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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 169-170, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806300
2.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(1): 63-74, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805676

ABSTRACT

Purpose Evaluation and management of voice and upper airway disorders in adults and children, by speech-language pathologists worldwide, have been significantly altered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary to the pathogenic nature of the virus in the respiratory tract and upper airway, it is essential that speech-language pathologists who specialize in these disorders are knowledgeable of current practices to provide evidence-based care while minimizing viral transmission. Understanding how and when SARS-CoV-2 spreads is critical to the development of effective infection prevention within clinical practices. Method We established an evidence-based clinical practice guide for clinicians working with voice and upper airway through a comprehensive evaluation of peer-reviewed journals, non-peer-reviewed manuscripts on preprint servers, national health guidelines, and published and online consensus statements and emerging data. Emphasis was placed on risk mitigation for viral transmission via safe clinical practices, including evaluative procedures, therapy including telehealth, personal protective equipment, room, staffing, and distancing considerations. Results/Conclusions While knowledge relevant to viral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly evolving, there is a paucity of literature specific to the evaluation and treatment of voice and upper airway disorders. Within these confines and given the potentially significant high risk of infection secondary to the nature of COVID-19, we summarize current considerations and recommend best practices that maximize risk mitigation whereby ensuring patient and provider safety.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Speech Disorders/diagnosis , Voice Disorders/diagnosis , Adult , Airway Obstruction/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Speech Disorders/therapy , Voice Disorders/therapy
3.
Pneumologe (Berl) ; : 1-5, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic the focus of attention was on children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases. Due to a lack of epidemiological data and clinical experience, it was feared that children with respiratory diseases were a risk group for particularly severe courses of COVID-19, as has been reported for adults. OBJECTIVE: The currently available (epidemiological) data on this patient group are presented as well as a description of our own experiences based on three selected cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of the literature was carried out and three selected case reports and a discussion of current recommendations are presented. RESULTS: The incidence of COVID-19 is significantly lower in children than in adults. Furthermore, the known risk factors in adults cannot be simply transferred to pediatric patients. In the majority of cases, children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases show a milder course of SARS-CoV­2 infections. CONCLUSION: Although the hitherto available data show that children and adolescents have a lower risk for COVID-19 courses than adults, it should not be ignored that fatal outcomes have also been reported in pediatric patients. Moreover, late effects, such as the pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) can sometimes lead to a fatal outcome. Nevertheless, care must be taken that this vulnerable patient group does not suffer from avoidable negative side effects of restriction and isolation measures. As an example, the no-show behavior in outpatient departments during the lockdown might have led to a relevant undertreatment of underlying chronic health conditions.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100527, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, is a new dangerous childhood disease that is temporally associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the typical presentation and outcomes of children diagnosed with this hyperinflammatory condition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to communicate the clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging results, and outcomes of individuals with MIS-C. We searched four medical databases to encompass studies characterizing MIS-C from January 1st, 2020 to July 25th, 2020. Two independent authors screened articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. This review was registered with PROSPERO CRD42020191515. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 39 observational studies (n = 662 patients). While 71·0% of children (n = 470) were admitted to the intensive care unit, only 11 deaths (1·7%) were reported. Average length of hospital stay was 7·9 ± 0·6 days. Fever (100%, n = 662), abdominal pain or diarrhea (73·7%, n = 488), and vomiting (68·3%, n = 452) were the most common clinical presentation. Serum inflammatory, coagulative, and cardiac markers were considerably abnormal. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were necessary in 22·2% (n = 147) and 4·4% (n = 29) of patients, respectively. An abnormal echocardiograph was observed in 314 of 581 individuals (54·0%) with depressed ejection fraction (45·1%, n = 262 of 581) comprising the most common aberrancy. INTERPRETATION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a new pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is dangerous and potentially lethal. With prompt recognition and medical attention, most children will survive but the long-term outcomes from this condition are presently unknown. FUNDING: Parker B. Francis and pilot grant from 2R25-HL126140. Funding agencies had no involvement in the study.

5.
AIMS Public Health ; 7(2): 258-273, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the infection caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) led to an outbreak in Wuhan, situated in the Hubei Province of China. Following this, there has been a rapid increase in the number of cases. On 12th March 2020, there were over 100,000 confirmed cases and almost 4,300 deaths worldwide. The clinical profile of children with COVID-19 is unknown due to the few number of cases reported. Currently, available data suggest they may have a milder form of illness. METHODS: A review of the literature published from June 2019 to March 2020 was undertaken to evaluate the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of COVID-19 in in children. Data sources included EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, ISI Web of Knowledge and references within identified articles. RESULTS: We identified 303 potential studies, and 295 were excluded for reasons including duplicates, experimental studies and case reports. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion, including a total of 820 paediatric cases of COVID-19. Asymptomatic cases represented 14.3% (n = 117) of the total number of cases identified, and thus the remaining 85.7% (n = 703) experienced symptoms. Fever was the commonest symptom in 53.9% (n = 48) of cases, followed by cough in 39.3% (n = 35) of cases, and rhinorrhoea or pharyngeal congestion in 13.5% (n = 12) of cases. Diarrhoea and sore throats were less common symptoms, 7.9% (n = 7) and 9.0% (n = 8) respectively. Other symptoms, including fatigue, headache and dizziness were rare. CONCLUSION: Children are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 and are more likely to run a milder cause of illness following this infection compared to adults. This outbreak only started 3 months ago, therefore, further population wide studies are needed to validate these findings.

6.
Cancer Invest ; 40(5): 401-405, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778718

ABSTRACT

The study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in the Pediatric Oncology Units (POUs) of Pakistan. Data from 1 April 2019 to 30 June 2019 and 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 for the first and second cohort, respectively, in order to compare the registration, abandonment rate, and delay in treatment. Six hundred and thirty-four were registered cases, 379 and 255 in the first and second cohort, respectively, which was significantly different <0.005. Seventy-seven were abandoned, 45 and 32 in the first and second cohort, respectively. Fifty-nine COVID-19 positive cases, 24, 4, 27, and 4 were admitted, referred, home isolated, and leave against medical advice (LAMA), respectively. Delayed treatment and reduction in new cases were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 727-733, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been raised about the risk to children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to collate global experience and provide provisional guidance for managing paediatric IBD (PIBD) in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: An electronic reporting system of children with IBD infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been circulated among 102 PIBD centres affiliated with the Porto and Interest-group of ESPGHAN. A survey has been completed by major PIBD centres in China and South-Korea to explore management during the pandemic. A third survey collected current practice of PIBD treatment. Finally, guidance points for practice have been formulated and voted upon by 37 PIBD authors and Porto group members. RESULTS: Eight PIBD children had COVID-19 globally, all with mild infection without needing hospitalization despite treatment with immunomodulators and/or biologics. No cases have been reported in China and South Korea but biologic treatment has been delayed in 79 children, of whom 17 (22%) had exacerbation of their IBD. Among the Porto group members, face-to-face appointments were often replaced by remote consultations but almost all did not change current IBD treatment. Ten guidance points for clinicians caring for PIBD patients in epidemic areas have been endorsed with consensus rate of 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data for PIBD patients during COVID-19 outbreak are reassuring. Standard IBD treatments including biologics should continue at present through the pandemic, especially in children who generally have more severe IBD course on one hand, and milder SARS-CoV-2 infection on the other.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Cardiol Young ; 31(6): 1021-1023, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701004

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old girl presented with fever and signs of systemic inflammation, and was found to have junctional tachycardia. She was subsequently diagnosed with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids, which led to resolution of the arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/etiology
11.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14890, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children is milder than in adults. Household virus exposure may affect clinical severity. We aimed to determine the household contact history of patients and its influence on the clinical stage. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-three pediatric patients with COVID-19 as diagnosed with positive real-time polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 aged 1 month to 18 years were included. Demographic data, laboratory and clinical findings, and the history of household contact of the patients were obtained. They were classified according to their clinical stage as mild or moderate-severe. RESULTS: Sixty patients (34.7%) were asymptomatic, and 113 were symptomatic (65.3%). Of the 173 patients, 138 (79.8%) had at least one family member in the household who was diagnosed as having COVID-19. Hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil count, and absolute neutrophil count /absolute lymphocyte count ratio decreased significantly in patients with household contact. The presence of a household contact did not have a significant effect on the presence of symptoms, clinical course, age, and the sex of the patients. The need for hospitalization was less in the group that had household contact. Being 0-12 months, being female, and being a patient without household contact were independent factors associated with higher hospitalization ratios in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that household contact history did not significantly affect presenting symptoms and clinical course. We detected the rate of hospitalization to be less in the group with only household contact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Monatsschr Kinderheilkd ; 169(1): 39-45, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Germany over 80% of children and adolescents are in the ambulatory care of registered pediatricians. These have a specific perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this reason, this professional group initiated a central recording of case numbers, individual case descriptions and observations on infections and illnesses with SARS-CoV­2 (www.co-ki.de). RESULTS: So far 557 pediatricians have participated. Together they care for ca. 670,000 children. They reported 9803 children who presented as suspected cases. The pediatricians themselves had a clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV­2 infections in 3654 children. In 7707 children PCR tests were carried out using nose/throat swabs of which 198 (2.6%) were positive. In addition, 731 children were tested for SARS-CoV­2 antibodies with detection in 82 cases (11.2%). Despite initially positive PCR tests, 47 children had a negative antibody test at least 2 weeks later. Our query as to infections of adults by children yielded only one case, which a telephone enquiry revealed as unlikely. DISCUSSION: From an outpatient pediatric perspective COVID-19 is rare. There was no convincing evidence that children are a relevant source of infection for SARS-CoV­2 nor that they are relevantly at risk.

13.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14887, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence and worldwide spread of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, it has caused people to experience adverse psychological effects. This study aimed to assess anxiety levels during COVID-19 in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including nephrotic syndrome (NS) and kidney transplantation (Tx). METHODS: A case-controlled, cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 10-18 years, who had a diagnosis of CKD or NS, or Tx, and followed in our center between April and July 2020. A healthy control group was recruited with age- and gender-matched children. A questionnaire with printed and online versions was designed in three parts: the first addressed demographic characteristics, the second addressed opinions about the pandemic, and the third was the Turkish version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale - Child Version. RESULTS: A total of 88 children completed the questionnaire. The patient and control groups were similar in terms of gender, age, household members and history of psychiatric treatment. Both groups stated that coronavirus is a risky disease for children (63.6%), and that they were afraid of contagion (69.3%). Only half of them were receiving realistic and informative answers from family members. In the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale - Child Version, 66% of them received a high score on at least one subscale. The social phobia scores of the control group were higher than those of the patient group, although the proportion of high scores was similar in both groups. The ratio of high-scored participants was higher in CKD patients for panic disorder, and was lower in the immunosuppressive agent group for social phobia. CONCLUSION: The current COVID-19 pandemic is a disaster that children encounter for the first time in their lives. It does not exclusively cause anxiety among children with chronic kidney diseases but also affects healthy children.

14.
Br J Nutr ; 127(6): 896-903, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651089

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused mild illness in children, until the emergence of the novel hyperinflammatory condition paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (PIMS-TS). PIMS-TS is thought to be a post-SARS-CoV-2 immune dysregulation with excessive inflammatory cytokine release. We studied 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in children with PIMS-TS, admitted to a tertiary paediatric hospital in the UK, due to its postulated role in cytokine regulation and immune response. Eighteen children (median (range) age 8·9 (0·3-14·6) years, male = 10) met the case definition. The majority were of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) origin (89 %, 16/18). Positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were present in 94 % (17/18) and RNA by PCR in 6 % (1/18). Seventy-eight percentage of the cohort were vitamin D deficient (< 30 nmol/l). The mean 25OHD concentration was significantly lower when compared with the population mean from the 2015/16 National Diet and Nutrition Survey (children aged 4-10 years) (24 v. 54 nmol/l (95 % CI -38·6, -19·7); P < 0·001). The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) group had lower mean 25OHD concentrations compared with the non-PICU group, but this was not statistically significant (19·5 v. 31·9 nmol/l; P = 0·11). The higher susceptibility of BAME children to PIMS-TS and also vitamin D deficiency merits contemplation. Whilst any link between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 and related conditions including PIMS-TS requires further evidence, public health measures to improve vitamin D status of the UK BAME population have been long overdue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vitamin D
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 169-170, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650558
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 66-73, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of children in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is critical to guide decision-making for schools in the pandemic. We aimed to describe the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adult staff in summer schools. METHODS: During July 2020, we prospectively recruited children and adult staff attending summer schools in Barcelona who had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified through (1) a surveillance program in 22 summer schools of 1905 participants, involving weekly saliva sampling for SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during 2-5 weeks; and (2) cases identified through the Catalonian Health Surveillance System of children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. All centers followed prevention protocols: bubble groups, handwashing, face masks, and conducting activities mostly outdoors. Contacts of a primary case within the same bubble were evaluated by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Secondary attack rates and the effective reproduction number in summer schools (Re*) were calculated. RESULTS: Among the >2000 repeatedly screened participants, 30 children and 9 adults were identified as primary cases. A total of 253 close contacts of these primary cases were studied (median, 9 [interquartile range, 5-10] for each primary case), among which 12 new cases (4.7%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The Re* was 0.3, whereas the contemporary rate in the general population from the same areas in Barcelona was 1.9. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children attending school-like facilities under strict prevention measures was lower than that reported for the general population. This suggests that under preventive measures schools are unlikely amplifiers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, supporting current recommendations for school opening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Spain/epidemiology
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 152-155, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621572

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 in children has been challenging to establish, owing to the high prevalence of asymptomatic infection in this population. Lower secondary attack rates in children compared with adults have been observed in household contact studies, but there is evidence that this may reflect lower testing in children and reduced exposure, rather than a genuine difference in biological susceptibility. In addition, children may shed infectious virus for a shorter period than adults and their antibody response may be less broad, with implications for both polymerase chain reaction and serological testing. Improvements in study design, data collection, and data interpretation are required to better understand the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Child , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Incidence
18.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e127-e133, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608558

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of pediatric hematologic patients are limited in this corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. We investigated the status of 113 pediatric hematologic patients in Wuhan union hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 23 to March 10, 2020. All the patients had routine blood and biochemical examination, as well as chest computed tomography scans, and the nucleic acid, immunoglobulin G-immunoglobulin M combined antibodies tests for SARS-CoV-2. After admission, all patients were single-room isolated for 5 to 7 days. The results showed that only 1 (0.88%) child with leukemia was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and 15 (13.2%) children were considered as suspected cases. Comparing to the nonsuspected patients, the suspected cases had lower white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, neutrophil count, serum calcium ion level and serum albumin concentration, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein. All the suspected cases were ruled out of SARS-CoV-2 infection by twice negative tests for the virus. Therefore, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hematologic malignancy children was low during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. COVID-19 got early detected and the virus spread out in the ward was effectively blocked by increasing test frequency and using single-room isolation for 5 to 7 days after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Leukemia/blood , Leukemia/complications , Leukocyte Count , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 8: 2333794X211012394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598356

ABSTRACT

Information on family health-related quality of life (FHRQoL) among families of children with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. This qualitative study explores the impact of pediatric COVID-19 on FHRQoL from the parents' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents (n = 20) whose children had tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Inductive thematic analysis revealed the following 10 themes that represented parents' perception of FHRQoL while taking care of a child with COVID-19: pediatric COVID-19 as a disease with many unknowns; emotional saturation; internal family relationships in the context of "a new experience"; routine household activities and daily regimen while family is in lockdown; plenty of free time; a wide social support network; social stigma associated with COVID-19; different options for work; savings and debts; challenges with family housing and transport availability. Our results show that parents experience multiple effects of pediatric COVID-19 with regard to FHRQoL.

20.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(6): 524-532, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Behavioral changes among Japanese, along with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, may affect the seasonal influenza epidemic in Japan and change influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: This single-center, test-negative case-control (TNCC) study estimated influenza VE in children for the first influenza season (2019/20) to overlap the COVID-19 epidemic in. Effects of prior influenza infection and vaccination in children were assessed for the 2019-2020 season. RESULTS: Among 386 children, adjusted VE was significant for influenza A/H1N1 (45.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-69.7) and influenza B (66.7%; 95% CI: 35.9-82.7). Among patients aged 0-6 years, adjusted VE was significant for influenza A (total: A/H1N1+A/H3N2) (65.0%; 95% CI: 22.2-84.3), influenza A/H1N1 (64.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-85.1) and influenza B (87.4%; 95% CI: 50.5-96.8). No VE was observed in patients aged 7-15 years. Administration of two vaccine doses tended to decrease incidences of influenza A (total) and influenza A/H1N1 in patients aged 0-6 years. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of influenza B infection in patients, who had influenza during the previous season, were significantly lower among all participants (0.29; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78) and patients aged 7-15 years (0.34; 95% CI: 0.12-0.94). The adjusted ORs of influenza infections were not significant in patients vaccinated during the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: TNCC-based estimates of influenza VE were consistent despite the overlapping COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
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