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Neurol Clin Pract ; 10(4): 371-374, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337533


The rapid spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has become a public health emergency of international concern. The outbreak was characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. The most characteristic symptom of patients with COVID-19 is respiratory distress. Some patients may also show neurologic signs and symptoms ranging from headache, nausea, vomiting, and confusion to anosmia, ageusia, encephalitis, and stroke. Coronaviruses are known pathogens with neuroinvasive potential. There is increasing evidence that coronavirus infections are not always confined to the respiratory tract. CNS involvement can occur in susceptible individuals and may contribute overall morbidity and mortality in the acute setting. In addition, postinfectious, immune-mediated complications in the convalescent period are possible. Awareness and recognition of neurologic manifestations is essential to guide therapeutic decision-making because the current outbreak continues to unfold.

Mol Neurobiol ; 58(8): 3787-3791, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172402


Though the lungs are predominantly affected in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, extra-pulmonary manifestations can occur. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of the central and peripheral nervous system need to be recognised as they can strongly determine the outcome. This mini-review summarises and discusses previous and recent findings about neuro-COVID. The spectrum of central nervous system disease in COVID-19 patients is much broader than so far anticipated. Peripheral nerves and the skeletal muscle are less predominantly affected. In the vast majority of the cases, there is no direct attack of the virus towards vulnerable structures, which explains why various manifestations of the nervous system manifest favourably to immune suppression or immune modulation. Overall, the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of CNS/PNS involvement in COVID-19 is wider than believed. All patients with COVID-19 should be investigated by the neurologist for primary or secondary involvement of the CNS/PNS in the infection. neuro-COVID responds favourably to immune suppressants or immune modulation.

COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
J Neuroimmunol ; 349: 577400, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792960


Encephalopathy is emerging as a recurrent complication of COVID-19 yet remains poorly characterized. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with COVID-19-related encephalopathy presenting as expressive aphasia and inattentiveness, subsequently progressing to agitation and marked confusion. Brain MRI and CSF analysis were unremarkable, while EEG showed slowing with frontal sharp waves. Neuropsychiatric symptoms resolved following treatment with tocilizumab. CNS involvement in COVID-19 may present as a subacute encephalopathy characterized by prominent frontal lobe dysfunction, with language disturbances as first neurological manifestation. Future studies should further investigate the role of tocilizumab in treating COVID-19-related encephalopathy.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Aphasia/etiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2