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1.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526842

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2-infected) patients who develop bloodstream infection (BSI) and to assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients admitted for ≥48 h to a large Central Italy hospital for COVID-19 (1 March to 31 May 2020) who had or had not survived at discharge. We included only patients having blood cultures drawn or other inclusion criteria satisfied. Kaplan-Meier survival or Cox regression analyses were performed of 293 COVID-19 patients studied, 46 patients (15.7%) had a hospital-acquired clinically relevant BSI secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, accounting for 58 episodes (49 monomicrobial and 9 polymicrobial) in total. Twelve episodes (20.7%) occurred at day 3 of hospital admission. Sixty-nine species were isolated, including Staphylococcus aureus (32.8%), Enterobacterales (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.2%), Candida (13.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). Of 69 isolates, 27 (39.1%) were multidrug-resistant organisms. Twelve (54.5%) of 22 patients for whom empirical antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate were infected by a multidrug-resistant organism. Of 46 patients, 26 (56.5%) survived and 20 (43.5%) died. Exploring variables for association with in-hospital mortality identified > 75-year age (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.15-7.68, p = 0.02), septic shock (HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.36-18.23, p < 0.001) and BSI onset ≤ 3 days (HR 4.68, 95% CI 1.40-15.63, p = 0.01) as risk factors independently associated with death. In our hospital, mortality among COVID-19 patients with BSI was high. While continued vigilance against these infections is essential, identification of risk factors for mortality may help to reduce fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1711-1724, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected minority ethnic populations in the UK. Our aim was to quantify ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of adults (aged ≥18 years) registered with primary care practices in England for whom electronic health records were available through the OpenSAFELY platform, and who had at least 1 year of continuous registration at the start of each study period (Feb 1 to Aug 3, 2020 [wave 1], and Sept 1 to Dec 31, 2020 [wave 2]). Individual-level primary care data were linked to data from other sources on the outcomes of interest: SARS-CoV-2 testing and positive test results and COVID-19-related hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and death. The exposure was self-reported ethnicity as captured on the primary care record, grouped into five high-level census categories (White, South Asian, Black, other, and mixed) and 16 subcategories across these five categories, as well as an unknown ethnicity category. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine ethnic differences in the outcomes of interest. Models were adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, clinical factors and comorbidities, and household size, with stratification by geographical region. FINDINGS: Of 17 288 532 adults included in the study (excluding care home residents), 10 877 978 (62·9%) were White, 1 025 319 (5·9%) were South Asian, 340 912 (2·0%) were Black, 170 484 (1·0%) were of mixed ethnicity, 320 788 (1·9%) were of other ethnicity, and 4 553 051 (26·3%) were of unknown ethnicity. In wave 1, the likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection was slightly higher in the South Asian group (adjusted hazard ratio 1·08 [95% CI 1·07-1·09]), Black group (1·08 [1·06-1·09]), and mixed ethnicity group (1·04 [1·02-1·05]) and was decreased in the other ethnicity group (0·77 [0·76-0·78]) relative to the White group. The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in the South Asian group (1·99 [1·94-2·04]), Black group (1·69 [1·62-1·77]), mixed ethnicity group (1·49 [1·39-1·59]), and other ethnicity group (1·20 [1·14-1·28]). Compared with the White group, the four remaining high-level ethnic groups had an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation (South Asian group 1·48 [1·41-1·55], Black group 1·78 [1·67-1·90], mixed ethnicity group 1·63 [1·45-1·83], other ethnicity group 1·54 [1·41-1·69]), COVID-19-related ICU admission (2·18 [1·92-2·48], 3·12 [2·65-3·67], 2·96 [2·26-3·87], 3·18 [2·58-3·93]), and death (1·26 [1·15-1·37], 1·51 [1·31-1·71], 1·41 [1·11-1·81], 1·22 [1·00-1·48]). In wave 2, the risks of hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death relative to the White group were increased in the South Asian group but attenuated for the Black group compared with these risks in wave 1. Disaggregation into 16 ethnicity groups showed important heterogeneity within the five broader categories. INTERPRETATION: Some minority ethnic populations in England have excess risks of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and of adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with the White population, even after accounting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and household characteristics. Causes are likely to be multifactorial, and delineating the exact mechanisms is crucial. Tackling ethnic inequalities will require action across many fronts, including reducing structural inequalities, addressing barriers to equitable care, and improving uptake of testing and vaccination. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Survival Analysis
5.
Drug Healthc Patient Saf ; 13: 11-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299370

ABSTRACT

A beta coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. It spread globally at a rapid rate and killed innumerable people. The SARS-CoV-2 infection, also called coronavirus disease 2019, was declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. The increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 related deaths is due to a number of reasons. A few antiviral, antimicrobial, and immune-based drugs have been repurposed for treatment as well as improvement of patient prognosis. These drugs are currently being studied in clinical trials conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other global health organizations to identify the agents that produce maximum positive patient outcomes and reduction in mortality rate. The aim of this article is to discuss the safety and efficacy of the repurposed drugs in SARS-CoV-2 infection based on currently available clinical evidence and to emphasize the importance of caution required whilst employing the international therapeutic guidelines. Also highlighted in this article are certain specific comorbid conditions, that either involve treatment with the repurposed drugs or have a direct impact of the virus in patients owing to their vulnerability.

6.
Genes Immun ; 22(3): 141-160, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275909

ABSTRACT

When surveying the current literature on COVID-19, the "cytokine storm" is considered to be pathogenetically involved in its severe outcomes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and eventually multiple organ failure. In this review, the similar role of DAMPs is addressed, that is, of those molecules, which operate upstream of the inflammatory pathway by activating those cells, which ultimately release the cytokines. Given the still limited reports on their role in COVID-19, the emerging topic is extended to respiratory viral infections with focus on influenza. At first, a brief introduction is given on the function of various classes of activating DAMPs and counterbalancing suppressing DAMPs (SAMPs) in initiating controlled inflammation-promoting and inflammation-resolving defense responses upon infectious and sterile insults. It is stressed that the excessive emission of DAMPs upon severe injury uncovers their fateful property in triggering dysregulated life-threatening hyperinflammatory responses. Such a scenario may happen when the viral load is too high, for example, in the respiratory tract, "forcing" many virus-infected host cells to decide to commit "suicidal" regulated cell death (e.g., necroptosis, pyroptosis) associated with release of large amounts of DAMPs: an important topic of this review. Ironically, although the aim of this "suicidal" cell death is to save and restore organismal homeostasis, the intrinsic release of excessive amounts of DAMPs leads to those dysregulated hyperinflammatory responses-as typically involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in respiratory viral infections. Consequently, as briefly outlined in this review, these molecules can be considered valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor and evaluate the course of the viral disorder, in particular, to grasp the eventual transition precociously from a controlled defense response as observed in mild/moderate cases to a dysregulated life-threatening hyperinflammatory response as seen, for example, in severe/fatal COVID-19. Moreover, the pathogenetic involvement of these molecules qualifies them as relevant future therapeutic targets to prevent severe/ fatal outcomes. Finally, a theory is presented proposing that the superimposition of coronavirus-induced DAMPs with non-virus-induced DAMPs from other origins such as air pollution or high age may contribute to severe and fatal courses of coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Alarmins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Models, Immunological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/metabolism
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12414, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268007

ABSTRACT

Primary aim was to assess prevalence and severity of potential and real drug-drug interactions (DDIs) among therapies for COVID-19 and concomitant medications in hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary aim was to analyze factors associated with rDDIs. An observational single center cohort study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Spain from March 1st to April 30th. rDDIs refer to interaction with concomitant drugs prescribed during hospital stay whereas potential DDIs (pDDIs) refer to those with domiciliary medication. DDIs checked with The University of Liverpool resource. Concomitant medications were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Binomial logistic regression was carried out to identify factors associated with rDDIs. A total of 174 patients were analyzed. DDIs were detected in 152 patients (87.4%) with a total of 417 rDDIs between COVID19-related drugs and involved hospital concomitant medication (60 different drugs) while pDDIs were detected in 105 patients (72.9%) with a total of 553 pDDIs. From all 417 rDDIs, 43.2% (n = 180) were associated with lopinavir/ritonavir and 52.9% (n = 221) with hydroxychloroquine, both of them the most prescribed (106 and 165 patients, respectively). The main mechanism of interaction observed was QTc prolongation. Clinically relevant rDDIs were identified among 81.1% (n = 338) ('potential interactions') and 14.6% (n = 61) (contraindicated) of the patients. Charlson index (OR 1.34, 95% IC 1.02-1.76) and number of drugs prescribed during admission (OR 1.42, 95% IC 1.12-1.81) were independently associated with rDDIs. Prevalence of patients with real and pDDIs was high, especially those clinically relevant. Both comorbidities and polypharmacy were found as risk factors independently associated with DDIs development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Lopinavir/chemistry , Ritonavir/chemistry , Aged , Analgesics/chemistry , Analgesics/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Diuretics/chemistry , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Polypharmacy , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spain
8.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261214

ABSTRACT

Although primarily affecting the respiratory system, COVID-19 causes multiple organ damage. One of its grave consequences is a prothrombotic state that manifests as thrombotic, microthrombotic and thromboembolic events. Therefore, understanding the effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy in the context of COVID-19 treatment is important. The aim of this rapid review was to highlight the role of thrombosis in COVID-19 and to provide new insights on the use of antithrombotic therapy in its management. A rapid systematic review was performed using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. Papers published in English on antithrombotic agent use and COVID-19 complications were eligible. Results showed that the use of anticoagulants increased survival and reduced thromboembolic events in patients. However, despite the use of anticoagulants, patients still suffered thrombotic events likely due to heparin resistance. Data on antiplatelet use in combination with anticoagulants in the setting of COVID-19 are quite scarce. Current side effects of anticoagulation therapy emphasise the need to update treatment guidelines. In this rapid review, we address a possible modulatory role of antiplatelet and anticoagulant combination against COVID-19 pathogenesis. This combination may be an effective form of adjuvant therapy against COVID-19 infection. However, further studies are needed to elucidate potential risks and benefits associated with this combination.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
9.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 888-897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256004

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to determine the influence of COVID-19 on 30-day mortality following hip fracture. Secondary aims were to determine predictors of COVID-19 status on presentation and later in the admission; the rate of hospital acquired COVID-19; and the predictive value of negative swabs on admission. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting with a hip fracture to 17 Scottish centres in March and April 2020. Demographics, presentation blood tests, COVID-19 status, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, management, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: In all, 78/833 (9.4%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The 30-day survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly lower than for those without (65.4% vs 91%; p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 within seven days of admission (likely community acquired) was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, p = 0.040, confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 5.25) and symptoms of COVID-19 (OR 15.56, CI 6.61 to 36.60, p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 made between seven and 30 days of admission to hospital (likely hospital acquired) was independently associated with male sex (OR 1.73, CI 1.05 to 2.87, p = 0.032), Nottingham Hip Fracture Score ≥ 7 (OR 1.91, CI 1.09 to 3.34, p = 0.024), pulmonary disease (OR 1.68, CI 1.00 to 2.81, p = 0.049), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥ 3 (OR 2.37, CI 1.13 to 4.97, p = 0.022), and length of stay ≥ nine days (OR 1.98, CI 1.18 to 3.31, p = 0.009). A total of 38 (58.5%) COVID-19 cases were probably hospital acquired infections. The false-negative rate of a negative swab on admission was 0% in asymptomatic patients and 2.9% in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with a three times increased 30-day mortality rate. Nosocomial transmission may have accounted for approximately half of all cases during the first wave of the pandemic. Identification of risk factors for having COVID-19 on admission or acquiring COVID-19 in hospital may guide pathways for isolating or shielding patients respectively. Length of stay was the only modifiable risk factor, which emphasizes the importance of high-quality and timely care in this patient group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):888-897.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
10.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Initially, COVID-19 is a disease that attacks the respiratory tract, but now the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are various, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Emergency surgeries such as mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for AIS must be performed without any delay even during the COVID-19 pandemic, to reduce morbidity and mortality. Besides the focus on patient's health, the safety of healthcare workers must also be considered. The aim of the study was to evaluate and summarize the scientific literature systematically to explore MT for AIS in the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA SYNTHESIS: The independent reviewers searched the literature through 12 electronic databases, searching for articles fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data from all included studies were presented in a summary table featuring key points of each study. The authors independently assessed the risk of bias of 15 included articles. CONCLUSION: Although MT procedure has been prolonged during the pandemic, clinical outcomes and procedure-related serious adverse events have remained unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic. The screening process and the implementation of the PCS algorithm must be performed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection without threatening patient safety and clinical outcomes. The standard precaution of infection and the health assurance of healthcare workers and their families (including mental health) are also important factors that must be given special attention and consideration in the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100829, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253658

ABSTRACT

While social inequality is widely recognised as being a risk factor for COVID-19 infection or serious forms of the disease, many questions still remain concerning the perception of hazard and protective measures by the most vulnerable populations. This mixed-methods study aimed (1) to describe the self-perceived health and protective measures linked to COVID-19 of homeless people in one of the largest and poorest cities in France, and (2) to assess which skills and resources they used to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The quantitative survey addressed these questions among a sample of 995 homeless people living either on the streets, in homeless shelters or in squats/slums, whereas the qualitative survey was constructed from 14 homeless interviewees. Both data collections were carried out between June and July 2020. Results showed that COVID-19 infection was clearly perceived by homeless people as a risk, but the experience of being homeless placed this risk among several others. Different practices of protection were observed according to the type of living place. Lockdown of the general population severely impacted the survival systems of the populations furthest from housing, with alarming rates of people without access to water or food. 77% of homeless participants reported that they encountered significant financial difficulties. All interviewees were particularly attentive to their health, with awareness and even a familiarity with the risks of infectious diseases long before the pandemic. Using a capability framework, our study showed a predominant lack of external health-related resources for homeless people, while internal health-related resources were more developed than expected. None of the places and lifestyles studied was favourable to health: collective shelters due to a greater restriction of people's choices, slums and street life due to a greater lack of basic resources.

12.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252229

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is considered a respiratory disease which has many symptoms associated with the larynx and the lungs infections. COVID-19 has wide spectrum of clinical features starting from mild symptoms to severe illness. Otolaryngological symptoms as nasal obstruction, loss of smell, taste dysfunction, sore throat, sticky mucus, and dysphagia are common in COVID-19 patients. Other vocal symptoms as dysphonia and phonesthenia are common in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to detect the occurrence of vocal symptoms in COVID-19 patients in Egypt and to investigate the videolaryngoscopic findings associated with these symptoms. A total number of 106 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were randomly assessed for vocal symptoms. The following epidemiological and clinical data were collected: age, gender, smoking consumption, general symptoms, otolaryngological and vocal symptoms as dysphonia and phonesthenia. Auditory perceptual assessment of voice and videolaryngoscopic examination were done. The occurrence of dysphonia and phonesthenia were observed in COVID -19 patients. Of the 106 patients, 84 patients (79%) were dysphonic, 20 (18.8%) patients were phonesthenic. The correlation of the different otolaryngological symptoms with dysphonia and phonesthenia were reported. A significant correlation was found between dysphonic patients and rhinorrhea, taste dysfunction, sore throat, and cough. A significant correlation was found between phonesthenic patients and allergic rhinitis. Videolaryngoscopic findings were detected in COVID-19 patients. Vocal fold congestion was found in 42 patients (39.6%), benign vocal fold swellings was found in 18 patients (16.9%), ventricular hypertrophy was found in 6 patients (0.05%), unilateral vocal fold immobility was found in 14 patients (13.2%), and vocal fold congestion associated with ventricular fold hypertrophy was found in 20 patients (18.8%).There was significant correlation of dysphonia and phonesthenia with vocal fold congestion (P value:0.001, P value:0.039 respectively).There was a significant correlation between cough and vocal fold congestion (P value: 0.000). Benign vocal fold swellings were associated with 18 patients (16.9%), but it was not statistically significant (P value: 0.931). Dysphonia and phonesthenia were observed in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.The vocal symptoms were associated with different laryngoscopic findings, in which, vocal fold congestion was the commonest.

13.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1153-1155, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247390

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism associated with COVID-19, particularly acute pulmonary embolism, may represent a challenging and complex clinical scenario. The benefits of having a multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response team (PERT) can be important during such a pandemic. The aim of PERT in the care of such patients is to provide fast, appropriate, multidisciplinary, team-based approach, with the common goal to tailor the best therapeutic decision making, prioritizing always optimal patient care, especially given lack of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in the setting of COVID-19, which potentially confers a significant prothrombotic state. Herein, we would like to briefly emphasize the importance and potential critical role of PERT in the care of patients in which these two devastating illnesses are present together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology/organization & administration , Decision Making , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10964, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246396

ABSTRACT

The dramatically changing situation during COVID-19 pandemic, is anticipated to provoke psycho-emotional disturbances and somatization arising from the current epidemiological situation that will become a significant problem for global and regional healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors, risk factors and factors associated with mental disorders, headache and potentially stress-modulated parafunctional oral behaviors among the adult residents of North America and Europe as indirect health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This may help limit the long-term effects of this and future global pandemic crises. The data were collected from 1642 respondents using an online survey. The results demonstrated increased levels of anxiety, depression, headache and parafunctional oral behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in both North American and European residents. The results of this study facilitated the definition of the group most predicted to experience the aforementioned secondary effects of the pandemic. This group included females younger than 28.5 years old, especially those who were single, less well educated and living in Europe. In case of this and other global crises this will allow faster defining the most vulnerable groups and providing rapid and more targeted intervention.


Subject(s)
Bruxism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
15.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(5): 499-513, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245757

ABSTRACT

In 2019, an unprecedented disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and spread across the globe. Although the rapid transmission of COVID-19 has resulted in thousands of deaths and severe lung damage, conclusive treatment is not available. However, three COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized, and two more will be approved soon, according to a World Health Organization report on December 12, 2020. Many COVID-19 patients show symptoms of acute lung injury that eventually leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Our aim in this article is to present the relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and COVID-19, with a focus on angiotensin converting enzyme-2. We also evaluate the radiological imaging methods computed tomography (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) for visualization of patient lung condition. Moreover, we review possible therapeutics for COVID-19 using four categories: treatments related and unrelated to lung disease and treatments that have and have not entered clinical trials. Although many treatments have started clinical trials, they have some drawbacks, such as short-term and small-group testing, that need to be addressed as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244019

ABSTRACT

In this context of COVID-19 pandemic, great interest has been aroused by the potential maternal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by transplacental route, during delivery, and, subsequently, through breastfeeding. Some open questions still remain, especially regarding the possibility of finding viable SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk (BM), although this is not considered a worrying route of transmission. However, in BM, it was pointed out the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and other bioactive components that could protect the infant from infection. The aim of our narrative review is to report and discuss the available literature on the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in BM of COVID-19 positive mothers, and we discussed the unique existing study investigating BM of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers through metabolomics, and the evidence regarding microbiomics BM variation in COVID-19. Moreover, we tried to correlate metabolomics and microbiomics findings in BM of positive mothers with potential effects on breastfed infants metabolism and health. To our knowledge, this is the first review summarizing the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 effects on BM, resuming both "conventional data" (antibodies) and "omics technologies" (metabolomics and microbiomics).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax are not rarely observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such complications can worsen gas exchange and the overall prognosis in critical patients. The aim of this study is to investigate what predisposing factors are related to pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax in SARS-CoV2-Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), what symptoms may predict a severe and potentially fatal complication and what therapeutical approach may provide a better outcome. METHODS: In this single center cohort study, we recorded data from 45 critically ill COVID-19 patients who developed one or more complicating events among pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax. All patients showed ARDS and underwent non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at baseline. Patients with mild to moderate ARDS and pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (n = 25) received High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC), while patients with severe ARDS and pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax underwent HFNC (n = 10) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (n = 10). RESULTS: Pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax developed in 10.5% of subjects affected by SARS-coV2-ARDS. Dyspnea affected 40% and cough affected 37% of subjects. High resolution computed tomography of the chest showed bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities (GGO) in 100% of subjects. Traction bronchiolectasis, reticulation, crazy paving and distortion were observed in 64%. Furthermore, 36% showed subcutaneous emphysema. Non-severe ARDS cases received HFNC, and 76% patients recovered from pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax over a median follow up of 5 days. Among severe ARDS cases the recovery rate of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax was 70% with the HFNC approach, and 10% with IMV. CONCLUSION: HFNC is a safe and effective ventilatory approach for critical COVID-19 and has a positive role in associated complications such as pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax.

18.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(2)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study is to assess the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: The study comprised 52 children with MIS-C admitted to University of Health Sciences Adana City Training and Research Hospital pediatric wards from September 2020 to April 2021. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patient files. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 9 (5-13) years. Fever (92.3%), abdominal pain (76.9%), rash (48.1%) and vomiting (48.1%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Fever duration was 8 (4.25-10) days in overall. Depressed left ventricular ejection fraction was found in 17.3% of patients. At admission, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer and ferritin were found in 98.1%, 96.2%, 75%, 84.6% and 69.2% of the patients, respectively. Lymphopenia, hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia were found in 76.9%, 59.6% and 42.3% of the patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin was used in 96.2%, corticosteroids in 71.2% and anakinra in 3.8% of the patients. In total, 28.8% of the patients were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit and 17.3% received vasopressor support. Median duration of hospital length of stay was 12.5 days. Comorbidities were present in 19.2% of the patients. No mortality was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: While being rare and treatable, MIS-C is the ugly and mysterious face of the COVID-19 pandemic for children. The increasing number of MIS-C cases shows that this phenomenon is more common than thought. Comprehensive studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and determine the treatment regimens clearly. LAY SUMMARY: While being rare and treatable, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 is the ugly and mysterious face of the COVID-19 pandemic for children. MIS-C is now thought to be a post-infectious (SARS-CoV2) hyperinflammatory disease secondary to an abnormal immune response, rather than a complete obscurity. The increasing number of MIS-C cases and new case series reports from all over the world show that MIS-C is more common than thought. Despite our increasing experience, we may encounter a new finding every day in MIS-C patients. Therefore, we want to contribute to literature by presenting the MIS-C cases we treated in our clinic in detail. We have experienced that MIS-C patients can apply with similar but also different and unique characteristics. In case of delayed diagnosis or treatment, morbidity and mortality rates may increase. Therefore, the level of awareness and knowledge of all physicians, especially those dealing with pediatric patients, about MIS-C should be increased. Although the early effects of MIS-C are known, we don't have enough information about the long-term consequences yet. Comprehensive studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and determine the treatment regimens clearly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(4): e399-e402, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239166

ABSTRACT

Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are those with no identified organic aetiology. Our emergency department (ED) perceived an increase in MUS frequency during COVID-19. The primary aim was to compare MUS incidence in frequent attenders (FAs) during COVID-19 and a control period.A retrospective list of FA-MUS presenting to our ED from March to June 2019 (control) and March to June 2020 (during COVID-19) was compared. Fisher's exact test was used to compare binomial proportions; this presented as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).During COVID-19, ED attendances reduced by 32.7%, with a significant increase in the incidence of FA-MUS and FA-MUS ED visits compared to control; RR 1.5 (95%CI 1.1-1.8) p=0.0006, and RR 1.8 (95%CI 1.6-2.0), p<0.0001, respectively.Despite reduced ED attendances during COVID-19, there was a significant increase in the incidence of FA-MUS patients and corresponding ED visits by this cohort. This presents a challenge to ED clinicians who may feel underprepared to manage these patients effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Mater Sociomed ; 33(1): 56-59, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The organization of health care system on Cantonal level with the coordination from Federal level represents a real situation with the possibility of decentralization of health care system according to the experiences of developed countries. OBJECTIVE: To make an overview of the situation at the primary and hospital health care level with the aim of assessing the existing human resources and capacity of health care institutions in FB&H, with which we entered in COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study presents the efficiency of health care in FB&H measured by number of medical doctors, and other medical staff during the time period of five years. Data of the Institute for Public Health FB&H were used. The Institute for Public Health FB&H is authorised by the law to conduct and implement statistical research in the field of health care in line with relevant laws and by-laws. The Institute is obliged to report on organisational structure, human resources and medical equipment. RESULTS: Presented data include the number of health care employees in medical institutions in FB&H in the period 2015-2019 per 100,000 inhabitants and their numbers in primary health care, family medicine, secondary and tertiary level of health care in 2019. The study also presents the number of doctors of medicine, specialists and medical residents in FB&H, the number of nurses of all profiles and levels of education as well as medical staff and other employees in the public health care system in FB&H in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in FB&H has confirmed the fact that human resources in health care are insufficient, especially in the field of public health and epidemiology. The availability of these health facilities and human resource is not uniform throughout the FB&H, which may affect the capacity of the health system in some parts of the FB&H to meet the needs of providing services during COVID-19 pandemic.

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