, the MRI of the brain showed left frontal lesion. Nasal PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative, but the serology was positive, raising the suspicion of immune-mediated encephalitis. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G with two oligoclonal bands were also seen. The patient received IV immunoglobulin and showed improvement in headache. Follow-up MRIs of the brain revealed complete resolution of the lesion. DISCUSSION: Neurological complications from COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. The proposed pathophysiology is either direct damage of neurological tissues, or indirectly through immune-mediated mechanisms. The timeline of the patient's presentation with seizure, as well as the lesion on the brain MRI with complete resolution after the IV immunoglobulin, strongly suggest that the patient had immune-mediated encephalitis after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Several cases of encephalitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been reported. Immune-mediated encephalitis as probable pathophysiology is described here.

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