Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 110
Filter
1.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526842

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2-infected) patients who develop bloodstream infection (BSI) and to assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients admitted for ≥48 h to a large Central Italy hospital for COVID-19 (1 March to 31 May 2020) who had or had not survived at discharge. We included only patients having blood cultures drawn or other inclusion criteria satisfied. Kaplan-Meier survival or Cox regression analyses were performed of 293 COVID-19 patients studied, 46 patients (15.7%) had a hospital-acquired clinically relevant BSI secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, accounting for 58 episodes (49 monomicrobial and 9 polymicrobial) in total. Twelve episodes (20.7%) occurred at day 3 of hospital admission. Sixty-nine species were isolated, including Staphylococcus aureus (32.8%), Enterobacterales (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.2%), Candida (13.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). Of 69 isolates, 27 (39.1%) were multidrug-resistant organisms. Twelve (54.5%) of 22 patients for whom empirical antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate were infected by a multidrug-resistant organism. Of 46 patients, 26 (56.5%) survived and 20 (43.5%) died. Exploring variables for association with in-hospital mortality identified > 75-year age (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.15-7.68, p = 0.02), septic shock (HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.36-18.23, p < 0.001) and BSI onset ≤ 3 days (HR 4.68, 95% CI 1.40-15.63, p = 0.01) as risk factors independently associated with death. In our hospital, mortality among COVID-19 patients with BSI was high. While continued vigilance against these infections is essential, identification of risk factors for mortality may help to reduce fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1711-1724, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected minority ethnic populations in the UK. Our aim was to quantify ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of adults (aged ≥18 years) registered with primary care practices in England for whom electronic health records were available through the OpenSAFELY platform, and who had at least 1 year of continuous registration at the start of each study period (Feb 1 to Aug 3, 2020 [wave 1], and Sept 1 to Dec 31, 2020 [wave 2]). Individual-level primary care data were linked to data from other sources on the outcomes of interest: SARS-CoV-2 testing and positive test results and COVID-19-related hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and death. The exposure was self-reported ethnicity as captured on the primary care record, grouped into five high-level census categories (White, South Asian, Black, other, and mixed) and 16 subcategories across these five categories, as well as an unknown ethnicity category. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine ethnic differences in the outcomes of interest. Models were adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, clinical factors and comorbidities, and household size, with stratification by geographical region. FINDINGS: Of 17 288 532 adults included in the study (excluding care home residents), 10 877 978 (62·9%) were White, 1 025 319 (5·9%) were South Asian, 340 912 (2·0%) were Black, 170 484 (1·0%) were of mixed ethnicity, 320 788 (1·9%) were of other ethnicity, and 4 553 051 (26·3%) were of unknown ethnicity. In wave 1, the likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection was slightly higher in the South Asian group (adjusted hazard ratio 1·08 [95% CI 1·07-1·09]), Black group (1·08 [1·06-1·09]), and mixed ethnicity group (1·04 [1·02-1·05]) and was decreased in the other ethnicity group (0·77 [0·76-0·78]) relative to the White group. The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in the South Asian group (1·99 [1·94-2·04]), Black group (1·69 [1·62-1·77]), mixed ethnicity group (1·49 [1·39-1·59]), and other ethnicity group (1·20 [1·14-1·28]). Compared with the White group, the four remaining high-level ethnic groups had an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation (South Asian group 1·48 [1·41-1·55], Black group 1·78 [1·67-1·90], mixed ethnicity group 1·63 [1·45-1·83], other ethnicity group 1·54 [1·41-1·69]), COVID-19-related ICU admission (2·18 [1·92-2·48], 3·12 [2·65-3·67], 2·96 [2·26-3·87], 3·18 [2·58-3·93]), and death (1·26 [1·15-1·37], 1·51 [1·31-1·71], 1·41 [1·11-1·81], 1·22 [1·00-1·48]). In wave 2, the risks of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death relative to the White group were increased in the South Asian group but attenuated for the Black group compared with these risks in wave 1. Disaggregation into 16 ethnicity groups showed important heterogeneity within the five broader categories. INTERPRETATION: Some minority ethnic populations in England have excess risks of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and of adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with the White population, even after accounting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and household characteristics. Causes are likely to be multifactorial, and delineating the exact mechanisms is crucial. Tackling ethnic inequalities will require action across many fronts, including reducing structural inequalities, addressing barriers to equitable care, and improving uptake of testing and vaccination. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Survival Analysis
5.
Drug Healthc Patient Saf ; 13: 11-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299370

ABSTRACT

A beta coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. It spread globally at a rapid rate and killed innumerable people. The SARS-CoV-2 infection, also called coronavirus disease 2019, was declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. The increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 related deaths is due to a number of reasons. A few antiviral, antimicrobial, and immune-based drugs have been repurposed for treatment as well as improvement of patient prognosis. These drugs are currently being studied in clinical trials conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other global health organizations to identify the agents that produce maximum positive patient outcomes and reduction in mortality rate. The aim of this article is to discuss the safety and efficacy of the repurposed drugs in SARS-CoV-2 infection based on currently available clinical evidence and to emphasize the importance of caution required whilst employing the international therapeutic guidelines. Also highlighted in this article are certain specific comorbid conditions, that either involve treatment with the repurposed drugs or have a direct impact of the virus in patients owing to their vulnerability.

6.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261214

ABSTRACT

Although primarily affecting the respiratory system, COVID-19 causes multiple organ damage. One of its grave consequences is a prothrombotic state that manifests as thrombotic, microthrombotic and thromboembolic events. Therefore, understanding the effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy in the context of COVID-19 treatment is important. The aim of this rapid review was to highlight the role of thrombosis in COVID-19 and to provide new insights on the use of antithrombotic therapy in its management. A rapid systematic review was performed using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. Papers published in English on antithrombotic agent use and COVID-19 complications were eligible. Results showed that the use of anticoagulants increased survival and reduced thromboembolic events in patients. However, despite the use of anticoagulants, patients still suffered thrombotic events likely due to heparin resistance. Data on antiplatelet use in combination with anticoagulants in the setting of COVID-19 are quite scarce. Current side effects of anticoagulation therapy emphasise the need to update treatment guidelines. In this rapid review, we address a possible modulatory role of antiplatelet and anticoagulant combination against COVID-19 pathogenesis. This combination may be an effective form of adjuvant therapy against COVID-19 infection. However, further studies are needed to elucidate potential risks and benefits associated with this combination.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
7.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 888-897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256004

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to determine the influence of COVID-19 on 30-day mortality following hip fracture. Secondary aims were to determine predictors of COVID-19 status on presentation and later in the admission; the rate of hospital acquired COVID-19; and the predictive value of negative swabs on admission. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting with a hip fracture to 17 Scottish centres in March and April 2020. Demographics, presentation blood tests, COVID-19 status, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, management, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: In all, 78/833 (9.4%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The 30-day survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly lower than for those without (65.4% vs 91%; p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 within seven days of admission (likely community acquired) was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, p = 0.040, confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 5.25) and symptoms of COVID-19 (OR 15.56, CI 6.61 to 36.60, p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 made between seven and 30 days of admission to hospital (likely hospital acquired) was independently associated with male sex (OR 1.73, CI 1.05 to 2.87, p = 0.032), Nottingham Hip Fracture Score ≥ 7 (OR 1.91, CI 1.09 to 3.34, p = 0.024), pulmonary disease (OR 1.68, CI 1.00 to 2.81, p = 0.049), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥ 3 (OR 2.37, CI 1.13 to 4.97, p = 0.022), and length of stay ≥ nine days (OR 1.98, CI 1.18 to 3.31, p = 0.009). A total of 38 (58.5%) COVID-19 cases were probably hospital acquired infections. The false-negative rate of a negative swab on admission was 0% in asymptomatic patients and 2.9% in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with a three times increased 30-day mortality rate. Nosocomial transmission may have accounted for approximately half of all cases during the first wave of the pandemic. Identification of risk factors for having COVID-19 on admission or acquiring COVID-19 in hospital may guide pathways for isolating or shielding patients respectively. Length of stay was the only modifiable risk factor, which emphasizes the importance of high-quality and timely care in this patient group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):888-897.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
8.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Initially, COVID-19 is a disease that attacks the respiratory tract, but now the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are various, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Emergency surgeries such as mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for AIS must be performed without any delay even during the COVID-19 pandemic, to reduce morbidity and mortality. Besides the focus on patient's health, the safety of healthcare workers must also be considered. The aim of the study was to evaluate and summarize the scientific literature systematically to explore MT for AIS in the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA SYNTHESIS: The independent reviewers searched the literature through 12 electronic databases, searching for articles fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data from all included studies were presented in a summary table featuring key points of each study. The authors independently assessed the risk of bias of 15 included articles. CONCLUSION: Although MT procedure has been prolonged during the pandemic, clinical outcomes and procedure-related serious adverse events have remained unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The screening process and the implementation of the PCS algorithm must be performed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection without threatening patient safety and clinical outcomes. The standard precaution of infection and the health assurance of healthcare workers and their families (including mental health) are also important factors that must be given special attention and consideration in the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100829, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253658

ABSTRACT

While social inequality is widely recognised as being a risk factor for COVID-19 infection or serious forms of the disease, many questions still remain concerning the perception of hazard and protective measures by the most vulnerable populations. This mixed-methods study aimed (1) to describe the self-perceived health and protective measures linked to COVID-19 of homeless people in one of the largest and poorest cities in France, and (2) to assess which skills and resources they used to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The quantitative survey addressed these questions among a sample of 995 homeless people living either on the streets, in homeless shelters or in squats/slums, whereas the qualitative survey was constructed from 14 homeless interviewees. Both data collections were carried out between June and July 2020. Results showed that COVID-19 infection was clearly perceived by homeless people as a risk, but the experience of being homeless placed this risk among several others. Different practices of protection were observed according to the type of living place. Lockdown of the general population severely impacted the survival systems of the populations furthest from housing, with alarming rates of people without access to water or food. 77% of homeless participants reported that they encountered significant financial difficulties. All interviewees were particularly attentive to their health, with awareness and even a familiarity with the risks of infectious diseases long before the pandemic. Using a capability framework, our study showed a predominant lack of external health-related resources for homeless people, while internal health-related resources were more developed than expected. None of the places and lifestyles studied was favourable to health: collective shelters due to a greater restriction of people's choices, slums and street life due to a greater lack of basic resources.

10.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(5): 499-513, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245757

ABSTRACT

In 2019, an unprecedented disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and spread across the globe. Although the rapid transmission of COVID-19 has resulted in thousands of deaths and severe lung damage, conclusive treatment is not available. However, three COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized, and two more will be approved soon, according to a World Health Organization report on December 12, 2020. Many COVID-19 patients show symptoms of acute lung injury that eventually leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Our aim in this article is to present the relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and COVID-19, with a focus on angiotensin converting enzyme-2. We also evaluate the radiological imaging methods computed tomography (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) for visualization of patient lung condition. Moreover, we review possible therapeutics for COVID-19 using four categories: treatments related and unrelated to lung disease and treatments that have and have not entered clinical trials. Although many treatments have started clinical trials, they have some drawbacks, such as short-term and small-group testing, that need to be addressed as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244019

ABSTRACT

In this context of COVID-19 pandemic, great interest has been aroused by the potential maternal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by transplacental route, during delivery, and, subsequently, through breastfeeding. Some open questions still remain, especially regarding the possibility of finding viable SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk (BM), although this is not considered a worrying route of transmission. However, in BM, it was pointed out the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and other bioactive components that could protect the infant from infection. The aim of our narrative review is to report and discuss the available literature on the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in BM of COVID-19 positive mothers, and we discussed the unique existing study investigating BM of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers through metabolomics, and the evidence regarding microbiomics BM variation in COVID-19. Moreover, we tried to correlate metabolomics and microbiomics findings in BM of positive mothers with potential effects on breastfed infants metabolism and health. To our knowledge, this is the first review summarizing the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 effects on BM, resuming both "conventional data" (antibodies) and "omics technologies" (metabolomics and microbiomics).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(2)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study is to assess the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: The study comprised 52 children with MIS-C admitted to University of Health Sciences Adana City Training and Research Hospital pediatric wards from September 2020 to April 2021. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patient files. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 9 (5-13) years. Fever (92.3%), abdominal pain (76.9%), rash (48.1%) and vomiting (48.1%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Fever duration was 8 (4.25-10) days in overall. Depressed left ventricular ejection fraction was found in 17.3% of patients. At admission, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer and ferritin were found in 98.1%, 96.2%, 75%, 84.6% and 69.2% of the patients, respectively. Lymphopenia, hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia were found in 76.9%, 59.6% and 42.3% of the patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin was used in 96.2%, corticosteroids in 71.2% and anakinra in 3.8% of the patients. In total, 28.8% of the patients were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit and 17.3% received vasopressor support. Median duration of hospital length of stay was 12.5 days. Comorbidities were present in 19.2% of the patients. No mortality was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: While being rare and treatable, MIS-C is the ugly and mysterious face of the COVID-19 pandemic for children. The increasing number of MIS-C cases shows that this phenomenon is more common than thought. Comprehensive studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and determine the treatment regimens clearly. LAY SUMMARY: While being rare and treatable, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 is the ugly and mysterious face of the COVID-19 pandemic for children. MIS-C is now thought to be a post-infectious (SARS-CoV2) hyperinflammatory disease secondary to an abnormal immune response, rather than a complete obscurity. The increasing number of MIS-C cases and new case series reports from all over the world show that MIS-C is more common than thought. Despite our increasing experience, we may encounter a new finding every day in MIS-C patients. Therefore, we want to contribute to literature by presenting the MIS-C cases we treated in our clinic in detail. We have experienced that MIS-C patients can apply with similar but also different and unique characteristics. In case of delayed diagnosis or treatment, morbidity and mortality rates may increase. Therefore, the level of awareness and knowledge of all physicians, especially those dealing with pediatric patients, about MIS-C should be increased. Although the early effects of MIS-C are known, we don't have enough information about the long-term consequences yet. Comprehensive studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and determine the treatment regimens clearly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
Mater Sociomed ; 33(1): 56-59, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The organization of health care system on Cantonal level with the coordination from Federal level represents a real situation with the possibility of decentralization of health care system according to the experiences of developed countries. OBJECTIVE: To make an overview of the situation at the primary and hospital health care level with the aim of assessing the existing human resources and capacity of health care institutions in FB&H, with which we entered in COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study presents the efficiency of health care in FB&H measured by number of medical doctors, and other medical staff during the time period of five years. Data of the Institute for Public Health FB&H were used. The Institute for Public Health FB&H is authorised by the law to conduct and implement statistical research in the field of health care in line with relevant laws and by-laws. The Institute is obliged to report on organisational structure, human resources and medical equipment. RESULTS: Presented data include the number of health care employees in medical institutions in FB&H in the period 2015-2019 per 100,000 inhabitants and their numbers in primary health care, family medicine, secondary and tertiary level of health care in 2019. The study also presents the number of doctors of medicine, specialists and medical residents in FB&H, the number of nurses of all profiles and levels of education as well as medical staff and other employees in the public health care system in FB&H in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in FB&H has confirmed the fact that human resources in health care are insufficient, especially in the field of public health and epidemiology. The availability of these health facilities and human resource is not uniform throughout the FB&H, which may affect the capacity of the health system in some parts of the FB&H to meet the needs of providing services during COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 52: 102939, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections can trigger exacerbations of multiple sclerosis (MS). The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on MS are not known. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 on new and pre-existing symptoms of MS. METHODS: The COVID-19 and MS study is an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort study conducted as part of the United Kingdom MS Register. People with MS and COVID-19 were invited by email to complete a questionnaire about their MS symptoms during the infection. An MS exacerbation was defined as developing new MS symptoms and/or worsening of pre-existing MS symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent (230/404) of participants had an MS exacerbation during their infection; 82 developed new MS symptoms, 207 experienced worsened pre-existing MS symptoms, and 59 reported both. Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduced the likelihood of developing new MS symptoms during the infection (OR 0.556, 95%CI 0.316-0.978). Participants with a higher pre-COVID-19 webEDSS (web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale) score (OR 1.251, 95%CI 1.060-1.478) and longer MS duration (OR 1.042, 95%CI 1.009-1.076) were more likely to experience worsening of their pre-existing MS symptoms during the infection. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection was associated with exacerbation of MS. DMTs reduced the chance of developing new MS symptoms during the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
15.
Spat Stat ; : 100518, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230787

ABSTRACT

The aim of the work is to identify a clustering structure for the 20 Italian regions according to the main variables related to COVID-19 pandemic. Data are observed over time, spanning from the last week of February 2020 to the first week of February 2021. Dealing with geographical units observed at several time occasions, the proposed fuzzy clustering model embedded both space and time information. Properly, an Exponential distance-based Fuzzy Partitioning Around Medoids algorithm with spatial penalty term has been proposed to classify the spline representation of the time trajectories. The results show that the heterogeneity among regions along with the spatial contiguity is essential to understand the spread of the pandemic and to design effective policies to mitigate the effects.

16.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 53(6): 1723-1729, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226194

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance (MR) studies suggested cardiac involvement post-Covid-19 in a significant subset of affected individuals, including athletes. This brings serious clinical concerns regarding the potential need for in-depth cardiac screening in athletes after Covid-19 before return to play. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the relation between Covid-19 and cardiac involvement in professional athletes. This was a retrospective cohort study, in which 26 consecutive elite athletes (national team, Olympians, top national league players; median age 24 years, interquartile range [IQR] 21-27, 81% female) were included. At 1.5 T including balanced steady-state free precession cine imaging, T1 and T2-mapping using Myomaps software (Siemens), dark-blood T2-weighted images with fat suppression, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence were used. The athletes had mainly asymptomatic or mild course of the disease (77%). They were scanned after a median of 32 days (IQR 22-62 days) from the diagnosis. MR data were reviewed by three independent observers, each with >10 years cardiac MR experience. Native T1, T2, extracellular volume, and T2 signal intensity ratio were calculated. Diagnosis of acute myocarditis was based on modified Lake Louise criteria. Statistical analyses used were Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman repeatability analysis. At the time of MR the athletes had no pathologic electrocardiogram abnormalities or elevated troponin levels. MR did not reveal any case of acute myocarditis. Cardiac abnormalities were found in five (19%) athletes, including four athletes presenting borderline signs of isolated myocardial edema and one athlete showing nonischemic LGE with pleural and pericardial effusion. Another athlete had signs of persistent lung congestion without cardiac involvement. We have shown that in a small group of elite athletes with mainly asymptomatic to mild Covid-19, lack of electrocardiographic changes, and normal troponin concentration 1-2 months after the diagnosis, there were no signs of acute myocarditis, but 19% of athletes had some abnormalities as assessed by cardiac MR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , Athletes , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224260

ABSTRACT

The role of the adaptive microenvironment components in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection is widely researched, but remains unclear. Studying the common dynamics of adaptive immune response changes can help understand the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in critical patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytokines concentration and leukocyte subpopulations profiles in the severe COVID-19 (n = 23) and critical (n = 18) COVID-19 group distinguished by the computed tomography (CT) severity score. We observed lower percentage of lymphocyte subpopulation, higher neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR) and higher IL-6 concentration in critical COVID-19 group than in severe group. CT severity score was negative correlated with proportion of lymphocytes, lymphocytes T, CD4+ cells, Treg cells and NK cells and positive correlated with neutrophils, NLR, and IL-6. In critical group more correlations between cytokines and lymphocytes were observed, mainly between TNF-α, IL-1ß and lymphocyte subpopulations. The collective assessment of the cytokine profile, leukocyte subpopulations and the CT severity score can help to characterize and differentiate patient in advanced COVID-19 than the study of single parameters. We have shown that the interconnection of elements of the adaptive microenvironment can play an important role in critical COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Leukocytes/cytology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
18.
Diabetologia ; 64(8): 1717-1724, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219907

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to describe the clinical characteristics of adults with type 1 diabetes admitted to hospital and the risk factors associated with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the UK. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data collected through a nationwide audit of people admitted to hospital with diabetes and COVID-19, conducted by the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists from March to October 2020. Prespecified demographic, clinical, medication and laboratory data were collected from the electronic and paper medical record systems of the participating hospitals by local clinicians. The primary outcome of the study, severe COVID-19, was defined as death in hospital and/or admission to the adult intensive care unit (AICU). Logistic regression models were used to generate age-adjusted ORs. RESULTS: Forty UK centres submitted data. The final dataset included 196 adults who were admitted to hospital and had both type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 on admission (male sex 55%, white 70%, with mean [SD] age 62 [19] years, BMI 28.3 [7.3] kg/m2 and last recorded HbA1c 76 [31] mmol/mol [9.1 (5.0)%]). The prevalence of pre-existing microvascular disease and macrovascular disease was 56% and 39%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis on admission was 29%. A total of 68 patients (35%) died or were admitted to AICU. The proportions of people that died were 7%, 38% and 38% of those aged <55, 55-74 and ≥75 years, respectively. BMI, serum creatinine levels and having one or more microvascular complications were positively associated with the primary outcome after adjusting for age. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In people with type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital in the UK, higher BMI, poorer renal function and presence of microvascular complications were associated with greater risk of death and/or admission to AICU. Risk of severe COVID-19 is reassuringly very low in people with type 1 diabetes who are under 55 years of age without microvascular or macrovascular disease. IN PEOPLE WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES AND COVID-19 ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL IN THE UK, BMI AND ONE OR MORE MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS HAD A POSITIVE ASSOCIATION AND LOW SERUM CREATINE LEVELS HAD A NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION WITH DEATH/ADMISSION TO INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AFTER ADJUSTING FOR AGE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 652627, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219306

ABSTRACT

According to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming and contemporary psychodynamic approaches, dreams reflect waking life. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and dreaming in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Italy, Romania and Croatia involving 2,105 secondary school students (69% girls, mean age 15.6 ± 2.1 years; 31% boys, mean age 15.1 ± 2.2 years; mean age of whole sample 15.4 ± 2.1 years). No substantial differences between countries were found. Thirty-one percent of the participants reported heightened dream recall, 18% noticed an increase in nightmares during the lockdown, and 15% of the provided dreams (n = 498) included pandemic-related content. The results indicate that subjective emotional reactions to lockdown had a significantly higher correlation to dreaming than objective distress (i.e., illness or death of a close one because of COVID-19). These findings suggest that attention to dreams should be included in preventive programs for adolescents with pandemic-related stress.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211919

ABSTRACT

In the UK, tweets around COVID-19 and health care have primarily focused on the NHS. Recent research has identified that the psychological well-being of NHS staff has been adversely impacted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate narratives relating to the NHS and COVID-19 during the first lockdown (26 March-4 July 2020). A total of 123,880 tweets were collated and downloaded bound to the time period of the first lockdown in order to analyse the real-time discourse around COVID-19 and the NHS. Content analysis was undertaken and tweets were coded to positive and negative sentiments. Five main themes were identified: (1) the dichotomies of 'clap for carers'; (2) problems with PPE and testing; (3) peaks of anger; (4) issues around hero worship; and (5) hints of a normality. Further research exploring and documenting social media narratives around COVID-19 and the NHS, in this and subsequent lockdowns, should help in tailoring suitable support for staff in the future and acknowledging the profound impact that the pandemic has had.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL