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1.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526842

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2-infected) patients who develop bloodstream infection (BSI) and to assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients admitted for ≥48 h to a large Central Italy hospital for COVID-19 (1 March to 31 May 2020) who had or had not survived at discharge. We included only patients having blood cultures drawn or other inclusion criteria satisfied. Kaplan-Meier survival or Cox regression analyses were performed of 293 COVID-19 patients studied, 46 patients (15.7%) had a hospital-acquired clinically relevant BSI secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, accounting for 58 episodes (49 monomicrobial and 9 polymicrobial) in total. Twelve episodes (20.7%) occurred at day 3 of hospital admission. Sixty-nine species were isolated, including Staphylococcus aureus (32.8%), Enterobacterales (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.2%), Candida (13.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). Of 69 isolates, 27 (39.1%) were multidrug-resistant organisms. Twelve (54.5%) of 22 patients for whom empirical antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate were infected by a multidrug-resistant organism. Of 46 patients, 26 (56.5%) survived and 20 (43.5%) died. Exploring variables for association with in-hospital mortality identified > 75-year age (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.15-7.68, p = 0.02), septic shock (HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.36-18.23, p < 0.001) and BSI onset ≤ 3 days (HR 4.68, 95% CI 1.40-15.63, p = 0.01) as risk factors independently associated with death. In our hospital, mortality among COVID-19 patients with BSI was high. While continued vigilance against these infections is essential, identification of risk factors for mortality may help to reduce fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453289

ABSTRACT

Bacterial toxins play a key role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. Based on their structural and functional properties, they employ various strategies to modulate lung barrier function and to impair host defense in order to promote infection. Although in general, these toxins target common cellular signaling pathways and host compartments, toxin- and cell-specific effects have also been reported. Toxins can affect resident pulmonary cells involved in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and barrier function through impairing vectorial Na+ transport and through cytoskeletal collapse, as such, destroying cell-cell adhesions. The resulting loss of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and fluid clearance capacity will induce capillary leak and foster edema formation, which will in turn impair gas exchange and endanger the survival of the host. Toxins modulate or neutralize protective host cell mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immunity response during chronic infection. In particular, toxins can either recruit or kill central players of the lung's innate immune responses to pathogenic attacks, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils. Pulmonary disorders resulting from these toxin actions include, e.g., acute lung injury (ALI), the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), and severe pneumonia. When acute infection converts to persistence, i.e., colonization and chronic infection, lung diseases, such as bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) can arise. The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of bacterial toxins in the lungs and the resulting outcomes for pathogenesis, their roles in promoting bacterial dissemination, and bacterial survival in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Signal Transduction
4.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(3): 1008-1022, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454832

ABSTRACT

Aim The aim of this scoping review is to identify the eye tracking paradigms and eye movement measures used to investigate auditory and reading comprehension deficits in persons with aphasia (PWA). Method MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, OTseeker, Scopus, Google Scholar, Grey Literature Database, and ProQuest Search (Dissertations & Theses) were searched for relevant studies. The Covidence software was used to manage the initial and full-text screening process for the search. Results and Discussion From a total of 1,803 studies, 68 studies were included for full-text screening. In addition, 418 records from gray literature were also screened. After full-text screening, 16 studies were included for this review-12 studies for auditory comprehension in PWA and four studies for reading comprehension in PWA. The review highlights the use of common eye tracking paradigms used to study language comprehension in PWA. We also discusse eye movement measures and how they help in assessing auditory and reading comprehension. Methodological challenges of using eye tracking are discussed. Conclusion The studies summarized in this scoping review provide evidence that the eye tracking methods are beneficial for studying auditory and reading comprehension in PWA.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Comprehension , Eye Movements , Eye-Tracking Technology , Humans
5.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448967

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non­coding RNAs with a circular, covalent structure that lack both 5' ends and 3' poly(A) tails, which are stable and specific molecules that exist in eukaryotic cells and are highly conserved. The role of circRNAs in viral infections is being increasingly acknowledged, since circRNAs have been discovered to be involved in several viral infections (such as hepatitis B virus infection and human papilloma virus infection) through a range of circRNA/microRNA/mRNA regulatory axes. These findings have prompted investigations into the potential of circRNAs as targets for the diagnosis and treatment of viral infection­related diseases. The aim of the present review was to systematically examine and discuss the role of circRNAs in several common viral infections, as well as their potential as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , Humans , RNA, Circular/genetics , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/virology
6.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389392

ABSTRACT

Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are a key structure of the distal lung epithelium, where they exert their innate immune response and serve as progenitors of alveolar type I (ATI) cells, contributing to alveolar epithelial repair and regeneration. In the healthy lung, ATII cells coordinate the host defense mechanisms, not only generating a restrictive alveolar epithelial barrier, but also orchestrating host defense mechanisms and secreting surfactant proteins, which are important in lung protection against pathogen exposure. Moreover, surfactant proteins help to maintain homeostasis in the distal lung and reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface, thereby preventing atelectasis and reducing the work of breathing. ATII cells may also contribute to the fibroproliferative reaction by secreting growth factors and proinflammatory molecules after damage. Indeed, various acute and chronic diseases are associated with intensive inflammation. These include oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, fibrosis and numerous interstitial lung diseases, and are characterized by hyperplastic ATII cells which are considered an essential part of the epithelialization process and, consequently, wound healing. The aim of this review is that of revising the physiologic and pathologic role ATII cells play in pulmonary diseases, as, despite what has been learnt in the last few decades of research, the origin, phenotypic regulation and crosstalk of these cells still remain, in part, a mystery.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/physiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Ions/metabolism , Lung/anatomy & histology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Regeneration
8.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(1): 133-141, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379488

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to present the latest advances in giant cell arteritis (GCA) care, and recent national and international rheumatology societies guidance which influences clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Cranial ultrasound reduces diagnostic delay and improves clinical outcomes. Immediate high dose glucocorticoids remain the standard treatment for GCA. Controlled trial evidence using Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, shows good clinical efficacy with steroid-sparing effects. SUMMARY: Improved patient outcomes require formalizing pathways to diagnosis and closer liaison with rheumatology for long-term management with second-line therapies.


Subject(s)
Giant Cell Arteritis/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Delayed Diagnosis , Giant Cell Arteritis/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Treatment Outcome
9.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359309

ABSTRACT

Curcumin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione], the main component of turmeric (Curcuma longa, a flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae), is known to possess different pharmacological activities, particularly anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Since an underlying inflammatory process exists in several ocular conditions, such as anterior uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), the aim of the present review was to summarize the pleiotropic effects exerted by this molecule, focusing in particular on its beneficial role in retinal diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin has also been described in numerous systemic inflammatory pathologies and tumors. Specifically, the biological, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties of curcumin are associated with its ability to downregulate the expression of the following genes: IκBα, cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. According to this finding, curcumin may be useful in the treatment of some retinal disorders. In DR, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and AMD, beneficial effects have been observed following treatment with curcumin, including slowing down of the inflammatory process. Despite the aforementioned evidence, the main disadvantage of this substance is that it possesses a low solubility, as well as poor oral bioavailability due to its reduced absorption, rapid metabolism and rapid elimination. Therefore, several curcumin analogues have been synthesized and tested over the years, in order to improve the possible obtainable therapeutic effects. The purpose of the present review was to identify new aspects that could guide future research on this important traditional medicine, which is a well-tolerated natural product, and is widely considered safe and economical.

10.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1711-1724, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected minority ethnic populations in the UK. Our aim was to quantify ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of adults (aged ≥18 years) registered with primary care practices in England for whom electronic health records were available through the OpenSAFELY platform, and who had at least 1 year of continuous registration at the start of each study period (Feb 1 to Aug 3, 2020 [wave 1], and Sept 1 to Dec 31, 2020 [wave 2]). Individual-level primary care data were linked to data from other sources on the outcomes of interest: SARS-CoV-2 testing and positive test results and COVID-19-related hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and death. The exposure was self-reported ethnicity as captured on the primary care record, grouped into five high-level census categories (White, South Asian, Black, other, and mixed) and 16 subcategories across these five categories, as well as an unknown ethnicity category. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine ethnic differences in the outcomes of interest. Models were adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, clinical factors and comorbidities, and household size, with stratification by geographical region. FINDINGS: Of 17 288 532 adults included in the study (excluding care home residents), 10 877 978 (62·9%) were White, 1 025 319 (5·9%) were South Asian, 340 912 (2·0%) were Black, 170 484 (1·0%) were of mixed ethnicity, 320 788 (1·9%) were of other ethnicity, and 4 553 051 (26·3%) were of unknown ethnicity. In wave 1, the likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection was slightly higher in the South Asian group (adjusted hazard ratio 1·08 [95% CI 1·07-1·09]), Black group (1·08 [1·06-1·09]), and mixed ethnicity group (1·04 [1·02-1·05]) and was decreased in the other ethnicity group (0·77 [0·76-0·78]) relative to the White group. The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in the South Asian group (1·99 [1·94-2·04]), Black group (1·69 [1·62-1·77]), mixed ethnicity group (1·49 [1·39-1·59]), and other ethnicity group (1·20 [1·14-1·28]). Compared with the White group, the four remaining high-level ethnic groups had an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation (South Asian group 1·48 [1·41-1·55], Black group 1·78 [1·67-1·90], mixed ethnicity group 1·63 [1·45-1·83], other ethnicity group 1·54 [1·41-1·69]), COVID-19-related ICU admission (2·18 [1·92-2·48], 3·12 [2·65-3·67], 2·96 [2·26-3·87], 3·18 [2·58-3·93]), and death (1·26 [1·15-1·37], 1·51 [1·31-1·71], 1·41 [1·11-1·81], 1·22 [1·00-1·48]). In wave 2, the risks of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death relative to the White group were increased in the South Asian group but attenuated for the Black group compared with these risks in wave 1. Disaggregation into 16 ethnicity groups showed important heterogeneity within the five broader categories. INTERPRETATION: Some minority ethnic populations in England have excess risks of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and of adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with the White population, even after accounting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and household characteristics. Causes are likely to be multifactorial, and delineating the exact mechanisms is crucial. Tackling ethnic inequalities will require action across many fronts, including reducing structural inequalities, addressing barriers to equitable care, and improving uptake of testing and vaccination. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Survival Analysis
11.
Drug Healthc Patient Saf ; 13: 11-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299370

ABSTRACT

A beta coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. It spread globally at a rapid rate and killed innumerable people. The SARS-CoV-2 infection, also called coronavirus disease 2019, was declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. The increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 related deaths is due to a number of reasons. A few antiviral, antimicrobial, and immune-based drugs have been repurposed for treatment as well as improvement of patient prognosis. These drugs are currently being studied in clinical trials conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other global health organizations to identify the agents that produce maximum positive patient outcomes and reduction in mortality rate. The aim of this article is to discuss the safety and efficacy of the repurposed drugs in SARS-CoV-2 infection based on currently available clinical evidence and to emphasize the importance of caution required whilst employing the international therapeutic guidelines. Also highlighted in this article are certain specific comorbid conditions, that either involve treatment with the repurposed drugs or have a direct impact of the virus in patients owing to their vulnerability.

12.
Genes Immun ; 22(3): 141-160, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275909

ABSTRACT

When surveying the current literature on COVID-19, the "cytokine storm" is considered to be pathogenetically involved in its severe outcomes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and eventually multiple organ failure. In this review, the similar role of DAMPs is addressed, that is, of those molecules, which operate upstream of the inflammatory pathway by activating those cells, which ultimately release the cytokines. Given the still limited reports on their role in COVID-19, the emerging topic is extended to respiratory viral infections with focus on influenza. At first, a brief introduction is given on the function of various classes of activating DAMPs and counterbalancing suppressing DAMPs (SAMPs) in initiating controlled inflammation-promoting and inflammation-resolving defense responses upon infectious and sterile insults. It is stressed that the excessive emission of DAMPs upon severe injury uncovers their fateful property in triggering dysregulated life-threatening hyperinflammatory responses. Such a scenario may happen when the viral load is too high, for example, in the respiratory tract, "forcing" many virus-infected host cells to decide to commit "suicidal" regulated cell death (e.g., necroptosis, pyroptosis) associated with release of large amounts of DAMPs: an important topic of this review. Ironically, although the aim of this "suicidal" cell death is to save and restore organismal homeostasis, the intrinsic release of excessive amounts of DAMPs leads to those dysregulated hyperinflammatory responses-as typically involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in respiratory viral infections. Consequently, as briefly outlined in this review, these molecules can be considered valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor and evaluate the course of the viral disorder, in particular, to grasp the eventual transition precociously from a controlled defense response as observed in mild/moderate cases to a dysregulated life-threatening hyperinflammatory response as seen, for example, in severe/fatal COVID-19. Moreover, the pathogenetic involvement of these molecules qualifies them as relevant future therapeutic targets to prevent severe/ fatal outcomes. Finally, a theory is presented proposing that the superimposition of coronavirus-induced DAMPs with non-virus-induced DAMPs from other origins such as air pollution or high age may contribute to severe and fatal courses of coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Alarmins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Models, Immunological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/metabolism
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12414, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268007

ABSTRACT

Primary aim was to assess prevalence and severity of potential and real drug-drug interactions (DDIs) among therapies for COVID-19 and concomitant medications in hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary aim was to analyze factors associated with rDDIs. An observational single center cohort study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Spain from March 1st to April 30th. rDDIs refer to interaction with concomitant drugs prescribed during hospital stay whereas potential DDIs (pDDIs) refer to those with domiciliary medication. DDIs checked with The University of Liverpool resource. Concomitant medications were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Binomial logistic regression was carried out to identify factors associated with rDDIs. A total of 174 patients were analyzed. DDIs were detected in 152 patients (87.4%) with a total of 417 rDDIs between COVID19-related drugs and involved hospital concomitant medication (60 different drugs) while pDDIs were detected in 105 patients (72.9%) with a total of 553 pDDIs. From all 417 rDDIs, 43.2% (n = 180) were associated with lopinavir/ritonavir and 52.9% (n = 221) with hydroxychloroquine, both of them the most prescribed (106 and 165 patients, respectively). The main mechanism of interaction observed was QTc prolongation. Clinically relevant rDDIs were identified among 81.1% (n = 338) ('potential interactions') and 14.6% (n = 61) (contraindicated) of the patients. Charlson index (OR 1.34, 95% IC 1.02-1.76) and number of drugs prescribed during admission (OR 1.42, 95% IC 1.12-1.81) were independently associated with rDDIs. Prevalence of patients with real and pDDIs was high, especially those clinically relevant. Both comorbidities and polypharmacy were found as risk factors independently associated with DDIs development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Lopinavir/chemistry , Ritonavir/chemistry , Aged , Analgesics/chemistry , Analgesics/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Diuretics/chemistry , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Polypharmacy , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spain
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 2038-2046, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263515

ABSTRACT

Purpose The use of technology (e.g., telehealth) in clinical settings has rapidly increased, and its use in research settings continues to grow. The aim of this report is to present one potential solution to a clinical issue that of virtual and remote assessment for the purposes of spoken language research in persons with aphasia (PWA). To do so, we report detailed methods for conducting a multitimepoint (test-retest) virtual paradigm, assessing lifestyle, physiological, cognitive, and linguistic factors in persons with and without aphasia. Method Procedures for virtual assessment are detailed in a sample of adults with no brain damage (N = 24) and PWA (N = 25) on a test-retest paradigm (data collection approximately 10 ± 3 days apart). This report provides practical information about pre-assessment (e.g., recruitment, scheduling), assessment (e.g., aphasia-friendly consent presentation, investigator fidelity), and postassessment (e.g., data storage, quality check) procedures for human behavior research using a virtual platform. Results Preliminary study data are provided, indicating high retention rates, high rates of data acquisition, and feasibility. Common technological troubles and solutions are discussed, and solutions are offered. The results suggest that our pre-assessment, assessment, and postassessment procedures contributed to the success of our study. Conclusions We provide a practical methodology for conducting a multitimepoint study, with considerations for PWA, adding to the body of research on telehealth in clinical populations. Future studies should continue to evaluate telemethodology, which may be core for diversifying studies, improving study retention, and enrolling larger sample sizes. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14608101.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Brain Injuries , Adult , Humans , Linguistics
15.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261214

ABSTRACT

Although primarily affecting the respiratory system, COVID-19 causes multiple organ damage. One of its grave consequences is a prothrombotic state that manifests as thrombotic, microthrombotic and thromboembolic events. Therefore, understanding the effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy in the context of COVID-19 treatment is important. The aim of this rapid review was to highlight the role of thrombosis in COVID-19 and to provide new insights on the use of antithrombotic therapy in its management. A rapid systematic review was performed using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. Papers published in English on antithrombotic agent use and COVID-19 complications were eligible. Results showed that the use of anticoagulants increased survival and reduced thromboembolic events in patients. However, despite the use of anticoagulants, patients still suffered thrombotic events likely due to heparin resistance. Data on antiplatelet use in combination with anticoagulants in the setting of COVID-19 are quite scarce. Current side effects of anticoagulation therapy emphasise the need to update treatment guidelines. In this rapid review, we address a possible modulatory role of antiplatelet and anticoagulant combination against COVID-19 pathogenesis. This combination may be an effective form of adjuvant therapy against COVID-19 infection. However, further studies are needed to elucidate potential risks and benefits associated with this combination.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
16.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1920203, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254246

ABSTRACT

Background: Various studies have examined the psychological 'typhoon eye' and 'ripple' effects in mental disorders following COVID-19. However, these studies only considered the disorders as entities and assessed severity, and overlooked the differences in specific symptoms of disorders. Objectives: This aim of the study is to assess the psychological typhoon eye and ripple effects at the symptom-level in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is considered as a common psychopathology following the COVID-19 epidemic. Method: In total, 1150 undergraduates, including 271 students from the Hubei province (e.g. epidemic centre) and 879 students from other provinces, completed the self-report questionnaire. The networks were estimated and compared using the R packages. Results: Although the PTSD networks of Hubei and non-Hubei undergraduates were similarly connected and shared some symptoms with high centrality (e.g. flashbacks, irritability and anger), there were differences across the networks. Distorted cognition and no positive emotion only exhibited high centrality in the Hubei network. Physiological responses and exaggerated startle only exhibited high centrality in the non-Hubei network. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the psychological typhoon eye and ripple effects may co-exist at the symptom level. Targeted and distinct psychological services for college students in Hubei and non-Hubei provinces should be emphasized following COVID-19.


Antecedentes: Varios estudios han examinado los efectos psicológicos del 'ojo del huracán' y del 'efecto dominó' en los trastornos mentales posteriores al COVID-19. Sin embargo, estos estudios solo consideraron los trastornos como entidades y evaluaron la gravedad, pasando por alto las diferencias en los síntomas específicos de los trastornos.Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio es evaluar los efectos psicológicos del ojo del huracán y el efecto dominó a nivel de los síntomas en el trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT), que se considera una psicopatología común después de la epidemia de COVID-19.Método: En total, 1150 estudiantes de pregrado, incluyendo 271 estudiantes de la provincia de Hubei (por ejemplo, centro de la epidemia) y 879 estudiantes de otras provincias, completaron el cuestionario de autoinforme. Las redes se estimaron y compararon utilizando los paquetes R.Resultados: Aunque las redes de TEPT de estudiantes universitarios de Hubei y que no eran de Hubei estaban conectadas de manera similar y compartían algunos síntomas con alta centralidad (por ejemplo, flashbacks, irritabilidad e ira), hubo diferencias entre las redes. La cognición distorsionada y sin emoción positiva solo mostraron una alta centralidad en la red de Hubei. Las respuestas fisiológicas y el sobresalto exagerado solo exhibieron una alta centralidad en la red que no era de Hubei.Conclusión: Estos hallazgos sugirieron que los efectos psicológicos del ojo del huracán y el efecto dominó pueden coexistir al nivel de los síntomas. Se deben enfatizar los servicios psicológicos específicos y distintos para los estudiantes universitarios en las provincias de Hubei y que no eran de Hubei después de COVID-19.

17.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100829, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253658

ABSTRACT

While social inequality is widely recognised as being a risk factor for COVID-19 infection or serious forms of the disease, many questions still remain concerning the perception of hazard and protective measures by the most vulnerable populations. This mixed-methods study aimed (1) to describe the self-perceived health and protective measures linked to COVID-19 of homeless people in one of the largest and poorest cities in France, and (2) to assess which skills and resources they used to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The quantitative survey addressed these questions among a sample of 995 homeless people living either on the streets, in homeless shelters or in squats/slums, whereas the qualitative survey was constructed from 14 homeless interviewees. Both data collections were carried out between June and July 2020. Results showed that COVID-19 infection was clearly perceived by homeless people as a risk, but the experience of being homeless placed this risk among several others. Different practices of protection were observed according to the type of living place. Lockdown of the general population severely impacted the survival systems of the populations furthest from housing, with alarming rates of people without access to water or food. 77% of homeless participants reported that they encountered significant financial difficulties. All interviewees were particularly attentive to their health, with awareness and even a familiarity with the risks of infectious diseases long before the pandemic. Using a capability framework, our study showed a predominant lack of external health-related resources for homeless people, while internal health-related resources were more developed than expected. None of the places and lifestyles studied was favourable to health: collective shelters due to a greater restriction of people's choices, slums and street life due to a greater lack of basic resources.

18.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 60: 52-60, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252646

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs), present in 1-5 % of healthy individuals, are associated with the risk of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is the most common form of acquired thrombophilia. APLs may appear following infections or vaccinations and have been reported in patients with COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, their association with COVID-19 vaccination is unclear. Notably, a few cases of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events resembling APS have been reported to develop in recipients of either adenoviral vector- or mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of this review is therefore to speculate on the plausible role of aPLs in the pathogenesis of these rare adverse events. Adenoviral vector-based vaccines can bind platelets and induce their destruction in the reticuloendothelial organs. Liposomal mRNA-based vaccines may instead favour activation of coagulation factors and confer a pro-thrombotic phenotype to endothelial cells and platelets. Furthermore, both formulations may trigger a type I interferon response associated with the generation of aPLs. In turn, aPLs may lead to aberrant activation of the immune response with participation of innate immune cells, cytokines and the complement cascade. NETosis, monocyte recruitment and cytokine release may further support endothelial dysfunction and promote platelet aggregation. These considerations suggest that aPLs may represent a risk factor for thrombotic events following COVID-19 vaccination, and deserve further investigations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/analysis , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Thrombophilia/etiology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/etiology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Contraindications, Drug , Humans , Thrombophilia/immunology
19.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252229

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is considered a respiratory disease which has many symptoms associated with the larynx and the lungs infections. COVID-19 has wide spectrum of clinical features starting from mild symptoms to severe illness. Otolaryngological symptoms as nasal obstruction, loss of smell, taste dysfunction, sore throat, sticky mucus, and dysphagia are common in COVID-19 patients. Other vocal symptoms as dysphonia and phonesthenia are common in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to detect the occurrence of vocal symptoms in COVID-19 patients in Egypt and to investigate the videolaryngoscopic findings associated with these symptoms. A total number of 106 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were randomly assessed for vocal symptoms. The following epidemiological and clinical data were collected: age, gender, smoking consumption, general symptoms, otolaryngological and vocal symptoms as dysphonia and phonesthenia. Auditory perceptual assessment of voice and videolaryngoscopic examination were done. The occurrence of dysphonia and phonesthenia were observed in COVID -19 patients. Of the 106 patients, 84 patients (79%) were dysphonic, 20 (18.8%) patients were phonesthenic. The correlation of the different otolaryngological symptoms with dysphonia and phonesthenia were reported. A significant correlation was found between dysphonic patients and rhinorrhea, taste dysfunction, sore throat, and cough. A significant correlation was found between phonesthenic patients and allergic rhinitis. Videolaryngoscopic findings were detected in COVID-19 patients. Vocal fold congestion was found in 42 patients (39.6%), benign vocal fold swellings was found in 18 patients (16.9%), ventricular hypertrophy was found in 6 patients (0.05%), unilateral vocal fold immobility was found in 14 patients (13.2%), and vocal fold congestion associated with ventricular fold hypertrophy was found in 20 patients (18.8%).There was significant correlation of dysphonia and phonesthenia with vocal fold congestion (P value:0.001, P value:0.039 respectively).There was a significant correlation between cough and vocal fold congestion (P value: 0.000). Benign vocal fold swellings were associated with 18 patients (16.9%), but it was not statistically significant (P value: 0.931). Dysphonia and phonesthenia were observed in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.The vocal symptoms were associated with different laryngoscopic findings, in which, vocal fold congestion was the commonest.

20.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 888-897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256004

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to determine the influence of COVID-19 on 30-day mortality following hip fracture. Secondary aims were to determine predictors of COVID-19 status on presentation and later in the admission; the rate of hospital acquired COVID-19; and the predictive value of negative swabs on admission. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting with a hip fracture to 17 Scottish centres in March and April 2020. Demographics, presentation blood tests, COVID-19 status, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, management, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: In all, 78/833 (9.4%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The 30-day survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly lower than for those without (65.4% vs 91%; p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 within seven days of admission (likely community acquired) was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, p = 0.040, confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 5.25) and symptoms of COVID-19 (OR 15.56, CI 6.61 to 36.60, p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 made between seven and 30 days of admission to hospital (likely hospital acquired) was independently associated with male sex (OR 1.73, CI 1.05 to 2.87, p = 0.032), Nottingham Hip Fracture Score ≥ 7 (OR 1.91, CI 1.09 to 3.34, p = 0.024), pulmonary disease (OR 1.68, CI 1.00 to 2.81, p = 0.049), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥ 3 (OR 2.37, CI 1.13 to 4.97, p = 0.022), and length of stay ≥ nine days (OR 1.98, CI 1.18 to 3.31, p = 0.009). A total of 38 (58.5%) COVID-19 cases were probably hospital acquired infections. The false-negative rate of a negative swab on admission was 0% in asymptomatic patients and 2.9% in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with a three times increased 30-day mortality rate. Nosocomial transmission may have accounted for approximately half of all cases during the first wave of the pandemic. Identification of risk factors for having COVID-19 on admission or acquiring COVID-19 in hospital may guide pathways for isolating or shielding patients respectively. Length of stay was the only modifiable risk factor, which emphasizes the importance of high-quality and timely care in this patient group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):888-897.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
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