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1.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(2): 20-27, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240794

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a systemic disease that affects nearly all organ systems through infection and subsequent dysregulation of the vascular endothelium. One of the most striking phenomena has been a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated coagulopathy. Given these findings, questions naturally emerged about the prothrombotic impact of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease and whether ischemic stroke is a clinical feature specific to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Early reports from China and several sites in the northeastern United States seemed to confirm these suspicions. Since these initial reports, many cohort studies worldwide observed decreased rates of stroke since the start of the pandemic, raising concerns for a broader impact of the pandemic on stroke treatment. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of how the pandemic has affected stroke presentation, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease. Much evidence suggests that this decline in stroke admissions stems from the global response to the virus, which has made it more difficult for patients to get to the hospital once symptoms start. However, there does not appear to be a demonstrable impact on quality metrics once patients arrive at the hospital. Despite initial concerns, there is insufficient evidence to ascribe a causal relationship specific to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 on the cerebral vasculature. Nevertheless, when patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 present with stroke, their presentation is likely to be more severe, and they have a markedly higher rate of in-hospital mortality than patients with either acute ischemic stroke or COVID-19 alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Humans
2.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02185, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 is spreading throughout the whole world as a public health issue. There is a link between the new coronavirus and changes in biochemical indicators, such as coagulation functions. Hypercoagulable state of blood caused by infections may lead to cerebrovascular diseases. More attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19, especially critically ill individuals with history of cerebrovascular disease who may have high risk of stroke. METHODS: 193 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. These patients were categorized into nonsevere (143 patients) and severe (50 patients) groups. This study evaluated laboratory tests, including routine blood tests, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, electrolytes, and coagulation functions. Furthermore, neurological function and stroke risks were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Compared to the nonsevere group, there were increases in white blood cells, neutrophil count, interleukin-6, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in the severe group (p < .05). For coagulation functions, parameters like prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products were increased significantly in the severe group (p < .01). Severe patients also demonstrated higher scores on the Framingham stroke risk profile and lower Glasgow scores (p < .05). Furthermore, significant associations were noticed between stroke risk and age, blood cell count, neutrophil count, D-dimmer, and fibrin degradation productions (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Data suggested that coagulation functions were affected in patients with COVID-19. Hypercoagulable state in patients may lead to potential high risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
3.
Front Med ; 15(4): 629-637, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204955

ABSTRACT

Cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCVD) is a major comorbidity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical characteristics and outcomes remain unclear. In this study, 102 cases of COVID-19 from January 22, 2020 to March 26, 2020 in Xixi Hospital of Hangzhou were included. Twenty cases had pre-existing CCVD. Results showed that compared with non-CCVD patients, those with CCVD are more likely to develop severe disease (15% versus 1%), and the proportion of pneumonia severity index grade IV was significantly higher (25% versus 3.6%). Computed tomography images demonstrated that the proportion of multiple lobe lesion involvement was significantly higher in the CCVD group than in the non-CCVD group (90% versus 63.4%). Compared with non-CCVD group, the levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and serum amyloid-A were higher, whereas the total protein and arterial partial PaO2 were lower in the CCVD group. Although no statistical difference was observed in the outcomes between groups, CCVD patients received more intensive comprehensive treatment to improve COVID-19 symptoms compared with non-CCVD patients. Integrated Chinese and Western medicine treatments have certain advantages in controlling the severe conversion rate and mortality of COVID-19. In addition, given that COVID-19 patients are usually related to coagulation disorders and thrombosis risk, the application of Chinese medicine in promoting blood circulation and removing stasis should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Front Neurol ; 12: 642912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with comorbidities are at increased risk for poor outcomes in COVID-19, yet data on patients with prior neurological disease remains limited. Our objective was to determine the odds of critical illness and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prior cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19. Methods: A observational study of 1,128 consecutive adult patients admitted to an academic center in Boston, Massachusetts, and diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We tested the association between prior cerebrovascular disease and critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation (MV) or death by day 28, using logistic regression with inverse probability weighting of the propensity score. Among intubated patients, we estimated the cumulative incidence of successful extubation without death over 45 days using competing risk analysis. Results: Of the 1,128 adults with COVID-19, 350 (36%) were critically ill by day 28. The median age of patients was 59 years (SD: 18 years) and 640 (57%) were men. As of June 2nd, 2020, 127 (11%) patients had died. A total of 177 patients (16%) had a prior cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with critical illness (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.07), lower rate of successful extubation (cause-specific HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98), and increased duration of intubation (restricted mean time difference = 4.02 days, 95% CI = 0.34-10.92) compared to patients without cerebrovascular disease. Interpretation: Prior cerebrovascular disease adversely affects COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further study is required to determine if this subpopulation requires closer monitoring for disease progression during COVID-19.

5.
J Clin Neurol ; 17(2): 155-163, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175631

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reportedly manifest as an acute stroke, with most cases presenting as large vessel ischemic stroke in patients with or without comorbidities. The exact pathomechanism of stroke in COVID-19 remains ambiguous. The findings of previous studies indicate that the most likely underlying mechanisms are cerebrovascular pathological conditions following viral infection, inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability. Acute endothelial damage due to inflammation triggers a coagulation cascade, thrombosis propagation, and destabilization of atherosclerosis plaques, leading to large-vessel occlusion and plaque ulceration with concomitant thromboemboli, and manifests as ischemic stroke. Another possible mechanism is the downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as the target action of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Acute stroke management protocols need to be modified during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to adequately manage stroke patients with COVID-19.

6.
Front Neurol ; 12: 635856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172971

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: There is little information on the acute cerebrovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) among COVID-19 patients and evaluate their clinical and radiological characteristics in comparison with non-COVID-19 CVD. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, COVID-19 patients whom presented with CVD in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals were compared with non-COVID-19, CVD patients, admitted to Qena University Hospital, prior to the pandemic. The following data were collected: clinical history and presentation, risk factors, comorbidities, brain imaging (MRI or CT), chest CT, and some laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-five (12.5%) of the 439 patients with COVID-19 had acute CVD. Of them, 42 (9.6%) had ischemic stroke while 13 patients (2.9%) had hemorrhagic CVD. In the 250 cases of the non-COVID-19 group, 180 had ischemic stroke and 70 had hemorrhagic stroke. A large proportion of patients with COVID-19 who presented with ischemic stroke had large vessel occlusion (LVO), which was significantly higher than in non-COVID-19 patients with CVD (40 vs. 7.2%, P < 0.001). Comorbidities were recorded in 44 (80%) cases. In COVID-19 ischemic stroke patients, risk factors [hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and comorbidities (hepatic and renal) were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients. In addition, 23.5% had hemorrhagic CVD, and six patients with LVO developed hemorrhagic transformation. Conclusion: Acute CVD among patients with COVID-19 was common in our study. LVO was the commonest. Hypertension, IHD, and anemia are the most common risk factors and could contribute to the worsening of clinical presentation. Comorbidities were common among patients with CVD, although a large number had elevated liver enzymes and creatinine that were partially due to COVID-19 infection itself. The current results begin to characterize the spectrum of CVD associated with COVID-19 in patients in Upper Egypt. Registration ID: The ID number of this study is IRB no: 17300470.

7.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2071-2087, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163058

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), has affected more than 50 million patients worldwide and caused a global public health emergency. Therefore, there is a recognized need to identify risk factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) for studies published before September 29, 2020, was performed. Studies that investigated risk factors for progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients were included. A total 344,431 participants from 34 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Regarding comorbidities, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and malignancy were associated with an increased risk of progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Regarding clinical manifestations, sputum production was associated with a dramatically increased risk of progression and mortality. Hemoptysis was a risk factor for death in COVID-19 patients. In laboratory examinations, increased neutrophil count, decreased lymphocyte count, decreased platelet count, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), coinfection with bacteria or fungi, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK), increased N-terminal pronatriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and bilateral pneumonia in CT/X-ray were significantly more frequent in the severe group compared with the non-severe group. Moreover, the proportion of patients with increased CRP and total bilirubin (TBIL) was also significantly higher in the deceased group than in the survival group. CVD, CKD, sputum production, increased neutrophil count, decreased lymphocyte count, decreased platelet count, increased CRP, coinfection with bacteria or fungi, increased ALT and CK, increased NT-proBNP, and bilateral pneumonia in CT/X-ray were associated with an increased risk of progression in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the proportion of patients with increased sputum production, hemoptysis, CRP and TBIL was also significantly higher in the deceased group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 632036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127990

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection can lead to a prothrombotic state. Large vessel occlusion, as well as malignant cerebral stroke have been described in COVID-19 patients. In the following months, given the increase in COVID-19 cases, an increase in malignant cerebral SARS-CoV2 associated strokes are expected. The baseline situation of the patients as well as the risk of evolution to a serious disease due to the virus, depict a unique scenario. Decompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure indicated in patients who suffer a malignant cerebral stroke; however, it is unclear whether the same eligibility criteria should be used for patients with COVID-19. To our knowledge seven cases of decompressive craniectomy and malignant cerebral stroke have been described to date. We report on a 39-year-old female with no major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, apart from oral contraception, and mild COVID-19 symptoms who suffered from left hemispheric syndrome. The patient underwent endovascular treatment with stenting and afterward decompressive craniectomy due to a worsening neurological status with unilateral unreactive mydriasis. We present the case and provide a comprehensive review of the available literature related to the surgical treatment for COVID-19 associated malignant strokes, to establish whether the same eligibility criteria for non-COVID-19 associated strokes should be used. Eight patients, including our case, were surgically managed due to malignant cerebral stroke. Seven of these patients received decompressive craniectomy, and six of them met the eligibility criteria of the current stroke guidelines. The mortality rate was 33%, similar to that described in non-COVID-19 cases. Two patients had a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and both survived after decompressive craniectomy. Our results support that decompressive craniectomy, using the current stroke guidelines, should be considered an effective life-saving treatment for COVID-19-related malignant cerebral strokes.

9.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 228-243, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is occasionally associated with manifold diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We sought to present the neuroimaging features of such CNS involvement. In addition, we sought to identify typical neuroimaging patterns that could indicate possible COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations. METHODS: In this systematic literature review, typical neuroimaging features of cerebrovascular diseases and inflammatory processes associated with COVID-19 were analyzed. Reports presenting individual patient data were included in further quantitative analysis with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified 115 studies reporting a total of 954 COVID-19 patients with associated neurological manifestations and neuroimaging alterations. A total of 95 (82.6%) of the identified studies were single case reports or case series, whereas 660 (69.2%) of the reported cases included individual information and were thus included in descriptive statistical analysis. Ischemia with neuroimaging patterns of large vessel occlusion event was revealed in 59.9% of ischemic stroke patients, whereas 69.2% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage exhibited bleeding in a location that was not associated with hypertension. Callosal and/or juxtacortical location was identified in 58.7% of cerebral microbleed positive images. Features of hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis were detected in 28.8% of patients with meningo-/encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Manifold CNS involvement is increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients. Typical and atypical neuroimaging features have been observed in some disease entities, so that familiarity with these imaging patterns appears reasonable and may assist clinicians in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 CNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(1): e12332, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of stroke development during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and analyze the related characteristics, such as etiology, age group, associated comorbidities, and prognosis. METHODS: A narrative was performed using the descriptors ["novel coronavirus"] AND ["stroke"] in the PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Lilacs, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) databases, including studies published between December 1, 2019, and April 28, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 142 articles were identified, with 89 of them in the PubMed database, 46 in Science Direct, and 7 in Google Scholar. No articles were found using the defined keywords in the Lilacs and BVS databases. A total of 22 articles were included for final evaluation. We observed that infection by the novel coronavirus caused a greater risk of the occurrence of stroke, with several studies suggesting etiological mechanisms, such as the involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, viral invasion, and hypoxia as well as the increase in D-dimer and the reduction in platelets, which had been commonly observed in COVID-19 cases. The most common complication of stroke was found among the elderly with preexisting comorbidities, mainly cardiovascular disease. We detected reports of strokes among young people with no preexisting risk factors for thromboembolic events, in which the mechanism related to the viral infection was the most probable cause. In this review, we confirmed that stroke is part of the spectrum of clinical manifestations resulting from COVID-19 and is associated with a worse prognosis. Cerebrovascular lesions resulting from complications of the infection by the novel coronavirus occurred as a result of ischemic, hemorrhagic, and/or thromboembolic etiologies. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of stroke during the pandemic as a result of the novel coronavirus has a multifactorial character, and emergency physicians should focus on systematic measures for its screening and accurate diagnosis as well as on appropriate interventions based on early decisionmaking that may have a favorable impact on reducing damage and saving lives.

11.
Brain Behav ; 11(2): e01901, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and stress like mental illnesses are the common outcomes of viral epidemics and pandemics. Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and then spread all over the world in a short time. OBJECTIVES: To highlight and discuss the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental or psychological health. METHOD: Literature search and collection of the information were performed using PubMed, the reports from the World health organization, and the Center for disease control and prevention. RESULTS: COVID-19 infection has already been declared as a global pandemic, which in association with infodemic has increased the risk of psychiatric/psychological disorders. A large population of the world is prone to develop anxiety, depressive disorders, and other mental abnormalities. Therefore, timely psychological interventions and preventive strategies are required. Moreover, the infection has been reported to be linked with cerebrovascular conditions; therefore, patients with underlying cerebrovascular diseases should be given attention. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-mediated mental health complications and cerebrovascular conditions may cause a huge burden on healthcare communities in the future. Therefore, timely intervention and the development or application of preventive strategies are required to decrease the risk of neurological consequences.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mental Disorders , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 489-494, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793681

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far. RECENT FINDINGS: A small but growing literature documents cases of new onset neuro-ophthalmic disease, in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset vision loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. SUMMARY: The literature on COVID-19 continues to evolve. Although COVID-19 primarily impacts the respiratory system, there are several reports of new onset neuro-ophthalmic conditions in COVID-infected patients. When patients present with new onset neuro-ophthalmic issues, COVID-19 should be kept on the differential. Testing for COVID-19 should be considered, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are also present. When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurologic symptoms. The presence of these symptoms may increase the overall probability of viral infection, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are present. More research is needed to establish a causal relationship between COVID-19 and neuro-ophthalmic disease, and better understand pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Animals , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diplopia/etiology , Eye Pain/etiology , Humans , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biol Res Nurs ; 23(2): 258-269, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733072

ABSTRACT

At present, COVID-19 is raging all over the world. Many comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.91-3.74) and hypertension (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.76-3.00), have been shown to worsen the patient's condition. However, whether cardio-cerebrovascular disease will affect COVID-19 remains unclear. In this meta-analysis, we collected studies from PubMed, Wed of Science and CNKI (Chinese) to July 25, which reported COVID-19 patients with and without cardio-cerebrovascular disease as well as their severity and mortality. The random-effect model meta-analysis was used to analyze them and get overall odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs. Funnel plots and the Begg's and Egger's test were used to assess publication bias. Thirty-one studies with 23,632 patients were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed an OR of 3.004 (95% CI = 2.097-4.303) for COVID-19 severity and an OR of 5.587 (95% CI = 2.810-11.112) for COVID-19 mortality. Compared with cardiovascular disease, the subgroup analysis indicated that cerebrovascular disease was more likely to increase the severity (OR = 3.400, 95% CI = 1.569-7.368) and mortality (OR = 23.477, 95% CI = 3.050-180.735) of COVID-19. Therefore, it can be inferred that cardio-cerebrovascular disease is associated with an increase in the risk of severe illness and death among COVID-19 patients. This meta-analysis showed that cardio-cerebrovascular disease has a significant relation with severe and death outcomes of COVID-19. Nurses should pay special attention to COVID-19 patients with the cardio-cerebrovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 197: 106183, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Past history of stroke has been associated with an increased risk of a new ischemic stroke. Several studies have indicated increased prevalence of strokes among coronavirus patients. However, the role of past history of stroke in COVID19 patients is still unclear. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate and summarize the level of evidence on past history of stroke in COVID19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO Host, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, and LILACS. Eligibility criteria: We evaluated studies including patients with diagnosis of COVID 19 and a past history of stroke. Risk of bias: was evaluated with the Newcastle- Ottawa Scale (NOS) and experimental studies were evaluated using the ROBINS-I scale. RESULTS: Seven articles out of the total 213 articles were evaluated and included, involving 3244 patients with SARS VOC 2 Disease (COVID19) of which 198 had a history of cerebrovascular disease. Meta-analysis of the data was performed, observing an increase in mortality in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease compared to those with different comorbidities or those without underlying pathology (OR 2.78 95 % CI [1.42-5.46] p = 0.007; I2 = 49 %) showing adequate heterogeneity. The presence of publication bias was evaluated using the Egger test in a funnel plot, showing adequate. Asymmetry, indicating that there is no publication bias; however, due to the low number of included studies, we could not rule out or confirm the presence of bias. CONCLUSIONS: The history of cerebrovascular disease was associated with a 2.78-fold increased risk of mortality compared to patients with other comorbidities or without underlying pathologies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3112-3114, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in China, and evolved into a worldwide pandemic. It remains unclear whether the history of cerebrovascular disease is associated with in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. Using our institutional data warehouse, we identified all adult patients who were admitted to the hospital between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020 and had a positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the emergency department. Using our institutional electronic health record, we extracted clinical characteristics of the cohort, including age, sex, and comorbidities. Using multivariable logistic regression to control for medical comorbidities, we modeled the relationship between history of stroke and all-cause, in-hospital death. RESULTS: We identified 3248 patients, of whom 387 (11.9%) had a history of stroke. Compared with patients without history of stroke, patients with a history of stroke were significantly older, and were significantly more likely to have a history of all medical comorbidities except for obesity, which was more prevalent in patients without a history of stroke. Compared with patients without history of stroke, patients with a history of stroke had higher in-hospital death rates during the study period (48.6% versus 31.7%, P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, history of stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.01-1.63]) was significantly associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: We found that history of stroke was associated with in-hospital death among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Further studies should confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Case Rep Neurol ; 12(2): 199-209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638529

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state causing cardiovascular and neurovascular complications. To further characterize cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in COVID-19, we review the current literature of published cases and additionally report the clinical presentation, laboratory and diagnostic testing results of 12 cases with COVID-19 infection and concurrent CVD from two academic medical centers in Houston, TX, USA, between March 1 and May 10, 2020. To date, there are 12 case studies reporting 47 cases of CVD in COVID-19. However, only 4 small case series have described the clinical and laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19 and concurrent stroke. Viral neurotropism, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and inflammation are plausible proposed mechanisms of CVD in COVID-19 patients. In our case series of 12 patients, 10 patients had an ischemic stroke, of which 1 suffered hemorrhagic transformation and two had intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology was determined to be embolic without a clear cause identified in 6 ischemic stroke patients, while the remaining had an identifiable source of stroke. The majority of the patients had elevated inflammatory markers such as D-dimer and interleukin-6. In patients with embolic stroke of unclear etiology, COVID-19 may have played a direct or indirect role in the processes that eventually led to the strokes while in the remaining cases, it is unclear if infection contributed partially or was an incidental finding.

18.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 1359-1367, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590338

ABSTRACT

The global spread of COVID-19 has caused a substantial societal burden and become a major global public health issue. The COVID-19 elderly population with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases are at risk. Mortality rates are highest in these individuals if infected with COVID-19. Although the lungs are the main organs involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 triggers inflammatory and immune mechanisms, inducing a "cytokine storm" that aggravates disease progression and may lead to death. Presently, effective drugs are lacking, although current studies have confirmed that drugs with therapeutic potential include redaciclovir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-ß, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies. Currently, the most reasonable and effective way to prevent COVID-19 is to control the source of infection, terminate routes of transmission, and protect susceptible populations. With the rise of COVID-19 in China and worldwide, further prevention, diagnosis, and treatment measures are a critical unmet need. Cerebrovascular disease has high incidence, disability rate, and fatality rate. COVID-19 patient outcomes may also be complicated with acute stroke. This paper summarizes the influence of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease and discusses possible pathophysiological mechanisms to provide new angles for the prevention and diagnosis of this disease.

19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104949, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the latest evidence on the association between cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular diseases and poor outcome in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, EuropePMC, and Cochrane Central Database. The outcome of interest was composite poor outcome that comprised of mortality and severe COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 4448 patients were obtained from 16 studies. Cerebrovascular disease was associated with an increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.04 [1.43,2.91], p<0.001; I2: 77%). Subgroup analysis revealed that cerebrovascular disease was associated with mortality (RR 2.38 [1.92,2.96], p<0.001; I2: 0%) and showed borderline significance for severe COVID-19 (RR 1.88 [1.00,3.51], p = 0.05; I2: 87%). Cardiovascular disease was associated with increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.23 [1.71,2.91], p<0.001; I2: 60%), mortality (RR 2.25 [1.53,3.29], p<0.001; I2: 33%) and severe COVID-19 (RR 2.25 [1.51,3.36], p<0.001; I2: 76%). Meta-regression demonstrate that the association was not influenced by gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory comorbidities. Furthermore, the association between cerebrovascular disease and poor outcome was not affected by cardiovascular diseases and vice versa. CONCLUSION: Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases were associated with an increased risk for poor outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Status , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 140: 109776, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102279

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic disease (COVID-19) that has spread globally causing more than 30,000 deaths. Despite the immense and ongoing global effort, no efficacious drugs to fight this plague have been identified and patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU), for respiratory distress, are managed mostly by means of supportive care based on oxygen maintenance. Several authors have reported that the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases comorbidities were indeed frequent among patients with COVID-19, which suggests that these conditions are likely to aggravate and complicate the prognosis. What the aforementioned diseases have in common is a latent chronic inflammatory state that may be associated with the alteration of laboratory parameters that are typical of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. In severe COVID-19 patients laboratory markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, IL-6, D-dimer, serum ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase are elevated in many patients; assessed since the 4th-6th day of illness onset, such increases seem to be predictive of an adverse prognosis. Our hypothesis is that drugs belonging to the family of thiazolidinediones (TZD) such as pioglitazone or rosiglitazone, approved for treating the condition of insulin resistance and the accompanying inflammation, could ameliorate the prognosis of those COVID-19 patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders comorbidities. TZD are PPARγ agonists that act on nuclear receptors, thereby triggering certain transcription factors. TZD were widely used for type-2 diabetes in the first decade of this century and although concerns have been raised for possible side effects associated with long-term treatment, their use has been recently revaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties in numerous medical conditions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Inflammation/drug therapy , Insulin Resistance , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
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