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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(3): 639-647, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) are the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The aim of this study was to elucidate differences in the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in RA- and SpA-patients. METHODS: Data from the German COVID-19 registry for IRD patients from 30th March to 16th November 2020 were analysed. 208 RA and SpA patients were included in the study, matched for gender and age. RESULTS: 104 SpA patients (40% patients with ankylosing spondylitis, 54% with psoriatic arthritis and 6% with enteropathic arthritis) were compared to 104 RA patients. For both groups, median age was 56 years. TNF-i treatment was reported in 45% of the SpA and in 19% of RA patients (p=0.001). Glucocorticoids were used in 13% of the SpA and in 40% of the RA patients (p=0.001). In both groups, the majority of the patients (97% SpA, 95% RA) recovered from COVID-19. Hospitalisation was needed in 16% of the SpA and in 30% of the RA patients (p=0.05), and oxygen treatment in 10% and 18% respectively (p=ns). Three versus six (p=ns) fatal courses were reported in the SpA versus the RA group. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the hospitalisation rate during COVID-19 infection, but not the mortality, was significantly higher in RA as compared to SpA patients. This could be explained either by different treatment strategies or by different susceptibilities of the two diseases.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Spondylarthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Spondylarthritis/epidemiology
2.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(4): 569-577, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898677

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus has wide community spread. The aim of this study was to describe patient characteristics and to identify factors associated with COVID-19 among emergency department (ED) patients under investigation for COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study from 8 EDs within a 9-hospital health system. Patients with COVID-19 testing around the time of hospital admission were included. The primary outcome measure was COVID-19 test result. Patient characteristics were described and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with a positive COVID-19 test. Results: During the study period from March 1, 2020 to April 8, 2020, 2182 admitted patients had a test resulted for COVID-19. Of these patients, 786 (36%) had a positive test result. For COVID-19-positive patients, 63 (8.1%) died during hospitalization. COVID-19-positive patients had lower pulse oximetry (0.91 [95% confidence interval, CI], [0.88-0.94]), higher temperatures (1.36 [1.26-1.47]), and lower leukocyte counts than negative patients (0.78 [0.75-0.82]). Chronic lung disease (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, [0.52-0.90]) and histories of alcohol (0.64 [0.42-0.99]) or substance abuse (0.39 [0.25-0.62]) were less likely to be associated with a positive COVID-19 result. Conclusion: We observed a high percentage of positive results among an admitted ED cohort under investigation for COVID-19. Patient factors may be useful in early differentiation of patients with COVID-19 from similarly presenting respiratory illnesses although no single factor will serve this purpose.

3.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 160-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rapidly spread globally. Due to different testing strategies, under-detection of positive subjects and COVID-19-related-deaths remains common. Aim of this analysis was to assess the real impact of COVID-19 through the analysis of 2020 Italian all-cause mortality data compared to historical series. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2020 and 2015-2019 all-cause mortality data released by the Italian National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for the time period January 1st-March 21st. This preliminary sample included 1084 Italian municipalities showing at least 10 deaths during the above-mentioned timeframe and an increase in mortality of more than 20% as compared to the previous five years (2015-2019), with a resulting coverage of 21% of Italian population. The difference between 2020 observed and expected deaths (mean of weekly deaths in 2015-2019) was computed, together with mortality rate ratio (MRR) for each of the four weeks following detection of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Italy (February 23rd, 2020 - March 21st, 2020), as well as for this entire timeframe. Subgroup analysis by age groups was also performed. RESULTS: Overall MRR was 1.79 [1.75-1.84], with an observed excess mortality of 8750 individuals in the investigated sample, which in itself outweighs Italian Civil Protection report of only 4,825 COVID-19-related deaths across Italy, as of March 21. Subgroup analysis did not show any difference in mortality rate in '0-14 years' age group, while MRRs were significantly increased in older age groups, in particular in patients >75 years (MRR 1.84 [1.79-1.89]). In addition, week-by-week analysis showed a progressive increase in MRR during this period, peaking in the last week (March 15th, 2020 - March 21st, 2020) with an estimated value of 2.65 [2.53-2.78]. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all-cause mortality data in Italy indicates that reported COVID-19-related deaths are an underestimate of the actual death toll. All-cause death should be seen as the epidemiological indicator of choice to assess the real mortality impact exerted by SARS-CoV-2, given that it also best reflects the toll on frail patient subsets (e.g. the elderly or those with cardiovascular disease).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(3): 673-680, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). CONCLUSION: The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
5.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 36(6): 595-598, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered catheterization laboratory (cath lab) practices in diverse ways. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 on Veterans Affairs (VA) procedural volume and cath lab team experience. METHODS: Procedural volume and COVID-19 patient data were obtained from the Clinical, Assessment, Reporting and Tracking Program. A mixed methods survey was emailed to VA cath lab staff asking about the COVID-19 response. Descriptive and manifest content analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Procedural volume decreased from April to September 2020. One hundred four patients with known COVID-19 were treated. Survey response rate was 19% of staff (n = 170/902) from 83% of VA cath labs (n = 67/81). Reassignment to other units, confusion regarding COVID-19 testing, personal protective equipment use, and low patient volume were reported. Anxiety, burnout, and leadership's role on team morale were described. CONCLUSIONS: Some teams adapted. Others expressed frustration over the lack of control over their practice. Leaders should routinely assess staff needs during the current and future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , COVID-19 Testing , Catheterization , Humans , Laboratories , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526842

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2-infected) patients who develop bloodstream infection (BSI) and to assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients admitted for ≥48 h to a large Central Italy hospital for COVID-19 (1 March to 31 May 2020) who had or had not survived at discharge. We included only patients having blood cultures drawn or other inclusion criteria satisfied. Kaplan-Meier survival or Cox regression analyses were performed of 293 COVID-19 patients studied, 46 patients (15.7%) had a hospital-acquired clinically relevant BSI secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, accounting for 58 episodes (49 monomicrobial and 9 polymicrobial) in total. Twelve episodes (20.7%) occurred at day 3 of hospital admission. Sixty-nine species were isolated, including Staphylococcus aureus (32.8%), Enterobacterales (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.2%), Candida (13.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). Of 69 isolates, 27 (39.1%) were multidrug-resistant organisms. Twelve (54.5%) of 22 patients for whom empirical antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate were infected by a multidrug-resistant organism. Of 46 patients, 26 (56.5%) survived and 20 (43.5%) died. Exploring variables for association with in-hospital mortality identified > 75-year age (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.15-7.68, p = 0.02), septic shock (HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.36-18.23, p < 0.001) and BSI onset ≤ 3 days (HR 4.68, 95% CI 1.40-15.63, p = 0.01) as risk factors independently associated with death. In our hospital, mortality among COVID-19 patients with BSI was high. While continued vigilance against these infections is essential, identification of risk factors for mortality may help to reduce fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

7.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1711-1724, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected minority ethnic populations in the UK. Our aim was to quantify ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of adults (aged ≥18 years) registered with primary care practices in England for whom electronic health records were available through the OpenSAFELY platform, and who had at least 1 year of continuous registration at the start of each study period (Feb 1 to Aug 3, 2020 [wave 1], and Sept 1 to Dec 31, 2020 [wave 2]). Individual-level primary care data were linked to data from other sources on the outcomes of interest: SARS-CoV-2 testing and positive test results and COVID-19-related hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and death. The exposure was self-reported ethnicity as captured on the primary care record, grouped into five high-level census categories (White, South Asian, Black, other, and mixed) and 16 subcategories across these five categories, as well as an unknown ethnicity category. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine ethnic differences in the outcomes of interest. Models were adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, clinical factors and comorbidities, and household size, with stratification by geographical region. FINDINGS: Of 17 288 532 adults included in the study (excluding care home residents), 10 877 978 (62·9%) were White, 1 025 319 (5·9%) were South Asian, 340 912 (2·0%) were Black, 170 484 (1·0%) were of mixed ethnicity, 320 788 (1·9%) were of other ethnicity, and 4 553 051 (26·3%) were of unknown ethnicity. In wave 1, the likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection was slightly higher in the South Asian group (adjusted hazard ratio 1·08 [95% CI 1·07-1·09]), Black group (1·08 [1·06-1·09]), and mixed ethnicity group (1·04 [1·02-1·05]) and was decreased in the other ethnicity group (0·77 [0·76-0·78]) relative to the White group. The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in the South Asian group (1·99 [1·94-2·04]), Black group (1·69 [1·62-1·77]), mixed ethnicity group (1·49 [1·39-1·59]), and other ethnicity group (1·20 [1·14-1·28]). Compared with the White group, the four remaining high-level ethnic groups had an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation (South Asian group 1·48 [1·41-1·55], Black group 1·78 [1·67-1·90], mixed ethnicity group 1·63 [1·45-1·83], other ethnicity group 1·54 [1·41-1·69]), COVID-19-related ICU admission (2·18 [1·92-2·48], 3·12 [2·65-3·67], 2·96 [2·26-3·87], 3·18 [2·58-3·93]), and death (1·26 [1·15-1·37], 1·51 [1·31-1·71], 1·41 [1·11-1·81], 1·22 [1·00-1·48]). In wave 2, the risks of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death relative to the White group were increased in the South Asian group but attenuated for the Black group compared with these risks in wave 1. Disaggregation into 16 ethnicity groups showed important heterogeneity within the five broader categories. INTERPRETATION: Some minority ethnic populations in England have excess risks of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and of adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with the White population, even after accounting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and household characteristics. Causes are likely to be multifactorial, and delineating the exact mechanisms is crucial. Tackling ethnic inequalities will require action across many fronts, including reducing structural inequalities, addressing barriers to equitable care, and improving uptake of testing and vaccination. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Survival Analysis
9.
Drug Healthc Patient Saf ; 13: 11-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299370

ABSTRACT

A beta coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. It spread globally at a rapid rate and killed innumerable people. The SARS-CoV-2 infection, also called coronavirus disease 2019, was declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. The increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 related deaths is due to a number of reasons. A few antiviral, antimicrobial, and immune-based drugs have been repurposed for treatment as well as improvement of patient prognosis. These drugs are currently being studied in clinical trials conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other global health organizations to identify the agents that produce maximum positive patient outcomes and reduction in mortality rate. The aim of this article is to discuss the safety and efficacy of the repurposed drugs in SARS-CoV-2 infection based on currently available clinical evidence and to emphasize the importance of caution required whilst employing the international therapeutic guidelines. Also highlighted in this article are certain specific comorbid conditions, that either involve treatment with the repurposed drugs or have a direct impact of the virus in patients owing to their vulnerability.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 323-328, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all healthcare systems. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number and severity of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Japan. METHODS: Using claims data from the Quality Indicator/Improvement Project (QIP) database, urgent cases of inpatients for CAP from 01 August 2018 to 30 July 2020 were included. The monthly ratios of inpatient cases were compared from August 2018 to July 2019 and August 2019 to July 2020 as a year-over-year comparison. These ratios were also compared according to the "A-DROP" severity score, and an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the monthly number of inpatient cases. RESULTS: This study included a total of 67,900 inpatient cases for CAP in 262 hospitals. During the COVID-19 pandemic (defined as the period between March and July 2020) the number of inpatient cases for CAP drastically decreased compared with the same period in the previous year (-48.1%), despite a temporary reduction in the number of other urgent admissions. The number of inpatient cases decreased according to the severity of pneumonia. Milder cases showed a greater decrease in the year-over-year ratio than severe ones: mild -55.2%, moderate -45.8%, severe -39.4%, and extremely severe -33.2%. The ITS analysis showed that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced the monthly number of inpatient cases for CAP (estimated decrease: -1233 cases; 95% CI -521 to -1955). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant reduction in the number of inpatient cases for CAP during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The milder cases showed a greater decrease in the year-over-year ratio of the number of inpatient cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/complications , Hospitalization , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/complications , Humans , Male
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 684032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major burden for healthcare systems worldwide and has caused multiple changes and problems in outpatient care. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consultations and diagnoses in gastroenterology practices in Germany. To this end, we retrospectively analyzed data from the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). We included all patients aged ≥18 years with at least one visit to one of 48 gastroenterology practices in Germany between April and September 2019 and April and September 2020. A total of 63,914 patients in the 2nd quarter of 2019, 63,701 in the 3rd quarter of 2019, 55,769 in the 2nd quarter of 2020, and 60,446 in the 3rd quarter of 2020 were included. Overall, a clear downward trend in the number of visits to gastroenterologists was observed in the 2nd quarter of 2020 compared to 2019 (-13%, p = 0.228). The decrease in consultations was particularly pronounced in patients >70 years of age (-17%, p = 0.096). This trend was evident for all gastrointestinal diagnoses except for tumors. Most notably, rates of gastrointestinal infections (-19%) or ulcers (-43%) were significantly lower in this period than in the same quarter of 2019. Reflecting the course of the pandemic, the differences between the 3rd quarter of 2020 and that of 2019 were less pronounced (-5%, p = 0.560). Our data show that the pandemic changed patients' behavior with respect to the health care system. Using the example of German gastroenterology practices, we show that the number of consultations as well as the number and range of diagnoses have changed compared to the same period in 2019.

12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14530, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269739

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease is a pandemic threat for humanity's healthcare system, social, economic, and psychological well-being for both developed and developing nations. In the case of developing nations such as the resource of Ethiopia, however, the key obstacle is to buy the vaccine and administer it to their people. In the study area, however, the degree of adherence to the COVID-19 preventive measure was not well-established. The aim of this study is to determine adherence to COVID-19 prevention measures in Hossana town. METHODS: From 3 to 29 January 2021, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals living in the Hosanna town. We used a sample size of 384. The sample size was distributed to all eight kebeles in proportion to the size of the households contained in each kebele in the town of Hossana. Systematic sampling methods were used, and both descriptive and advanced analysis data were entered into Epi-data and exported to SPSS. Binary logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with adherence to preventive measures for COVID-19. RESULT: A total of 377 were included in the study with the response rate of 98.2%. The percentage of the study participants that had good adherence with the COVID-19 preventive measures is 50.4%. 145 (38.5%) of all respondents had poor knowledge on COVID-19 preventive measures, and 40.3% had poor COVID-19 transmission methods knowledge. Age (AOR: 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.131-0.912]), educational status (AOR: 0.32; 95% CI [0.165-0.632]), marital status (AOR: 2; % CI [1.191-3.803]), family size (AOR: 2.4; % CI [1.322-4.366]), and COVID-19 complication (AOR: 0.49:95% CI [0.242-0.979]) were significantly associated with COVID-19 prevention measurement adherence in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: This study found that approximately half of the participants had poor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. Factors associated with COVID-19 preventive measures were age, educational status, marital status, family size, and heard about complication of COVID-19 were associated with preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261214

ABSTRACT

Although primarily affecting the respiratory system, COVID-19 causes multiple organ damage. One of its grave consequences is a prothrombotic state that manifests as thrombotic, microthrombotic and thromboembolic events. Therefore, understanding the effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy in the context of COVID-19 treatment is important. The aim of this rapid review was to highlight the role of thrombosis in COVID-19 and to provide new insights on the use of antithrombotic therapy in its management. A rapid systematic review was performed using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. Papers published in English on antithrombotic agent use and COVID-19 complications were eligible. Results showed that the use of anticoagulants increased survival and reduced thromboembolic events in patients. However, despite the use of anticoagulants, patients still suffered thrombotic events likely due to heparin resistance. Data on antiplatelet use in combination with anticoagulants in the setting of COVID-19 are quite scarce. Current side effects of anticoagulation therapy emphasise the need to update treatment guidelines. In this rapid review, we address a possible modulatory role of antiplatelet and anticoagulant combination against COVID-19 pathogenesis. This combination may be an effective form of adjuvant therapy against COVID-19 infection. However, further studies are needed to elucidate potential risks and benefits associated with this combination.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148272, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260858

ABSTRACT

The world's poorest countries were hit hardest by COVID-19 due to their limited capacities to combat the pandemic. The urban water supply and water consumption are affected by the pandemic because it intensified the existing deficits in the urban water supply and sanitation services. In this study, we develop an integrated spatial analysis approach to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on multi-dimensional Urban Water Consumption Patterns (UWCPs) with the aim of forecasting the water demand. We selected the Tabriz metropolitan area as a case study area and applied an integrated approach of GIS spatial analysis and regression-based autocorrelation assessment to develop the UWCPs for 2018, 2019 and 2020. We then employed GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis and a CA-Markov model to analyze the water demand under the impacts of COVID-19 and to forecast the UWCPs for 2021, 2022 and 2023. In addition, we tested the spatial uncertainty of the prediction maps using the Dempster Shafer Theory. The results show that the domestic water consumption increased by 17.57% during the year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The maximum increase in water consumption was observed in spring 2020 (April-June) when strict quarantine regulations were in place. Based on our results, the annual water deficit in Tabriz has increased from ~18% to about 30% in 2020. In addition, our projections show that this may further increase to about 40-45% in 2021. Relevant stakeholders can use the findings to develop evidence-informed strategies for sustainable water resource management in the post-COVID era. This research also makes other significant contributions. From the environmental perspective, since COVID-19 has affected resource management in many parts of the world, the proposed method can be applied to similar contexts to mitigate the adverse impacts and developed better informed recovery plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water , Water Supply
15.
Orv Hetil ; 162(23): 890-896, 2021 06 06.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259268

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A SARS-CoV-2-világjárvány terjedése drasztikus változásokat okozott a mindennapi betegellátásban, amelyek érintették a szervadományozás és -átültetés területét is, így csökkent az élo és az elhunyt donorokból történo donációk és transzplantációk száma világszerte. Az esetszám csökkenése mellett a transzplantált és egyben immunszupprimált betegek védelme érdekében további biztonsági intézkedéseket kellett bevezetni. Módszer: A vizsgálat célja a COVID-19-járvány hazai donációs és transzplantációs aktivitásra gyakorolt hatásának kimutatása volt 2020-ban, a megelozo évvel történo összehasonlításban. A magyar eredményeket összehasonlítottuk elsosorban az Eurotransplant, illetve az Európai Unió tagállamainak adataival is. Eredmények: A lakosságszámra súlyozott, regisztrált COVID-19-fertozöttség és -halálozás tekintetében nem igazoltunk 2020-ban kiemelkedo eltérést itthon az Eurotransplant-tagállamokhoz képest. A hazai szervdonációs potenciál nem csökkent a vizsgált idoszakban, ugyanakkor 38,33%-kal csökkent az agyhalott szervdonorok száma Magyarországon, míg az Eurotransplantban átlagosan 8,64%-kal és 23 adatközlo európai országban 17,55%-kal. Az elhunytból történt szervátültetések száma 29,27%-kal csökkent, különösen a szív- és a májátültetések esetén. A külföldrol kapott szervek száma 21,13%-kal és aránya 12,34%-kal emelkedett. Az élo donoros veseátültetések száma nem változott. 2020-ban 25%-kal kevesebb új beteget regisztráltak, mint 2019-ben, és a várólista-mortalitás 28%-kal növekedett az elozo évhez képest, kifejezetten a veseátültetésre várók között. Következtetés: A hazai szervátültetési program biztonságos: donoreredetu SARS-CoV-2-átvitel nem történt hazánkban. A szervdonációs potenciál és a COVID-19-járvány mellett a szervdonációs és -transzplantációs aktivitás jelentosen csökkent Magyarországon 2020. márciustól az év végéig. A legtöbb európai országban átmeneti és kisebb mértéku szervdonációs csökkenést regisztráltak. A szervátültetések száma nem csökkent olyan mértékben, mint a donorszám, mert az Eurotransplantból több donorszerv érkezett hazánkba, mint amennyit külföldre küldtünk. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(23): 890-896. INTRODUCTION: The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in drastic changes in day-to-day patient care, which has also affected the field of organ donation and transplantation, thus reducing the number of donations and transplants from living and deceased donors worldwide. In addition to the reduction in the number of cases, additional safety measures had to be introduced to protect transplanted and implicatively immunosuppressed patients. METHOD: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on domestic donation and transplantation activity in 2020, compared to the previous year. We also compared the Hungarian results with the data of the Eurotransplant and the European Union member states. RESULTS: In terms of population-weighted, registered COVID-19 infection and mortality, we did not find a significant difference in Hungary in 2020 compared to the Eurotransplant member states. The national organ donation potential did not diminish in the period under review, however, the number of brain-dead organ donors decreased by 38.33% in Hungary, while in the Eurotransplant it did by 8.64% on average and in 23 reporting European countries by 17.55%. The number of organ transplants from the deceased decreased by 29.27%, especially regarding heart and liver transplants. Both the number and the proportion of organs received from abroad increased by 21.13% and 12.34%, respectively. The number of living donor kidney transplants did not change. In 2020, 25% fewer new patients were registered than in 2019 and the mortality on waiting list increased by 28% compared to the previous year, especially among those waiting for a kidney transplant. CONCLUSION: The national organ transplantation program is safe: donor-derived SARS-CoV-2 transmission did not occur in Hungary. In addition to the organ donation potential and the COVID-19 pandemic, organ donation and transplantation activity decreased significantly in Hungary from March 2020 until the end of the year. Transient and smaller reductions in organ donation rates have been reported in most European countries. The number of organ transplants did not decrease as much as the number of donors, because more donor organs arrived in Hungary from the Eurotransplant than we sent abroad. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(23): 890-896.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Europe , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 888-897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256004

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to determine the influence of COVID-19 on 30-day mortality following hip fracture. Secondary aims were to determine predictors of COVID-19 status on presentation and later in the admission; the rate of hospital acquired COVID-19; and the predictive value of negative swabs on admission. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting with a hip fracture to 17 Scottish centres in March and April 2020. Demographics, presentation blood tests, COVID-19 status, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, management, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: In all, 78/833 (9.4%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The 30-day survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly lower than for those without (65.4% vs 91%; p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 within seven days of admission (likely community acquired) was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, p = 0.040, confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 5.25) and symptoms of COVID-19 (OR 15.56, CI 6.61 to 36.60, p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 made between seven and 30 days of admission to hospital (likely hospital acquired) was independently associated with male sex (OR 1.73, CI 1.05 to 2.87, p = 0.032), Nottingham Hip Fracture Score ≥ 7 (OR 1.91, CI 1.09 to 3.34, p = 0.024), pulmonary disease (OR 1.68, CI 1.00 to 2.81, p = 0.049), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥ 3 (OR 2.37, CI 1.13 to 4.97, p = 0.022), and length of stay ≥ nine days (OR 1.98, CI 1.18 to 3.31, p = 0.009). A total of 38 (58.5%) COVID-19 cases were probably hospital acquired infections. The false-negative rate of a negative swab on admission was 0% in asymptomatic patients and 2.9% in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with a three times increased 30-day mortality rate. Nosocomial transmission may have accounted for approximately half of all cases during the first wave of the pandemic. Identification of risk factors for having COVID-19 on admission or acquiring COVID-19 in hospital may guide pathways for isolating or shielding patients respectively. Length of stay was the only modifiable risk factor, which emphasizes the importance of high-quality and timely care in this patient group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):888-897.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
17.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Initially, COVID-19 is a disease that attacks the respiratory tract, but now the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are various, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Emergency surgeries such as mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for AIS must be performed without any delay even during the COVID-19 pandemic, to reduce morbidity and mortality. Besides the focus on patient's health, the safety of healthcare workers must also be considered. The aim of the study was to evaluate and summarize the scientific literature systematically to explore MT for AIS in the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA SYNTHESIS: The independent reviewers searched the literature through 12 electronic databases, searching for articles fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data from all included studies were presented in a summary table featuring key points of each study. The authors independently assessed the risk of bias of 15 included articles. CONCLUSION: Although MT procedure has been prolonged during the pandemic, clinical outcomes and procedure-related serious adverse events have remained unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The screening process and the implementation of the PCS algorithm must be performed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection without threatening patient safety and clinical outcomes. The standard precaution of infection and the health assurance of healthcare workers and their families (including mental health) are also important factors that must be given special attention and consideration in the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100829, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253658

ABSTRACT

While social inequality is widely recognised as being a risk factor for COVID-19 infection or serious forms of the disease, many questions still remain concerning the perception of hazard and protective measures by the most vulnerable populations. This mixed-methods study aimed (1) to describe the self-perceived health and protective measures linked to COVID-19 of homeless people in one of the largest and poorest cities in France, and (2) to assess which skills and resources they used to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The quantitative survey addressed these questions among a sample of 995 homeless people living either on the streets, in homeless shelters or in squats/slums, whereas the qualitative survey was constructed from 14 homeless interviewees. Both data collections were carried out between June and July 2020. Results showed that COVID-19 infection was clearly perceived by homeless people as a risk, but the experience of being homeless placed this risk among several others. Different practices of protection were observed according to the type of living place. Lockdown of the general population severely impacted the survival systems of the populations furthest from housing, with alarming rates of people without access to water or food. 77% of homeless participants reported that they encountered significant financial difficulties. All interviewees were particularly attentive to their health, with awareness and even a familiarity with the risks of infectious diseases long before the pandemic. Using a capability framework, our study showed a predominant lack of external health-related resources for homeless people, while internal health-related resources were more developed than expected. None of the places and lifestyles studied was favourable to health: collective shelters due to a greater restriction of people's choices, slums and street life due to a greater lack of basic resources.

19.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(7): 531-536, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on ischaemic stroke management, with a reported decrease in hospital admissions, and even disruptions in healthcare and increased in-hospital mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the impact of the pandemic on functional prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 3-month functional outcomes of patients hospitalised due to acute ischaemic stroke in Aragon (Spain). METHODS: We reviewed the data of all patients admitted due to ischaemic stroke to any hospital in our regional healthcare system between 30 December 2019 and 3 May 2020. We compared modified Rankin Scale scores and mortality at 3 months in patients hospitalised before and after the declaration of a state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 318 patients with acute ischaemic stroke met our inclusion criteria. No differences were observed between periods in global or specific characteristics, with the exception of a higher proportion of patients older than 80 years during the first period (42.2% vs 29.0%, P = .028). In the comparative analysis, we found no significant differences in mortality (12.3 vs 7.9, P = .465) or in the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2 (57.7% vs 57.1%, P = .425) at 3 months. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the 3-month functional outcomes of patients with ischaemic stroke. In our region, there has been no increase in rates of mortality or disability at 3 months in patients admitted due to ischaemic stroke during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11334, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249212

ABSTRACT

Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (pLMWH) is currently recommended in COVID-19 to reduce the risk of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antinflammatory effects of pLMWH could translate in lower rate of clinical progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients admitted to a COVID-hospital in Rome with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild/moderate pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint was the time from hospital admission to orotracheal intubation/death (OTI/death). A total of 449 patients were included: 39% female, median age 63 (IQR, 50-77) years. The estimated probability of OTI/death for patients receiving pLMWH was: 9.5% (95% CI 3.2-26.4) by day 20 in those not receiving pLMWH vs. 10.4% (6.7-15.9) in those exposed to pLMWH; p-value = 0.144. This risk associated with the use of pLMWH appeared to vary by PaO2/FiO2 ratio: aHR 1.40 (95% CI 0.51-3.79) for patients with an admission PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg and 0.27 (0.03-2.18) for those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 mmHg; p-value at interaction test 0.16. pLMWH does not seem to reduce the risk of OTI/death mild/moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, especially when respiratory function had already significantly deteriorated. Data from clinical trials comparing the effect of prophylactic vs. therapeutic dosage of LMWH at various stages of COVID-19 disease are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Rome , Severity of Illness Index
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