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1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(4): 569-577, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898677

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus has wide community spread. The aim of this study was to describe patient characteristics and to identify factors associated with COVID-19 among emergency department (ED) patients under investigation for COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study from 8 EDs within a 9-hospital health system. Patients with COVID-19 testing around the time of hospital admission were included. The primary outcome measure was COVID-19 test result. Patient characteristics were described and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with a positive COVID-19 test. Results: During the study period from March 1, 2020 to April 8, 2020, 2182 admitted patients had a test resulted for COVID-19. Of these patients, 786 (36%) had a positive test result. For COVID-19-positive patients, 63 (8.1%) died during hospitalization. COVID-19-positive patients had lower pulse oximetry (0.91 [95% confidence interval, CI], [0.88-0.94]), higher temperatures (1.36 [1.26-1.47]), and lower leukocyte counts than negative patients (0.78 [0.75-0.82]). Chronic lung disease (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, [0.52-0.90]) and histories of alcohol (0.64 [0.42-0.99]) or substance abuse (0.39 [0.25-0.62]) were less likely to be associated with a positive COVID-19 result. Conclusion: We observed a high percentage of positive results among an admitted ED cohort under investigation for COVID-19. Patient factors may be useful in early differentiation of patients with COVID-19 from similarly presenting respiratory illnesses although no single factor will serve this purpose.

2.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 160-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rapidly spread globally. Due to different testing strategies, under-detection of positive subjects and COVID-19-related-deaths remains common. Aim of this analysis was to assess the real impact of COVID-19 through the analysis of 2020 Italian all-cause mortality data compared to historical series. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2020 and 2015-2019 all-cause mortality data released by the Italian National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for the time period January 1st-March 21st. This preliminary sample included 1084 Italian municipalities showing at least 10 deaths during the above-mentioned timeframe and an increase in mortality of more than 20% as compared to the previous five years (2015-2019), with a resulting coverage of 21% of Italian population. The difference between 2020 observed and expected deaths (mean of weekly deaths in 2015-2019) was computed, together with mortality rate ratio (MRR) for each of the four weeks following detection of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Italy (February 23rd, 2020 - March 21st, 2020), as well as for this entire timeframe. Subgroup analysis by age groups was also performed. RESULTS: Overall MRR was 1.79 [1.75-1.84], with an observed excess mortality of 8750 individuals in the investigated sample, which in itself outweighs Italian Civil Protection report of only 4,825 COVID-19-related deaths across Italy, as of March 21. Subgroup analysis did not show any difference in mortality rate in '0-14 years' age group, while MRRs were significantly increased in older age groups, in particular in patients >75 years (MRR 1.84 [1.79-1.89]). In addition, week-by-week analysis showed a progressive increase in MRR during this period, peaking in the last week (March 15th, 2020 - March 21st, 2020) with an estimated value of 2.65 [2.53-2.78]. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all-cause mortality data in Italy indicates that reported COVID-19-related deaths are an underestimate of the actual death toll. All-cause death should be seen as the epidemiological indicator of choice to assess the real mortality impact exerted by SARS-CoV-2, given that it also best reflects the toll on frail patient subsets (e.g. the elderly or those with cardiovascular disease).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 36(6): 595-598, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered catheterization laboratory (cath lab) practices in diverse ways. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 on Veterans Affairs (VA) procedural volume and cath lab team experience. METHODS: Procedural volume and COVID-19 patient data were obtained from the Clinical, Assessment, Reporting and Tracking Program. A mixed methods survey was emailed to VA cath lab staff asking about the COVID-19 response. Descriptive and manifest content analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Procedural volume decreased from April to September 2020. One hundred four patients with known COVID-19 were treated. Survey response rate was 19% of staff (n = 170/902) from 83% of VA cath labs (n = 67/81). Reassignment to other units, confusion regarding COVID-19 testing, personal protective equipment use, and low patient volume were reported. Anxiety, burnout, and leadership's role on team morale were described. CONCLUSIONS: Some teams adapted. Others expressed frustration over the lack of control over their practice. Leaders should routinely assess staff needs during the current and future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , COVID-19 Testing , Catheterization , Humans , Laboratories , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(12): 1578-1581, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595632

ABSTRACT

AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently encountered disease that was declared a pandemic by WHO in 2020. Obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may aggravate the severity of COVID-19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between MAFLD and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control study, enrolling 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of fatty liver by computed tomography scan. All medical records of eligible patients were reviewed including demographic, clinical, laboratory parameters and data regarding the presence of NAFLD and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: NAFLD was identified in 22/71 (31%) of the study group. Out of 71, thirteen suffered from severe COVID-19. NAFLD patients had more severe COVID-19 compared with non-NAFLD subjects, 8/22 (36.3%) vs. 5/49(10.2%), (P < 0.005), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NAFLD subjects were more likely to have severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 14.48, P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION: NAFLD represents a high risk for severe COVID-19 irrespective to gender, and independent of metabolic syndrome specifically in male gender. Moreover, obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were also significantly associated with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 572012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574919

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused great harm to global public health, resulting in a large number of infections among the population. However, the epidemiology of coronavirus has not been fully understood, especially the mechanism of aerosol transmission. Many respiratory viruses can spread via contact and droplet transmission, but increasing epidemiological data have shown that viral aerosol is an essential transmission route of coronavirus and influenza virus due to its ability to spread rapidly and high infectiousness. Aerosols have the characteristics of small particle size, long-time suspension and long-distance transmission, and easy access to the deep respiratory tract, leading to a high infection risk and posing a great threat to public health. In this review, the characteristics of viral aerosol generation, transmission, and infection as well as the current advances in the aerosol transmission of zoonotic coronavirus and influenza virus are summarized. The aim of the review is to strengthen the understanding of viral aerosol transmission and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of these diseases.

6.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3439-3450, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373788

ABSTRACT

AIM: We hypothesized that viral kinetic modelling could be helpful to prioritize rational drug combinations for COVID-19. The aim of this research was to use a viral cell cycle model of SARS-CoV-2 to explore the potential impact drugs, or combinations of drugs, that act at different stages in the viral life cycle might have on various metrics of infection outcome relevant in the early stages of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: Using a target-cell limited model structure that has been used to characterize viral load dynamics from COVID-19 patients, we performed simulations to inform on the combinations of therapeutics targeting specific rate constants. The endpoints and metrics included viral load area under the curve (AUC), duration of viral shedding and epithelial cells infected. Based on the known kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, we rank ordered potential targeted approaches involving repurposed, low-potency agents. RESULTS: Our simulations suggest that targeting multiple points central to viral replication within infected host cells or release from those cells is a viable strategy for reducing both viral load and host cell infection. In addition, we observed that the time-window opportunity for a therapeutic intervention to effect duration of viral shedding exceeds the effect on sparing epithelial cells from infection or impact on viral load AUC. Furthermore, the impact on reduction on duration of shedding may extend further in patients who exhibit a prolonged shedder phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights the use of model-informed drug repurposing approaches to better rationalize effective treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2181-2185, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced a decrease in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behavior (SB) and a possibly worsening of fat accumulation in already obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how social restriction may have contributed to weight changes in adolescents with obesity. Secondary aim was to evaluate possible parameters influencing weight changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters of 51 obese adolescents were compared between two visits: within 2 months before 8 March, start of lockdown, and within 40 days after the end of it. RESULTS: Mean weight gain during lockdown was 2.8 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.001). Weight increase was higher in males than in females (3.8 ± 3.4 kg vs 1.2 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.02). The hours dedicated to SB increased (+2.9 ± 2.8 h/day; p < 0.001) while the hours of PA decreased (-1.0 ± 1.6 h/week; p < 0.001). Males spent more hours in SB than females (+3.8 ± 2.7 h/day vs +1.5 ± 2.5 h/day; p = 0.003). There were minor changes in diet during lockdown. The most significant variables influencing both delta BMI and waist/height ratio increase were hours devoted to SB during lockdown and differences in mild and moderate PA before and after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed a worsening of obesity during lockdown, with males mainly affected, mainly due to a reduced mild PA and increased hours spent in SB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Time Factors
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 323-328, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all healthcare systems. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number and severity of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Japan. METHODS: Using claims data from the Quality Indicator/Improvement Project (QIP) database, urgent cases of inpatients for CAP from 01 August 2018 to 30 July 2020 were included. The monthly ratios of inpatient cases were compared from August 2018 to July 2019 and August 2019 to July 2020 as a year-over-year comparison. These ratios were also compared according to the "A-DROP" severity score, and an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the monthly number of inpatient cases. RESULTS: This study included a total of 67,900 inpatient cases for CAP in 262 hospitals. During the COVID-19 pandemic (defined as the period between March and July 2020) the number of inpatient cases for CAP drastically decreased compared with the same period in the previous year (-48.1%), despite a temporary reduction in the number of other urgent admissions. The number of inpatient cases decreased according to the severity of pneumonia. Milder cases showed a greater decrease in the year-over-year ratio than severe ones: mild -55.2%, moderate -45.8%, severe -39.4%, and extremely severe -33.2%. The ITS analysis showed that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced the monthly number of inpatient cases for CAP (estimated decrease: -1233 cases; 95% CI -521 to -1955). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant reduction in the number of inpatient cases for CAP during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The milder cases showed a greater decrease in the year-over-year ratio of the number of inpatient cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/complications , Hospitalization , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/complications , Humans , Male
9.
Genes Immun ; 22(3): 141-160, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275909

ABSTRACT

When surveying the current literature on COVID-19, the "cytokine storm" is considered to be pathogenetically involved in its severe outcomes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and eventually multiple organ failure. In this review, the similar role of DAMPs is addressed, that is, of those molecules, which operate upstream of the inflammatory pathway by activating those cells, which ultimately release the cytokines. Given the still limited reports on their role in COVID-19, the emerging topic is extended to respiratory viral infections with focus on influenza. At first, a brief introduction is given on the function of various classes of activating DAMPs and counterbalancing suppressing DAMPs (SAMPs) in initiating controlled inflammation-promoting and inflammation-resolving defense responses upon infectious and sterile insults. It is stressed that the excessive emission of DAMPs upon severe injury uncovers their fateful property in triggering dysregulated life-threatening hyperinflammatory responses. Such a scenario may happen when the viral load is too high, for example, in the respiratory tract, "forcing" many virus-infected host cells to decide to commit "suicidal" regulated cell death (e.g., necroptosis, pyroptosis) associated with release of large amounts of DAMPs: an important topic of this review. Ironically, although the aim of this "suicidal" cell death is to save and restore organismal homeostasis, the intrinsic release of excessive amounts of DAMPs leads to those dysregulated hyperinflammatory responses-as typically involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in respiratory viral infections. Consequently, as briefly outlined in this review, these molecules can be considered valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor and evaluate the course of the viral disorder, in particular, to grasp the eventual transition precociously from a controlled defense response as observed in mild/moderate cases to a dysregulated life-threatening hyperinflammatory response as seen, for example, in severe/fatal COVID-19. Moreover, the pathogenetic involvement of these molecules qualifies them as relevant future therapeutic targets to prevent severe/ fatal outcomes. Finally, a theory is presented proposing that the superimposition of coronavirus-induced DAMPs with non-virus-induced DAMPs from other origins such as air pollution or high age may contribute to severe and fatal courses of coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Alarmins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Models, Immunological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/metabolism
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 684032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major burden for healthcare systems worldwide and has caused multiple changes and problems in outpatient care. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consultations and diagnoses in gastroenterology practices in Germany. To this end, we retrospectively analyzed data from the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). We included all patients aged ≥18 years with at least one visit to one of 48 gastroenterology practices in Germany between April and September 2019 and April and September 2020. A total of 63,914 patients in the 2nd quarter of 2019, 63,701 in the 3rd quarter of 2019, 55,769 in the 2nd quarter of 2020, and 60,446 in the 3rd quarter of 2020 were included. Overall, a clear downward trend in the number of visits to gastroenterologists was observed in the 2nd quarter of 2020 compared to 2019 (-13%, p = 0.228). The decrease in consultations was particularly pronounced in patients >70 years of age (-17%, p = 0.096). This trend was evident for all gastrointestinal diagnoses except for tumors. Most notably, rates of gastrointestinal infections (-19%) or ulcers (-43%) were significantly lower in this period than in the same quarter of 2019. Reflecting the course of the pandemic, the differences between the 3rd quarter of 2020 and that of 2019 were less pronounced (-5%, p = 0.560). Our data show that the pandemic changed patients' behavior with respect to the health care system. Using the example of German gastroenterology practices, we show that the number of consultations as well as the number and range of diagnoses have changed compared to the same period in 2019.

11.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30 Suppl 1: 1437-1444, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273105

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 significantly affects patients' mental health, triggering a wide range of psychological disorders, including anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mandala colouring on the anxiety of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 70 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were randomly divided between the intervention and control groups. Standard care was provided for both groups. The intervention group spent 30 min/day for six consecutive days performing mandala colouring. Patient anxiety was measured prior and subsequent to the intervention in both groups using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 25. The mean anxiety score was not significantly different between the two groups before the intervention (P = 0.08). Subsequent to the intervention, the mean anxiety score in the intervention and control groups was 44.05 ± 4.67 and 67.85 ± 6.25, respectively, indicating a statistically significant (P = 0.0001) decrease in the anxiety measured among the intervention group as compared with that of the control group. The results of this study show that 30 min of mandala colouring daily is an effective strategy for reducing anxiety in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Mandala colouring can complement routine treatment and provides a non-pharmaceutical option for decreasing patient anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Humans , Patients , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148272, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260858

ABSTRACT

The world's poorest countries were hit hardest by COVID-19 due to their limited capacities to combat the pandemic. The urban water supply and water consumption are affected by the pandemic because it intensified the existing deficits in the urban water supply and sanitation services. In this study, we develop an integrated spatial analysis approach to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on multi-dimensional Urban Water Consumption Patterns (UWCPs) with the aim of forecasting the water demand. We selected the Tabriz metropolitan area as a case study area and applied an integrated approach of GIS spatial analysis and regression-based autocorrelation assessment to develop the UWCPs for 2018, 2019 and 2020. We then employed GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis and a CA-Markov model to analyze the water demand under the impacts of COVID-19 and to forecast the UWCPs for 2021, 2022 and 2023. In addition, we tested the spatial uncertainty of the prediction maps using the Dempster Shafer Theory. The results show that the domestic water consumption increased by 17.57% during the year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The maximum increase in water consumption was observed in spring 2020 (April-June) when strict quarantine regulations were in place. Based on our results, the annual water deficit in Tabriz has increased from ~18% to about 30% in 2020. In addition, our projections show that this may further increase to about 40-45% in 2021. Relevant stakeholders can use the findings to develop evidence-informed strategies for sustainable water resource management in the post-COVID era. This research also makes other significant contributions. From the environmental perspective, since COVID-19 has affected resource management in many parts of the world, the proposed method can be applied to similar contexts to mitigate the adverse impacts and developed better informed recovery plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water , Water Supply
13.
Orv Hetil ; 162(23): 890-896, 2021 06 06.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259268

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A SARS-CoV-2-világjárvány terjedése drasztikus változásokat okozott a mindennapi betegellátásban, amelyek érintették a szervadományozás és -átültetés területét is, így csökkent az élo és az elhunyt donorokból történo donációk és transzplantációk száma világszerte. Az esetszám csökkenése mellett a transzplantált és egyben immunszupprimált betegek védelme érdekében további biztonsági intézkedéseket kellett bevezetni. Módszer: A vizsgálat célja a COVID-19-járvány hazai donációs és transzplantációs aktivitásra gyakorolt hatásának kimutatása volt 2020-ban, a megelozo évvel történo összehasonlításban. A magyar eredményeket összehasonlítottuk elsosorban az Eurotransplant, illetve az Európai Unió tagállamainak adataival is. Eredmények: A lakosságszámra súlyozott, regisztrált COVID-19-fertozöttség és -halálozás tekintetében nem igazoltunk 2020-ban kiemelkedo eltérést itthon az Eurotransplant-tagállamokhoz képest. A hazai szervdonációs potenciál nem csökkent a vizsgált idoszakban, ugyanakkor 38,33%-kal csökkent az agyhalott szervdonorok száma Magyarországon, míg az Eurotransplantban átlagosan 8,64%-kal és 23 adatközlo európai országban 17,55%-kal. Az elhunytból történt szervátültetések száma 29,27%-kal csökkent, különösen a szív- és a májátültetések esetén. A külföldrol kapott szervek száma 21,13%-kal és aránya 12,34%-kal emelkedett. Az élo donoros veseátültetések száma nem változott. 2020-ban 25%-kal kevesebb új beteget regisztráltak, mint 2019-ben, és a várólista-mortalitás 28%-kal növekedett az elozo évhez képest, kifejezetten a veseátültetésre várók között. Következtetés: A hazai szervátültetési program biztonságos: donoreredetu SARS-CoV-2-átvitel nem történt hazánkban. A szervdonációs potenciál és a COVID-19-járvány mellett a szervdonációs és -transzplantációs aktivitás jelentosen csökkent Magyarországon 2020. márciustól az év végéig. A legtöbb európai országban átmeneti és kisebb mértéku szervdonációs csökkenést regisztráltak. A szervátültetések száma nem csökkent olyan mértékben, mint a donorszám, mert az Eurotransplantból több donorszerv érkezett hazánkba, mint amennyit külföldre küldtünk. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(23): 890-896. INTRODUCTION: The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in drastic changes in day-to-day patient care, which has also affected the field of organ donation and transplantation, thus reducing the number of donations and transplants from living and deceased donors worldwide. In addition to the reduction in the number of cases, additional safety measures had to be introduced to protect transplanted and implicatively immunosuppressed patients. METHOD: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on domestic donation and transplantation activity in 2020, compared to the previous year. We also compared the Hungarian results with the data of the Eurotransplant and the European Union member states. RESULTS: In terms of population-weighted, registered COVID-19 infection and mortality, we did not find a significant difference in Hungary in 2020 compared to the Eurotransplant member states. The national organ donation potential did not diminish in the period under review, however, the number of brain-dead organ donors decreased by 38.33% in Hungary, while in the Eurotransplant it did by 8.64% on average and in 23 reporting European countries by 17.55%. The number of organ transplants from the deceased decreased by 29.27%, especially regarding heart and liver transplants. Both the number and the proportion of organs received from abroad increased by 21.13% and 12.34%, respectively. The number of living donor kidney transplants did not change. In 2020, 25% fewer new patients were registered than in 2019 and the mortality on waiting list increased by 28% compared to the previous year, especially among those waiting for a kidney transplant. CONCLUSION: The national organ transplantation program is safe: donor-derived SARS-CoV-2 transmission did not occur in Hungary. In addition to the organ donation potential and the COVID-19 pandemic, organ donation and transplantation activity decreased significantly in Hungary from March 2020 until the end of the year. Transient and smaller reductions in organ donation rates have been reported in most European countries. The number of organ transplants did not decrease as much as the number of donors, because more donor organs arrived in Hungary from the Eurotransplant than we sent abroad. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(23): 890-896.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Europe , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Initially, COVID-19 is a disease that attacks the respiratory tract, but now the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are various, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Emergency surgeries such as mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for AIS must be performed without any delay even during the COVID-19 pandemic, to reduce morbidity and mortality. Besides the focus on patient's health, the safety of healthcare workers must also be considered. The aim of the study was to evaluate and summarize the scientific literature systematically to explore MT for AIS in the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA SYNTHESIS: The independent reviewers searched the literature through 12 electronic databases, searching for articles fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data from all included studies were presented in a summary table featuring key points of each study. The authors independently assessed the risk of bias of 15 included articles. CONCLUSION: Although MT procedure has been prolonged during the pandemic, clinical outcomes and procedure-related serious adverse events have remained unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The screening process and the implementation of the PCS algorithm must be performed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection without threatening patient safety and clinical outcomes. The standard precaution of infection and the health assurance of healthcare workers and their families (including mental health) are also important factors that must be given special attention and consideration in the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(7): 531-536, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on ischaemic stroke management, with a reported decrease in hospital admissions, and even disruptions in healthcare and increased in-hospital mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the impact of the pandemic on functional prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 3-month functional outcomes of patients hospitalised due to acute ischaemic stroke in Aragon (Spain). METHODS: We reviewed the data of all patients admitted due to ischaemic stroke to any hospital in our regional healthcare system between 30 December 2019 and 3 May 2020. We compared modified Rankin Scale scores and mortality at 3 months in patients hospitalised before and after the declaration of a state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 318 patients with acute ischaemic stroke met our inclusion criteria. No differences were observed between periods in global or specific characteristics, with the exception of a higher proportion of patients older than 80 years during the first period (42.2% vs 29.0%, P = .028). In the comparative analysis, we found no significant differences in mortality (12.3 vs 7.9, P = .465) or in the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2 (57.7% vs 57.1%, P = .425) at 3 months. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the 3-month functional outcomes of patients with ischaemic stroke. In our region, there has been no increase in rates of mortality or disability at 3 months in patients admitted due to ischaemic stroke during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 602353, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247934

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health crisis worldwide, and the Eastern Mediterranean is one of the most affected areas. Materials and Methods: We use a data-driven approach to assess the characteristics, situation, prevalence, and current intervention actions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We establish a spatial model of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic to project the trend and time distribution of the total confirmed cases and growth rate of daily confirmed cases based on the current intervention actions. Results: The results show that the number of daily confirmed cases, number of active cases, or growth rate of daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 are exhibiting a significant downward trend in Qatar, Egypt, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia under the current interventions, although the total number of confirmed cases and deaths is still increasing. However, it is predicted that the number of total confirmed cases and active cases in Iran and Iraq may continue to increase. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic in Qatar, Egypt, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia will be largely contained if interventions are maintained or tightened. The future is not optimistic, and the intervention response must be further strengthened in Iran and Iraq. The aim of this study is to contribute to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Iraq , Machine Learning , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Qatar , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
17.
Front Nutr ; 8: 672372, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247885

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between food consumption and eating habits and food choice determinants in women during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Brazil between June and September, 2020, during which time social distancing measures were in place. Results: Participants (n = 629) were aged 34.0 years and mostly within normal weight according to BMI (60.4%). "Snacking" and "liking" associated with increased energy (ß = 164.27 and ß = 110.24) and carbohydrate intake (ß = 1.97 and ß = 1.80), and with reduced protein intake (ß = -1.54 and ß = -1.18). In contrast, "dieting" and "weight control" associated with reduced energy (ß = -162.57 and ß = -111.49) and carbohydrate intake (ß = -2.78 and ß = -2.07), and with increased protein intake (ß = 3.78 and ß = 1.65). "Dieting" (ß = 7.27), "need and hunger" (ß = 3.34), and "health" (ß = 4.94) associated with an increased consumption of unprocessed and minimally processed foods, whereas "replacing main meals with snacks" (ß = -8.98), "snacking" (ß = -6.92) and binge eating symptoms (ß = -0.34) associated with reduced consumption of foods within this processing level. In contrast, "use of delivery services" (ß = 3.39), "replacing main meals with snacks" (ß = 5.49), "visual appeal" (ß = 2.17), "social norms" (ß = 2.19) and "affect regulation" (ß = 2.01) associated with increased ultraprocessed food consumption. Overall, associations were more frequent and pronounced when analyzing food consumption by processing level rather than by macronutrient intake. Conclusion: Some eating habits and food choice determinants ("snacking," "replacing meals with snacks," "use of delivery services") observed during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with an unhealthy diet (high energy and carbohydrate consumption, increased ultraprocessed food consumption and reduced unprocessed/minimally processed foods consumption) in Brazilian women.

18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax are not rarely observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such complications can worsen gas exchange and the overall prognosis in critical patients. The aim of this study is to investigate what predisposing factors are related to pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax in SARS-CoV2-Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), what symptoms may predict a severe and potentially fatal complication and what therapeutical approach may provide a better outcome. METHODS: In this single center cohort study, we recorded data from 45 critically ill COVID-19 patients who developed one or more complicating events among pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax. All patients showed ARDS and underwent non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at baseline. Patients with mild to moderate ARDS and pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (n = 25) received High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC), while patients with severe ARDS and pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax underwent HFNC (n = 10) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (n = 10). RESULTS: Pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax developed in 10.5% of subjects affected by SARS-coV2-ARDS. Dyspnea affected 40% and cough affected 37% of subjects. High resolution computed tomography of the chest showed bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities (GGO) in 100% of subjects. Traction bronchiolectasis, reticulation, crazy paving and distortion were observed in 64%. Furthermore, 36% showed subcutaneous emphysema. Non-severe ARDS cases received HFNC, and 76% patients recovered from pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax over a median follow up of 5 days. Among severe ARDS cases the recovery rate of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax was 70% with the HFNC approach, and 10% with IMV. CONCLUSION: HFNC is a safe and effective ventilatory approach for critical COVID-19 and has a positive role in associated complications such as pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax.

19.
Radiography (Lond) ; 27(4): 1118-1123, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233595

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a global impact, including in health services, placing health professionals under enormous tension, pressure, and stress. Professionals involved in the care, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19-infected patients have been subject to emotional and physical distress that can potentially enhance the development of occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of burnout among Portuguese radiographers. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, quantitative study. Burnout levels were estimated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, composed of 22 questions. Specific questions were developed to characterize the socio-demographic situation and the impact of the pandemic on the radiographers. Data were descriptively analyzed and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for correlation analysis. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 386 radiographers, 68.7% of whom where female and 31.3% male. The mean sample age was 36.3 (±9.1) years. A total of 43.5% and 45.5% of subjects had a high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, respectively, and 59.8% experienced low personal accomplishment. Altogether, 23.3% of study participants were at high risk of burnout in the three dimensions assessed and 77.2% in at least one. CONCLUSION: Study results showed that radiographers were at high risk of developing burnout in the COVID-19 pandemic setting. Health institutions should actively monitor these professional's mental health and develop restorative strategies that enable their emotional wellbeing, preventing absenteeism and increasing patients' quality of care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Burnout of health professionals has a strong impact on health services organization, resulting in increased absenteeism and error probability, frequent work delays, low productivity and job satisfaction, inter- and intra-professional conflicts, high job turnover, high job quit, and decreased quality of care perceived by users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 52: 102939, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections can trigger exacerbations of multiple sclerosis (MS). The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on MS are not known. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 on new and pre-existing symptoms of MS. METHODS: The COVID-19 and MS study is an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort study conducted as part of the United Kingdom MS Register. People with MS and COVID-19 were invited by email to complete a questionnaire about their MS symptoms during the infection. An MS exacerbation was defined as developing new MS symptoms and/or worsening of pre-existing MS symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent (230/404) of participants had an MS exacerbation during their infection; 82 developed new MS symptoms, 207 experienced worsened pre-existing MS symptoms, and 59 reported both. Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduced the likelihood of developing new MS symptoms during the infection (OR 0.556, 95%CI 0.316-0.978). Participants with a higher pre-COVID-19 webEDSS (web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale) score (OR 1.251, 95%CI 1.060-1.478) and longer MS duration (OR 1.042, 95%CI 1.009-1.076) were more likely to experience worsening of their pre-existing MS symptoms during the infection. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection was associated with exacerbation of MS. DMTs reduced the chance of developing new MS symptoms during the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
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