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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575816

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively evaluated 2879 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from four hospitals to evaluate the ability of demographic data, medical history, and on-admission laboratory parameters to predict in-hospital mortality. Association of previously published risk factors (age, gender, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking habit, obesity, renal failure, cardiovascular/ pulmonary diseases, serum ferritin, lymphocyte count, APTT, PT, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and platelet count) with death was tested by a multivariate logistic regression, and a predictive model was created, with further validation in an independent sample. A total of 2070 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were finally included in the multivariable analysis. Age 61-70 years (p<0.001; OR: 7.69; 95%CI: 2.93 to 20.14), age 71-80 years (p<0.001; OR: 14.99; 95%CI: 5.88 to 38.22), age >80 years (p<0.001; OR: 36.78; 95%CI: 14.42 to 93.85), male gender (p<0.001; OR: 1.84; 95%CI: 1.31 to 2.58), D-dimer levels >2 ULN (p = 0.003; OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.22 to 2.62), and prolonged PT (p<0.001; OR: 2.18; 95%CI: 1.49 to 3.18) were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality. A predictive model performed with these parameters showed an AUC of 0.81 in the development cohort (n = 1270) [sensitivity of 95.83%, specificity of 41.46%, negative predictive value of 98.01%, and positive predictive value of 24.85%]. These results were then validated in an independent data sample (n = 800). Our predictive model of in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients has been developed, calibrated and validated. The model (MRS-COVID) included age, male gender, and on-admission coagulopathy markers as positively correlated factors with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 22, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557646

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented an unprecedented global challenge for the healthcare community. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to get transmitted during the asymptomatic phase, and its high infectivity have led to the rapid transmission of COVID-19 beyond geographic regions facilitated by international travel, leading to a pandemic. To guide effective control and interventions, primary data is required urgently, globally, including from low- and middle-income countries where documentation of cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 is limited. Objectives: This study aims to describe the cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: We propose to conduct an observational cohort study involving 5000 patients recruited from hospitals in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Eligible adult COVID-19 patients will be recruited from the participating hospitals and followed-up until 30 days post admission. The outcomes will be reported at discharge and includes the need of ICU admission, need of ventilator, death (with cause), major adverse cardiovascular events, neurological outcomes, acute renal failure, and pulmonary outcomes. Conclusion: Given the enormous burden posed by COVID-19 and the associated severe prognostic implication of CVD involvement, this study will provide useful insights on the risk factors for severe disease, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients particularly from low and middle income countries from where the data remain scant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Global Health , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 263-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536207

ABSTRACT

We herein seek to expound on up-to-the-minute information regarding cardiovascular disease in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by highlighting acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and probing into its pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and treatment modalities. We aim to share the latest research findings vis-à-vis cardiovascular disease patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 on the association between hypertension and this infectious disease along with the relevant recommendations; describe the mechanism of coronary artery disease in such patients together with the necessary measures in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and chronic coronary syndrome; discuss tachy- and bradyarrhythmias in the COVID-19 setting alongside their treatments; elucidate coagulopathies, venous thromboembolism, and its prophylactic measures in the context of this infection; set out the cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol as well as the pertinent safety concerns during the current pandemic; and, finally, explicate drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 and cardiovascular medication in hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, and arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367728

ABSTRACT

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors and editor of the journal Current Diabetes Reviews, due to incoherent content.Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused.The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php. BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submit-ting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 6-12, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether the active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization affects mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aspirin is often prescribed for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities that might increase mortality, and may therefore falsely demonstrate increased mortality. To reduce bias, only studies that performed an adjusted analysis were included in this review. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed, from inception until 16 April 2021. The exposure was active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization. The primary outcome was mortality. The pooled adjusted effect estimate was reported as relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Six eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 13,993 patients. The studies had low-to-moderate risk of bias based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The meta-analysis indicated that the use of low-dose aspirin was independently associated with reduced mortality {RR 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.61], P < 0.001; I2 = 36.2%}. Subgroup analysis on in-hospital low-dose aspirin administration also showed a significant reduction in mortality [RR 0.39 (95% CI 0.16-0.96), P < 0.001; I2 = 47.0%]. CONCLUSION: Use of low-dose aspirin is independently associated with reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, with low certainty of evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1387-1401, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343660

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected individuals that have hypertension or cardiovascular comorbidities have an elevated risk of serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and high rates of mortality but how COVID-$19$ and cardiovascular diseases interact are unclear. We therefore sought to identify novel mechanisms of interaction by identifying genes with altered expression in SARS-CoV-$2$ infection that are relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Some recent research shows the SARS-CoV-$2$ uses the angiotensin converting enzyme-$2$ (ACE-$2$) as a receptor to infect human susceptible cells. The ACE2 gene is expressed in many human tissues, including intestine, testis, kidneys, heart and lungs. ACE2 usually converts Angiotensin I in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to Angiotensin II, which affects blood pressure levels. ACE inhibitors prescribed for cardiovascular disease and hypertension may increase the levels of ACE-$2$, although there are claims that such medications actually reduce lung injury caused by COVID-$19$. We employed bioinformatics and systematic approaches to identify such genetic links, using messenger RNA data peripheral blood cells from COVID-$19$ patients and compared them with blood samples from patients with either chronic heart failure disease or hypertensive diseases. We have also considered the immune response genes with elevated expression in COVID-$19$ to those active in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) common to COVID-$19$ and chronic heart failure, and common to COVID-$19$ and hypertension, were identified; the involvement of these common genes in the signalling pathways and ontologies studied. COVID-$19$ does not share a large number of differentially expressed genes with the conditions under consideration. However, those that were identified included genes playing roles in T cell functions, toll-like receptor pathways, cytokines, chemokines, cell stress, type 2 diabetes and gastric cancer. We also identified protein-protein interactions, gene regulatory networks and suggested drug and chemical compound interactions using the differentially expressed genes. The result of this study may help in identifying significant targets of treatment that can combat the ongoing pandemic due to SARS-CoV-$2$ infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Computational Biology , Hypertension/complications , Systems Biology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105250, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318947

ABSTRACT

Drug-drug interactions (DDI) potentially occurring between medications used in the course of COVID-19 infection and medications prescribed for the management of underlying comorbidities may cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contributing to worsening of the clinical outcome in affected patients. First, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine comorbidities observed in the course of COVID-19 disease associated with an increased risk of worsened clinical outcome from 24 published studies. In addition, the potential risk of DDI between medications used in the course of COVID-19 treatment in these studies and those for the management of observed comorbidities was evaluated for possible worsening of the clinical outcome. Our meta-analysis revealed an implication cardiometabolic syndrome (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes), chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as main co-morbidities associated with worsen the clinical outcomes including mortality (risk difference RD 0.12, 95 %-CI 0.05-0.19, p = 0.001), admission to ICU (RD 0.10, 95 %-CI 0.04-0.16, p = 0.001) and severe infection (RD 0.05, 95 %-CI 0.01-0.09, p = 0.01) in COVID-19 patients. Potential DDI on pharmacokinetic level were identified between the antiviral agents atazanavir and lopinavir/ritonavir and some drugs, used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as antiarrhythmics and anti-coagulants possibly affecting the clinical outcome including cardiac injury or arrest because of QTc-time prolongation or bleeding. Concluding, DDI occurring in the course of anti-Covid-19 treatment and co-morbidities could lead to ADRs, increasing the risk of hospitalization, prolonged time to recovery or death on extreme cases. COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic diseases, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be subjected to particular carefully clinical monitoring of adverse events with a possibility of dose adjustment when necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Interactions , Comorbidity , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Treatment Outcome
8.
Biochimie ; 187: 94-109, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252495

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of a number of vaccines for COVID-19, there remains a need for prevention and treatment of the virus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing disease COVID-19. This report discusses the key elements of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 that can be readily treated: viral entry, the immune system and inflammation, and the cytokine storm. It is shown that the essential nutrients zinc, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D and magnesium provide the ideal combination for prevention and treatment of COVID-19: prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry to host cells, prevention of proliferation of SARS-CoV-2, inhibition of excessive inflammation, improved control of the regulation of the immune system, inhibition of the cytokine storm, and reduction in the effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated non-communicable diseases. It is emphasized that the non-communicable diseases associated with COVID-19 are inherently more prevalent in the elderly than the young, and that the maintenance of sufficiency of zinc, ω-3 PUFAs, vitamin D and magnesium is essential for the elderly to prevent the occurrence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases and cancer. Annual checking of levels of these essential nutrients is recommended for those over 65 years of age, together with appropriate adjustments in their intake, with these services and supplies being at government cost. The cost:benefit ratio would be huge as the cost of the nutrients and the testing of their levels would be very small compared with the cost savings of specialists and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Lung Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
9.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(4): 653-681, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a dramatic crisis in health care systems worldwide. These may have significant implications for the management of cardiometabolic diseases. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence to assess the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitalisations for cardiovascular diseases and their management. METHODS: Studies that evaluated volume of hospitalisations for cardiometabolic conditions and their management with comparisons between the COVID-19 and pre-COVID periods were identified from MEDLINE, Embase and the reference list of relevant studies from January 2020 to 25 February 2021. RESULTS: We identified 103 observational studies, with most studies assessing hospitalisations for acute cardiovascular conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, ischemic strokes and heart failure. About 89% of studies reported a decline in hospitalisations during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic times, with reductions ranging from 20.2 to 73%. Severe presentation, less utilization of cardiovascular procedures, and longer patient- and healthcare-related delays were common during the pandemic. Most studies reported shorter length of hospital stay during the pandemic than before the pandemic (1-8 vs 2-12 days) or no difference in length of stay. Most studies reported no change in in-hospital mortality among hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: Clinical care of patients for acute cardiovascular conditions, their management and outcomes have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients should be educated via population-wide approaches on the need for timely medical contact and health systems should put strategies in place to provide timely care to patients at high risk. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2021: CRD42021236102.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
10.
Microcirculation ; 28(7): e12718, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236400

ABSTRACT

Recently, accumulating evidence has highlighted the role of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 progression. Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related risk factors (eg, age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity). Equally, these are also risk factors for COVID-19. The purpose of this review was to explore CMD pathophysiology in COVID-19, based on recent evidence. COVID-19 mechanisms were reviewed in terms of imbalanced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-systems (RAAS), systemic inflammation and immune responses, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulatory disorders. Based on these mechanisms, we addressed CMD pathophysiology within the context of COVID-19, from five perspectives. The first was the disarrangement of local RAAS and Kallikrein-kinin-systems attributable to SARS-Cov-2 entry, and the concomitant decrease in coronary microvascular endothelial angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) levels. The second was related to coronary microvascular obstruction, induced by COVID-19-associated systemic hyper-inflammation and pro-thrombotic state. The third was focused on how pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-related systemic hypoxia elicited oxidative stress in coronary microvessels and cardiac sympathetic nerve activation. Fourthly, we discussed how autonomic nerve dysfunction mediated by COVID-19-associated mental, physical, or physiological factors could elicit changes in coronary blood flow, resulting in CMD in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we analyzed reciprocity between the coronary microvascular endothelium and perivascular cellular structures due to viremia, SARS-CoV-2 dissemination, and systemic inflammation. These mechanisms may function either consecutively or intermittently, finally culminating in CMD-mediated cardiovascular symptoms in COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Male , Microcirculation/physiology , Models, Cardiovascular , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e020997, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234323

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis, having killed more than 514 000 US adults as of March 2, 2021. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have unintended consequences on managing chronic conditions such as hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and health disparities in the United States. During the first wave of the pandemic in the United States, the combination of observed racial/ethnic inequities in COVID-19 deaths and social unrest reinvigorated a national conversation about systemic racism in health care and society. The 4th Annual University of Utah Translational Hypertension Symposium gathered frontline clinicians, researchers, and leaders from diverse backgrounds to discuss the intersection of these 2 critical social and public health phenomena and to highlight preexisting disparities in hypertension treatment and control exacerbated by COVID-19. The discussion underscored environmental and socioeconomic factors that are deeply embedded in US health care and research that impact inequities in hypertension. Structural racism plays a central role at both the health system and individual levels. At the same time, virtual healthcare platforms are being accelerated into widespread use by COVID-19, which may widen the divide in healthcare access across levels of wealth, geography, and education. Blood pressure control rates are declining, especially among communities of color and those without health insurance or access to health care. Hypertension awareness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy are essential. There is a need to improve the implementation of community-based interventions and blood pressure self-monitoring, which can help build patient trust and increase healthcare engagement.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Hypertension , Racism/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Hypertension/ethnology , Hypertension/therapy , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1009-1016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with preexisting diabetes and cardiovascular metabolic diseases have higher fatality rate. The circulation of new variants with emerging clinical characteristics requires more studies focusing the impact of preexisting health conditions on outcome of COVID-19 accurately. AIMS: Main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on disease prognosis and severe health outcomes among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 799 patients with COVID-19 during December 10, 2020, to February 10, 2020 in Bangladesh. Logistic regression analysis was performed for age, sex, diabetes, CVD and symptoms on fatality. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted to predict the survival rate. RESULTS: Fatality was detected in 40% (318 of 799) patients with COVID-19. Among 318 fatalities, 90.6% were detected in patients with CVD and 74.5% in patients with diabetes. Case fatality rate was highest in patients with COVID-19, CVD and diabetes (94, 184 of 195). Fever (91%) and dry cough (71%) were the most frequent symptoms. CVD (42.2%), diabetes (32.7%) and obesity (18%) were prevalent. The highest odds of risk was detected in patients with COVID-19, CVD and diabetes (OR: 6.98, 95% CI, 4.21 to 7.34). Female patients had the highest survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 318 fatality was seen in 799 patients with COVID-19. The highest odds of fatality risk was detected in patients with COVID-19, CVD and diabetes. The risk increased many folds when CVD and diabetes coexisted in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 106: 106428, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220744

ABSTRACT

Sedentary behavior (SB) has recently been recognized as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with new guidelines encouraging adults to 'sit less, move more.' Yet, there are few randomized trials demonstrating that reducing SB improves cardiovascular health. The Effect of Reducing Sedentary Behavior on Blood Pressure (RESET BP) randomized clinical trial addresses this gap by testing the effect of a 3-month SB reduction intervention on resting systolic BP. Secondary outcomes include other BP measures, pulse wave velocity, plasma renin activity and aldosterone, and objectively-measured SB (via thigh-mounted activPAL) and physical activity (via waist-worn GT3X accelerometer). RESET BP has a targeted recruitment of 300 adults with desk jobs, along with elevated, non-medicated BP (systolic BP 120-159 mmHg or diastolic BP 80-99 mmHg) and physical inactivity (self-reported aerobic physical activity below recommended levels). The multi-component intervention promotes 2-4 fewer hours of SB per day by replacing sitting with standing and light-intensity movement breaks. Participants assigned to the intervention condition receive a sit-stand desk attachment, a wrist-worn activity prompter, behavioral counseling every two weeks (alternating in-person and phone), and twice-weekly automated text messages. Herein, we review the study rationale, describe and evaluate recruitment strategies based on enrollment to date, and detail the intervention and assessment protocols. We also document our mid-trial adaptations to participant recruitment, intervention deployment, and outcome assessments due to the intervening COVID-19 pandemic. Our research methods, experiences to date, and COVID-specific accommodations could inform other research studying BP and hypertension or targeting working populations, including those seeking remote methods.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Hypertension/therapy , Sedentary Behavior , Workplace , Accelerometry , Adult , Aged , Aldosterone/blood , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin/blood , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(5): 363-375, 2021 May.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219383

ABSTRACT

In over a year, the COVID-19 pandemic caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Social isolation and distancing measures have been the only prevention available for months. Scientific research has done a great deal of work, developing in a few months safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19. In the European Union, nowadays, four vaccines have been authorized for use: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), and three others are currently under rolling review.Vaccine allocation policy is crucial to optimize the advantage of treatment preferring people with the highest risk of contagion. These days the priority in the vaccination program is of particular importance since it has become clear that the number of vaccines is not sufficient for the entire Italian population in the short term. Cardiovascular diseases are frequently associated with severe COVID-19 infections, leading to the worst prognosis. The elderly population suffering from cardiovascular diseases is, therefore, to be considered a particularly vulnerable population. However, age cannot be considered the only discriminating factor because in the young-adult population suffering from severe forms of heart disease, the prognosis, if affected by COVID-19, is particularly ominous and these patients should have priority access to the vaccination program. The aim of this position paper is to establish a consensus on a priority in the vaccination of COVID-19 among subjects suffering from different cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Consensus , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiology , Coronary Disease/complications , Disease Vectors , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Transplantation , Heart Valve Diseases/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Italy/epidemiology , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Medical , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
15.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(4): 628-632, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219329

ABSTRACT

The high comorbidity between cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVMD) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the consequent high mortality and the potential risk of cardiovascular damage have brought great challenges to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The latest studies found that advanced age, immune function defects, inflammatory factor storms and oxidative stress damage all potentially contribute to the high comorbidity of the two. Direct virus invasion, myocardial oxygen supply and demand imbalance and vascular endothelial and coagulation dysfunction may be important mechanisms for cardiovascular injury in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the expression level of ACE2 (the cell membrane receptor of SARS-CoV-2) in various organs and the peripheral blood not only mediates the direct invasion and damage of the organs, but also participates in regulation of the balance of systematic inflammation and oxidative stress, thus affecting the susceptibility and outcomes of the patients. Herein we review the recent research progress in the comorbidity between COVID-19 and CVMD and explore the mechanisms of cardiovascular damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, thus to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 with underlying CVMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Metabolic Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5069-5083, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for poor prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is necessary to enable the risk stratification and modify the patient's management. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the in-hospital mortality and risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All studies were searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was pooled. Odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for evaluation of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 80 studies were included with a pooled in-hospital mortality of 14% (95% CI: 12.2-15.9%). Older age (MD =13.32, 95% CI: 10.87-15.77; P<0.00001), male (OR =1.66, 95% CI: 1.37-2.01; P<0.00001), hypertension (OR =2.67, 95% CI: 2.08-3.43; P<0.00001), diabetes (OR =2.14, 95% CI: 1.76-2.6; P<0.00001), chronic respiratory disease (OR =3.55, 95% CI: 2.65-4.76; P<0.00001), chronic heart disease/cardiovascular disease (OR =3.15, 95% CI: 2.43-4.09; P<0.00001), elevated levels of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (MD =66.65, 95% CI: 16.94-116.36; P=0.009), D-dimer (MD =4.33, 95% CI: 2.97-5.68; P<0.00001), C-reactive protein (MD =48.03, 95% CI: 27.79-68.27; P<0.00001), and a decreased level of albumin at admission (MD =-3.98, 95% CI: -5.75 to -2.22; P<0.0001) are associated with higher risk of death. Patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR =62.85, 95% CI: 29.45-134.15; P<0.00001), acute cardiac injury (OR =25.16, 95% CI: 6.56-96.44; P<0.00001), acute kidney injury (OR =22.86, 95% CI: 4.60-113.66; P=0.0001), and septic shock (OR =24.09, 95% CI: 4.26-136.35; P=0.0003) might have a higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male, comorbidities, increased levels of acute inflammation or organ damage indicators, and complications are associated with the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, and should be integrated into the risk stratification system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 128-139, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the continuance of the global COVID-19 pandemic, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiac injury have been suggested to be risk factors for severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to evaluate the mortality risks associated with CVD and cardiac injury among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially in subgroups of populations in different countries. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using 9 databases from November 1, 2019 to November 9, 2020. Meta-analyses were performed for CVD and cardiac injury between non-survivors and survivors of COVID-19. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of CVD in different populations was different, hospitalized COVID-19 patients with CVD were at a higher risk of fatal outcomes (OR = 2.72; 95% CI 2.35-3.16) than those without CVD. Separate meta-analyses of populations in four different countries also reached a similar conclusion that CVD was associated with an increase in mortality. Cardiac injury was common among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with cardiac injury had a significantly higher mortality risk than those without cardiac injury (OR = 13.25; 95% CI: 8.56-20.52). CONCLUSIONS: Patients' CVD history and biomarkers of cardiac injury should be taken into consideration during the hospital stay and incorporated into the routine laboratory panel for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Global Health , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
18.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 297-305, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193158

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, specific antiviral drugs have been lacking. A Chinese patent medicine Toujiequwen granules has been promoted in the treatment of COVID-19. The present study was designed to reveal the molecular mechanism of Toujiequwen granules against COVID-19. A network pharmacological method was applied to screen the main active ingredients of Toujiequwen granules. Network analysis of 149 active ingredients and 330 drug targets showed the most active ingredient interacting with many drug targets is quercetin. Drug targets most affected by the active ingredients were PTGS2, PTGS1, and DPP4. Drug target disease enrichment analysis showed drug targets were significantly enriched in cardiovascular diseases and digestive tract diseases. An "active ingredient-target-disease" network showed that 57 active ingredients from Toujiequwen granules interacted with 15 key targets of COVID-19. There were 53 ingredients that could act on DPP4, suggesting that DPP4 may become a potential new key target for the treatment of COVID-19. GO analysis results showed that key targets were mainly enriched in the cellular response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokine activity and other functions. KEGG analysis showed they were mainly concentrated in viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptors and endocrine resistance pathway. The evidence suggests that Toujiequwen granules might play an effective role by improving the symptoms of underlying diseases in patients with COVID-19 and multi-target interventions against multiple signaling pathways related to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/classification , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Quercetin/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
19.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(4): 436-443, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, affecting 1.39 billion people. This review discusses recent literature regarding the global burden of HTN and emerging concepts in prevalence, treatment, and control in different regions around the globe. RECENT FINDINGS: Community-based interventions and telemedicine may be useful in increasing access to care and identifying/assisting patients with HTN, especially in populations with geographical and economic barriers to healthcare. Home blood pressure monitoring is beneficial for HTN control in diverse regions. Polypills have proven benefits to decrease HTN and CVD risk. Continuation of treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers in high risk COVID-19 patients appears appropriate. SUMMARY: Extensive research demonstrates that early screening/treatment, lifestyle modification, and pharmacotherapy are essential to control HTN worldwide. This review highlights recent research and novel concepts on effective interventions being used globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(1): 17-26, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187236

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.95-1.44), P =0.151]. We found that the parameters of hyperlipidemia were not associated with the risk of 28-day all-cause mortality [adjusted HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.98-1.55), P = 0.075 in TG increase group; 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07), P = 0.123 in LDL-C increase group; and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.9-1.39), P = 0.299 in HDL-C decrease group, respectively]. Hyperlipidemia was also not significantly associated with the increased mortality of COVID-19 in patients accompanied with CVDs or type 2 diabetes, and in both male and female cohorts. Conclusion Our study support that the imbalanced lipid profile is not significantly associated with the 28-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients, even in those accompanied with CVDs or diabetes. Similar results were also obtained in subgroup analyses of abnormal lipid parameters. Therefore, hyperlipidemia might be not a major causative factor for poor outcome of COVID-19, which provides guidance for the intervention of inpatients during the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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