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1.
Indian J Community Med ; 45(Suppl 1): S9-S11, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453321

ABSTRACT

With the launch of new Government of India's initiative Ayushman bharat that envisages conversion of all subcenters into health and wellness centers, the role of nursing professionals in primary health care will be undergoing paradigm shift. Nurses are approximately two-third of the population of health workforce in India. Nurses' scope of work has widened with additional roles and responsibilities due to shift in the pattern of burden of diseases. The emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases has further enlarged their responsibilities. The main areas, which need attention, are development of nursing workforce, selection and recruitment, placement as per specialization, and preservice and in-service training related to zoonotic surveillance. This article attempts to discuss the role of nurses under emerging zoonotic disease infections.

2.
Nurs Ethics ; 27(4): 924-934, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fifteen years have passed since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. At that time, there were reports of heroic acts among professionals who cared for these patients, whose bravery and professionalism were highly praised. However, there are concerns about changes in new generation of nursing professionals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the attitude of nursing students, should they be faced with severe acute respiratory syndrome patients during their future work. RESEARCH DESIGN: A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the attitude among final-year nursing students to three ethical areas, namely, duty of care, resource allocation, and collateral damage. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This study was carried out in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the Central Research and Ethics Committee, School of Health Sciences at Caritas Institute of Higher Education. FINDINGS: Complete responses from 102 subjects were analyzed. The overwhelming majority (96.1%) did not agree to participate in the intubation of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients if protective measures, that is, N95 mask and gown, were not available. If there were insufficient N95 masks for all the medical, nursing, and allied health workers in the hospital (resource allocation), 37.3% felt that the distribution of N95 masks should be by casting lot, while the rest disagreed. When asked about collateral damage, more than three-quarters (77.5%) said that severe acute respiratory syndrome patients should be admitted to intensive care unit. There was sex difference in nursing students' attitude toward severe acute respiratory syndrome care during pregnancy and influence of age in understanding intensive care unit care for these patients. Interestingly, 94.1% felt that there should be a separate intensive care unit for severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. CONCLUSION: As infection control practice and isolation facilities improved over the years, relevant knowledge and nursing ethical issues related to infectious diseases should become part of nursing education and training programs, especially in preparation for outbreaks of infectious diseases or distress.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Disease Outbreaks , Ethics, Nursing , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Care Rationing , Hong Kong , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Patient Admission , Standard of Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Children (Basel) ; 8(4)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367775

ABSTRACT

The objectives were to identify conditions under which mothers may be willing to use telelactation and explore associations between participant characteristics, willingness, and beliefs regarding telelactation use. Mothers 2-8 weeks postpartum were recruited from two Florida maternal care sites and surveyed to assess demographics, breastfeeding initiation, and potential telelactation use. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Of the 88 participants, most were white, married, earned less than USD 50,000 per year, had access to technology, and were willing to use telelactation if it was free (80.7%) or over a secure server (63.6%). Fifty-six percent were willing to use telelactation if it involved feeding the baby without a cover, but only 45.5% were willing if their nipples may be seen. Those with higher odds of willingness to use telelactation under these modesty conditions were experienced using videochat, white, married, and of higher income. Mothers with security concerns had six times the odds of being uncomfortable with telelactation compared to mothers without concerns. While telelactation can improve access to critical services, willingness to use telelactation may depend on conditions of use and sociodemographics. During the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, these findings offer important insights for lactation professionals implementing virtual consultations.

4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(2): e20200062, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to know the care implemented by the nursing team to prevent medical device-related pressure injuries in critically ill patients. METHODS: this is a qualitative research conducted with 15 nursing professionals from Intensive Care Unit. Sampling was carried out by theoretical saturation. For data analysis, the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique was used. RESULTS: six speeches emerged, whose central ideas were interventions for medical device-related pressure injury prevention: care in fixation; frequent repositioning; protection and padding of body areas in contact; preferences for flexible materials, when available; attention of professionals so that they do not comer under patients; early assessment and removal, when clinically possible. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: nursing care was directed mainly to respiratory devices, catheters in general and monitoring equipment, indicating that professionals have the knowledge to provide safe assistance consistent with the literature.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Nursing Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research
5.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(4): 357-363, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of nursing professionals' resilience on their mental health, work-related stress, and anxiety in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an online survey in the Asan Medical Center and Ulsan University Hospital, South Korea. We extracted data of 824 nursing professionals who consented to participate, including demographic variables and the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9), PHQ-9, GAD-7, and Brief Resilience Scale scores. RESULTS: Resilience was negatively correlated with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) (rho=-0.23), Generalized Anxiety Scale-7 items (GAD-7) (rho=-0.25), Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidem-ics-6 items (SAVE-6) (rho=-0.15), and Stress And anxiety to Viral Epidemics-3 items (SAVE-3) (rho=-0.13, all, p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis adjusting age, marital status, and years of employment revealed that high level of general anxiety [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-1.50], work-related stress during viral epidemics (aOR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03-1.29), and a low level of resilience (aOR=0.91, 95% CI=0.85-0.97) were expecting variables for the depression of healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: Nursing professionals' level of resilience may be associated with low level of work-related stress and anxiety induced by a viral epidemic. We need to explore further the possibility of resilience as coping strategy of healthcare workers in this pandemic era.

6.
Rev Bras Med Trab ; 18(4): 464-471, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125557

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the workload of nurses and its dynamics during the first months (January to April 2020) of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An integrative review of the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Virtual Health Library was conducted using the keywords coronavirus and nursing. Results were analyzed based on the theories of Laurell & Noriega. The 9 articles reviewed emphasized the role of the biological workload associated with COVID-19, in addition to that of sources of psychological workload such as the fear of contamination, the burden of responsibility and concerns about parents. The successful management of the pandemic depends on our ability to mitigate the effects of this workload, especially in light of the quantitative and qualitative importance of nursing in health care institutions.

7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 1): e20200721, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to reflect on empathic listening use as a welcoming strategy for nursing professionals to cope with the challenges during the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus. METHODS: this is a reflection study based on updated data surveys and theoretical-conceptual aspects of Non-Violent Communication and empathic listening. RESULTS: in the performance during the COVID-19 pandemic, nursing professionals are exposed to violence of different natures related to occupational stress, work overload, anguishes and silenced suffering, with implications for the workers' health, who can be benefited and strengthened with empathetic listening. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the health crisis has highlighted the weaknesses of the health system. Nursing acts as the largest contingent of the health workforce in coping with the pandemic. Empathetic listening is a powerful strategy in caring for and strengthening nursing professionals.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Empathy , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Occupational Stress/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 1): e20200581, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to characterize the content of Youtube™ videos related to nursing professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: a qualitative study that examined 47 videos on Youtube™ posted between 11/03 and 11/04 2020, which were subjected to thematic analysis. RESULTS: four categories emerged: "the role of nurses in care production during the pandemic", which addresses the management of services and individual care; "Overview of the pandemic from the perspective of nurses in different countries", presenting experiences and encouraging physical distance; "Tributes and motivation to mobilize the category", in addition to targeted tributes, calls for nurses to claim their rights; "Criticisms and demands to improve working conditions", which highlights the insecurity of care provision settings. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: nursing work conditions in different countries, recognition of the importance of professionals during the pandemic, and claims of the category to improve working conditions were the main content found on Youtube™.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , COVID-19/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Video Recording/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse's Role , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ethik Med ; 33(1): 51-70, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059832

ABSTRACT

DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a considerable challenge to the capacity and functionality of intensive care. This concerns not only resources but, above all, the physical and psychological boundaries of nursing professionals. The question of how care for others and self-care of nurses in intensive care units are related to each other in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has not been addressed in public and scientific discourse so far. ARGUMENTS: The present contribution reflects this relationship with reference to the Code of Ethics of the International Council of Nurses, particularly considering principlism and the Care Ethics according to Joan Tronto. As a result, it shows a corridor of ethically justifiable care with several borders, above all: (1) self-care must not be given up completely for the benefit of care for others, and (2) a categorical subordination of care for others to self-care is ethically not justifiable. CONCLUSION: The article makes an important contribution to a differentiated ethical consideration of the rights and responsibilities of intensive care nurses as moral actors within the pandemic in Germany. It, thus, provides a first starting point for a broad social and political discourse which is urgently needed not only during but also after the pandemic in order to improve the situation of intensive care nurses and those who are cared for.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency that has affected health professionals around the world, causing physical and mental exhaustion with a greater probability of developing mental disorders in professionals who provide healthcare. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to know the psychological impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the nursing professionals working for the Rioja Health Service. METHODS: We conducted an observational and descriptive cross-sectional study. The nursing staff at the Rioja Health Service were invited to respond to a self-administered questionnaire between June and August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 605 health professionals participated in the questionnaire; 91.9% were women, 63.14% were registered nurses, and 36.28% were auxiliary nurses. Risk factors for mental health professionals were identified in more than 90% of nurses (p = 0.009), affecting their psychological state with feelings of exhaustion, emotional overload (p = 0.002), and less use of coping strategies among women. Younger professionals with less experience had higher levels of stress compared to those with more than five years of experience, who showed a progressive reduction in the impact of stressors (p < 0.001). Professionals with dependent family members presented higher levels of emotional overload and coping problems (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant psychological impact on health professionals in terms of stress, emotional well-being, and the use of coping strategies. Female health professionals with dependents, a temporary contract, and less work experience have been more psychologically affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Services , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
11.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(3): 694-702, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003990

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an important impact on the academic world. It is known that university studies can influence the mental health of students, and especially those studying health sciences. In this study, we therefore sought to analyse whether the current pandemic has affected the mental well-being of final-year nursing students. This was a multi-centre study, with a descriptive, longitudinal, and prospective design. Mental well-being was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire. A total of 305 participants were included in the study, of whom 52.1% had experienced the COVID-19 pandemic. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups analysed in terms of age, access to university, average marks, mental well-being self-esteem, emotional exhaustion, and sense of coherence. In the case of mental well-being, a direct association was found with both the pandemic situation (OR = 2.32, P = 0.010) and emotional exhaustion scores (OR = 1.20, P < 0.001), while an inverse association was found with sense of coherence scores (OR = 0.45, P < 0.001). This study shows that the mental health of students is a significant factor and one that must be taken into consideration when training nursing staff at university. There is a need to promote healthy habits and provide appropriate coping strategies. It is also important to train and prepare students for pandemic situations as these can have an important impact on the mental health of both the members of the public who will be treated by these future nursing professionals and the students themselves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Prof Inferm ; 73(3): 133-140, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In February 2020 the first case of COVID-19 arrived in Canton Ticino. Since then, many things have changed at great speed, especially in health organizations, and these changes have had a strong impact on the nursing profession. The objective of this research was: to investigate the experiences of nurses at different organizational levels who were confronted with the COVID pandemic in the first month in which it occurred. METHODS: Narrative Research. The data collection was carried out involving a group of 20 nurses working in different contexts and roles in Canton Ticino. The collected narrations were analyzed through a thematic analysis of their content using Nvivo 12®. RESULTS: The thematic analysis of the narrations made it possible to define 26 themes and 6 macro-themes: Pandemic, What changes, Communication, Emotions/experiences, Role and image, Interprofessional collaboration. The results of this research make it possible to understand how a heterogeneous group of nurses experienced the particular period of pandemic in Canton Ticino and which reflections were derived from it. Some of the aspects highlighted can be compared with what is present in the international literature on the subject in order to find common ways of action for the nursing leadership, in the different Countries, facing the need to organize, manage and support nursing professionals in this and future pandemic situations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this research can be used both at an organisational and educational level and can be the starting point for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nurse's Role , Nurses/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Leadership , Switzerland
13.
Invest Educ Enferm ; 38(3)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the feelings, stress factors, and adaptation strategies of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Guayaquil, Ecuador. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative study, conducted through the application of a 52-item questionnaire with four sections (feelings, perceived stress, stress-reducing factors, and adaptation strategies). The study population was 227 nursing professionals from "Hospital General del Guasmo Sur" of the Ministry of Public Health, who worked during the peak of the pandemic from March to May 2020. The sample comprised 155 nurses who voluntarily accepted to participate. The study received 127 complete questionnaires for analysis. RESULTS: The data showed the priority of humanist feelings and professional duty for these nurses, mostly young (59% under 35 years of age and with the professional exercise of three and fewer years), against the fear of contagion and the stress of strenuous work. They also revealed the great importance for them of the institutional support, recognition to the staff, and strict organization of safe care, like strategies for coping with this difficult experience. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic represented for nurses from Guayaquil a great professional and emotional challenge. Health services and society could consider these findings to avoid burning out nurses and their professional desertion.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Emotions , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945805

ABSTRACT

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a serious global public health problem that becomes aggravated during public health emergencies that involve quarantine measures. It is important to train nursing students on GBV, especially in vulnerable situations, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of our study is to explore the perceptions of third-year nursing students about simulated nursing video consultations for providing assistance to potential cases of GBV victims using a high-fidelity clinical simulation methodology. After all of the simulated scenarios were completed, 48 scripted interviews were carried out following a guide composed of four open-ended questions to facilitate in-depth discussion. A descriptive qualitative study based on the interpretative paradigm was conducted. The nursing students indicated that they improved their knowledge on GBV victim management (mainly their awareness of the problem, recognition of the role of nursing professionals, and performance of non-technical skills), although they also mentioned the need for continuous training (particularly in socio-emotional skills, interview techniques, a holistic nursing care approach, and not presupposing). This innovative high-fidelity simulation methodology allows nursing students to improve their awareness of the GBV problem, acquire a realistic view about their role in addressing GBV, and build their non-technical skills (such as active listening, communication skills, empathy, and generating confidence) required to adequately care for victims of GBV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing , Gender-Based Violence , Patient Simulation , Students, Nursing , Telemedicine , Clinical Competence , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Nurs Ethics ; 28(1): 23-32, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894962

ABSTRACT

These are strange and unprecedented times in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most frontline healthcare professionals have never witnessed anything like this before. As a result, staff may experience numerous and continuous traumatic events, which in many instances, will negatively affect their psychological well-being. Particularly, nurses face extraordinary challenges in response to shifting protocols, triage, shortages of resources, and the astonishing numbers of patients who require care in expedited time constraints. As most healthcare workers are passionate nursing professionals, frustration and often a sense of powerlessness occur when they find themselves unable to provide needed care to their patients. The overwhelming number of deaths, patients isolated and dying alone, and the ever-present fear of being infected and then infecting colleagues, family, friends due to the lack of protective gear or known protocols takes its toll on emotional and psychological well-being. For nurses, the experience of this significant (hopefully once-in-a-lifetime) event can inflict on-going moral injury. Nurses affected by this trauma require education, coping tools, and therapy to help avoid or alleviate the adverse effects on their well-being. Institutions must provide these resources to tend to the well-being of their healthcare staff, during and beyond the pandemic. This article aims to investigate moral distress-considering it as a moral injury-and offer tools and recommendations to support healthcare nurses as they respond to this crisis and its aftermath.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Self Care , Adaptation, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
16.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200140, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To reflect on the mental health of Nursing professionals in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. METHOD: This is a theoretical-reflective study based on the discursive formulation on the theme and supported by the national and international scientific literature and by the authors' critical analysis. RESULTS: The analyzed studies, along with the care practice, showed that Nursing professionals are susceptible to the exacerbation of symptoms such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, anguish, and stress in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, in view of their exhaustive work shifts, patients' deaths, risk of infecting themselves and their families, and social isolation. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The mental health of Nursing professionals needs to be listed as one of the priorities for health managers, guaranteeing strategies and public policies that ensure sanity for those who are in the front line of the fight against the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Nursing Staff/psychology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
SAGE Open Nurs ; 6: 2377960820963771, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877960

ABSTRACT

Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are constant challenges for global public health. After the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been the focus of attention for scientists, governments and populations worldwide. In Brazil, the first case of COVID-19 was identified on February 26 2020, being the first country in Latin America to have affected patients. Almost four months later, more than one million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been identified in the country, and the virus has spread across all 27 states and is responsible for at least 48,954 deaths until June 19, 2020. In addition, a global outbreak requires the active participation of the nursing workforce in clinical care, education, and sharing of accurate information of public health and policies. This year is particularly important for Nursing, as 2020 is the international year for Nursing and Midwifery Professionals. Nursing professionals corresponds to more than half of the health workforce in the country, being crucial in implementing public health policies and programs. Nurses and frontline health care workers have a critical role in the COVID-19 prevention and response, not only by providing direct assistance to patients and communities, but also in the implementation of health promotion and prevention strategies. Hence, we provide a reflection on the strengths and weaknesses of how the nursing profession is engaged with the COVID-19 response in Brazil.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717731

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the orders and structures of societies, particularly in the fields of medical and nursing professions. The researcher aims to understand the experiences, sense of belonging, and decision-making processes about Japanese pre-service nursing students and how the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, and lockdown has influenced their understanding as pre-service nursing professionals in Japan. As this study focuses on the issues of pre-service nursing students, the researcher invited forty-nine pre-service nursing students for a virtual interview due to the recommendation of social distancing. To increase the coverage of the population, the researcher employed snowball sampling to recruit participants from all over Japan. Although the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the overall performance of the medical and nursing professions, all participants showed a sense of belonging as Japanese citizens and nursing professionals due to the natural disaster of their country. More importantly, all expressed their desires and missions to upgrade and improve the overall performance of the public health system due to the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results discovered that many Japanese nursing students advocated that Japan's national development, the benefits and advantages of their country, were of a greater importance than their own personal development and goals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Education, Nursing/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Students, Nursing/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Career Choice , Decision Making , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Japan/epidemiology , Natural Disasters , Pandemics , Public Health Administration/standards , Quality of Health Care/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
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