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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22427, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of COVID-19, numerous rumors emerged on the internet in China and caused confusion among the public. However, the characteristics of these rumors in different phases of the epidemic have not been studied in depth, and the official responses to the rumors have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the rumor epidemic and official responses during the COVID-19 outbreak in China and to provide a scientific basis for effective information communication in future public health crises. METHODS: Data on internet rumors related to COVID-19 were collected via the Sina Weibo Official Account to Refute Rumors between January 20 and April 8, 2020, extracted, and analyzed. The data were divided into five periods according to the key events and disease epidemic. Different classifications of rumors were described and compared over the five periods. The trends of the epidemic and the focus of the public at different stages were plotted, and correlation analysis between the number of rumors and the number of COVID-19 cases was performed. The geographic distributions of the sources and refuters of the rumors were graphed, and analyses of the most frequently appearing words in the rumors were applied to reveal hotspots of the rumors. RESULTS: A total of 1943 rumors were retrieved. The median of the response interval between publication and debunking of the rumors was 1 day (IQR 1-2). Rumors in text format accounted for the majority of the 1943 rumors (n=1241, 63.9%); chat tools, particularly WeChat (n=1386, 71.3%), were the most common platform for initial publishing of the rumors (n=1412, 72.7%). In addition to text rumors, Weibo and web pages were more likely to be platforms for rumors released in multimedia formats or in a combination of formats, respectively. Local agencies played a large role in dispelling rumors among social media platforms (1537/1943, 79.1%). There were significant differences in the formats and origins of rumors over the five periods (P<.001). Hubei Province accounted for most of the country's confirmed rumors. Beijing and Wuhan City were the main centers for debunking of disinformation. The words most frequently included in the core messages of the rumors varied by period, indicating shifting in the public's concern. CONCLUSIONS: Chat tools, particularly WeChat, became the major sources of rumors during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, indicating a requirement to establish rumor monitoring and refuting mechanisms on these platforms. Moreover, targeted policy adjustments and timely release of official information are needed in different phases of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Social Media , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526860

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant public health crisis all over the world. The rapid spreading nature and high mortality rate of COVID-19 places a huge pressure on scientists to develop effective diagnostics and therapeutics to control the pandemic. Some scientists working on plant biotechnology together with commercial enterprises for the emergency manufacturing of diagnostics and therapeutics have aimed to fulfill the rapid demand for SARS-CoV-2 protein antigen and antibody through a rapid, scalable technology known as transient/stable expression in plants. Plant biotechnology using transient/stable expression offers a rapid solution to address this crisis through the production of low-cost diagnostics, antiviral drugs, immunotherapy, and vaccines. Transient/stable expression technology for manufacturing plant-based biopharmaceuticals is already established at commercial scale. Here, current opinions regarding how plant biotechnology can help fight against COVID-19 through the production of low-cost diagnostics and therapeutics are discussed.

3.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. FINDINGS: The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Jails , Public Health , Adult , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 561168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389192

ABSTRACT

Providing routine healthcare to patients with serious health illnesses represents a challenge to healthcare providers amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Treating cancer patients during this pandemic is even more complex due to their heightened vulnerability, as both cancer and cancer treatment weaken the immune system leading to a higher risk of both infections and severe complications. In addition to the need to protect cancer patients from unnecessary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection during their routine care, interruption, and discontinuation of cancer treatment can result in negative consequences on patients' health, in addition to the ghost of rationing healthcare resources in high demand during a global health crisis. This article aims to explore the ethical dilemmas faced by decision-makers and healthcare providers caring for cancer patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This includes setting triage criteria for non-infected cancer patients, fairly allocating limited healthcare resources between cancer patients and SARS-CoV-2 patients, prioritizing SARS-CoV-2 treatment or vaccine, once developed, for cancer patients and non-cancer patients, patient-physician communication on matters such as end-of-life and do-not-resuscitate (DNR), and lastly, shifting physicians' priorities from treating their own cancer patients to treating critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Ultimately, no straightforward decision can be easily made at such exceptionally difficult times. Applying different ethical principles can result in very different scenarios and consequences. In the end, we will briefly share the experience of the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), the only standalone comprehensive cancer center in the region.

6.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11: 100751, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global public-health crisis due to its impact on health, economy, and mental well-being. Here, we evaluated the clinical and epidemiological parameters associated with COVID-19 in South India. METHODS: A retrospective, quaternary care hospital-based study that included COVID-19 positive patients admitted to MIOT International Hospital, Chennai between 8 April-7 August 2020. Cases were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological findings were recorded and analyzed. The primary endpoint was stable discharge from hospital/patient recovery or death. Associations between risk factors and comorbidities were analyzed using Chi-Square/Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Of the 5264 cases reviewed, 3345 cases were included. The mean (standard deviation, SD) age of the patients was 47.58 (16.69) years with a median and range hospital stay of 5 (2-41) days. 69.20% of patients were male. The most frequent comorbidities were diabetes (37.10%) and hypertension (29.10%). Contact history was available for 58% of patients. The most common symptoms were cough (36.60%), fever (28.30%), and myalgia (15.40%). Abnormal chest radiography was reported in 16.9% of patients. Phase of admission, age ≥50 years, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease was significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.05). There were 142 (4.2%) deaths in this study. CONCLUSION: In this single centre hospital-based study, late presentation and more severe form of COVID pneumonia lead to higher mortality although it had lower mortality rate for COVID-19 in comparison. Late phase of the pandemic showed better outcomes vs. the early group.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(3): 152-163, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290432

ABSTRACT

Crisis intervention psychotherapy (CIP) is an underutilized form of therapy that can be offered as a treatment during psychiatric disasters and emergencies, and it may be especially useful during the age of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). CIP is a problem-solving, solution-focused, trauma-informed treatment, utilizing an individual or systemic/family-centered approach. CIP is a brief form of psychotherapy delivered as a companion or follow-up to psychological first aid. Crisis psychotherapy is designed to resolve a crisis and restore daily functioning. CIP can be adapted as a single session for a COVID-19 mental health emergency or for a hotline or as 2 to 20 sessions of treatment with COVID-19 patients and families offered virtually on a psychiatric inpatient unit, through a consultation-liaison service, or in outpatient settings. This article reviews the history of critical incident stress management and the use of its replacement, psychological first aid. The history and core principles of crisis psychotherapy and 8 core elements of treatment are described. The use of digital and virtual technology has enabled the delivery of crisis psychotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. A case study of a family impacted by COVID-19 is reported as an illustration. The use of a 6-week timeline, an ecological map, and a problem-solving wheel-and-spoke treatment plan are demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Crisis Intervention , Family Therapy , Psychotherapy, Brief , Telemedicine , Crisis Intervention/methods , Crisis Intervention/standards , Family Therapy/methods , Family Therapy/standards , Humans , Psychotherapy, Brief/methods , Psychotherapy, Brief/standards , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100378, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275075

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a major social determinant of health affecting more than 10% of Americans. Social determinants of health are increasingly recognized as a driving force of health inequities. It is well established that food insecurity leads to adverse health outcomes outside of pregnancy, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and mental health problems. However, limited data exist about the impact of food insecurity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Food insecurity and other social determinants of health are rarely addressed as part of routine obstetrical care. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the crisis of food insecurity across the country, disproportionally affecting women and racial and ethnic minorities. Women's health providers should implement universal screening for maternal food insecurity and offer resources to women struggling to feed themselves and their families. Reducing maternal health inequities in the United States involves recognizing and addressing food insecurity, along with other social determinants of health, and advocating for public policies that support and protect all women's right to healthy food during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Food Insecurity , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e26956, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid dissemination of scientific and medical discoveries. Current platforms available for the distribution of scientific and clinical research data and information include preprint repositories and traditional peer-reviewed journals. In recent times, social media has emerged as a helpful platform to share scientific and medical discoveries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively analyze activity on social media (specifically, Twitter) and that related to publications in the form of preprint and peer-reviewed journal articles in the context of COVID-19 and gastroenterology during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-related data from Twitter (tweets and user data) and articles published in preprint servers (bioRxiv and medRxiv) as well as in the PubMed database were collected and analyzed during the first 6 months of the pandemic, from December 2019 through May 2020. Global and regional geographic and gastrointestinal organ-specific social media trends were compared to preprint and publication activity. Any relationship between Twitter activity and preprint articles published and that between Twitter activity and PubMed articles published overall, by organ system, and by geographic location were identified using Spearman's rank-order correlation. RESULTS: Over the 6-month period, 73,079 tweets from 44,609 users, 7164 journal publications, and 4702 preprint publications were retrieved. Twitter activity (ie, number of tweets) peaked in March 2020, whereas preprint and publication activity (ie, number of articles published) peaked in April 2020. Overall, strong correlations were identified between trends in Twitter activity and preprint and publication activity (P<.001 for both). COVID-19 data across the three platforms mainly concentrated on pulmonology or critical care, but when analyzing the field of gastroenterology specifically, most tweets pertained to pancreatology, most publications focused on hepatology, and most preprints covered hepatology and luminal gastroenterology. Furthermore, there were significant positive associations between trends in Twitter and publication activity for all gastroenterology topics (luminal gastroenterology: P=.009; hepatology and inflammatory bowel disease: P=.006; gastrointestinal endoscopy: P=.007), except pancreatology (P=.20), suggesting that Twitter activity did not correlate with publication activity for this topic. Finally, Twitter activity was the highest in the United States (7331 tweets), whereas PubMed activity was the highest in China (1768 publications). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential of social media as a vehicle for disseminating scientific information during a public health crisis. Sharing and spreading information on COVID-19 in a timely manner during the pandemic has been paramount; this was achieved at a much faster pace on social media, particularly on Twitter. Future investigation could demonstrate how social media can be used to augment and promote scholarly activity, especially as the world begins to increasingly rely on digital or virtual platforms. Scientists and clinicians should consider the use of social media in augmenting public awareness regarding their scholarly pursuits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/trends , China/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , PubMed/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Pulmonary Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Medicine/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(4): 895-900, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, like all pandemics, has territorial specificities that need to be considered: the impact of the COVID-19 crisis strongly differs not only across countries, but also across regions, districts and municipalities within countries. There are several factors that, potentially, can contribute to the differentiated impact of COVID-19, and explain the disparities seen among areas. This study aims to contribute to this debate by analyzing the role of health system and social trust in lessening the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in French 'départements'. METHODS: The data used in this study have been provided by the INSEE and the French Ministry of Health. Database is made up of the 96 'départements' of metropolitan France. We use spatial analysis techniques to identify the groups of areas that are particularly affected, and to test the influence of local socio-economic factors on the spread of the epidemic. RESULTS: Our exploratory spatial analysis reveals the heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation of the disease. The use of spatial econometric models, then, allows us to highlight the impact of emergency services, and social capital in reducing the exposition to COVID-19. Our results also report on the role of spillover effects between neighbouring areas. CONCLUSIONS: This research shows that, although individual characteristics are important factors in explaining the probability of contracting COVID-19 disease, health care services and social trust factors also play a significant role in curbing the epidemic's outbreak. These findings should have an interest for policy makers in the prevention of future waves of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
12.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605211021968, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259117

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may be experienced as traumatogenic and may fuel or exacerbate psychological distress and trauma-related symptoms. Based on trauma research, one might expect that survivors of childhood abuse would be susceptible to these negative outcomes during the pandemic, and that among this population a stronger relation between emotion regulation difficulties and symptomatology would be found. Aiming to explore these suppositions, an online survey was conducted among 710 Israeli adults. Of them, 370 were childhood abuse survivors. A history of childhood abuse, COVID-19-related stressors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic were assessed via self-report measures. Participants with a history of childhood abuse had elevated overall psychological distress as well as peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic, compared to nonabused participants, above and beyond demographic characteristics and COVID-19-related stressors. Emotion regulation difficulties were related to elevated psychological distress and peritraumatic stress symptoms among both childhood abuse survivors and nonabused participants. Nonetheless, a history of childhood abuse moderated the relations between the emotion regulation difficulty of being unable to engage in goal-directed behaviors when distressed (on one hand) and mental outcomes (on the other): Although the associations between inability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms were nonsignificant among nonabused participants, they were significant among childhood abuse survivors. The current findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse might be a risk factor for distress in the face of COVID-19, and that childhood abuse survivors would benefit from clinical interventions that promote emotion regulation skills during this ongoing global health crisis.

13.
J Econ Inequal ; 19(3): 413-431, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258232

ABSTRACT

This analysis makes use of economic forecasts for 2020 issued by the European Commission in Autumn 2019 and Spring 2020, and of a counterfactual under a no-policy change assumption, to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on EU households´ income. Additionally, our analysis assesses the cushioning effect of discretionary fiscal policy measures taken by the EU Member States. We find that the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to affect significantly households' disposable income in the EU, with lower income households being more severely hit. However, our results show that due to policy intervention, the impact of the crisis is expected to be similar to the one experienced during the 2008-2009 financial crisis. In detail, our results indicate that discretionary fiscal policy measures will play a significant cushioning role, reducing the size of the income loss (from -9.3% to -4.3% for the average equivalised disposable income), its regressivity and mitigating the poverty impact of the pandemic. We conclude that policy interventions are therefore instrumental in cushioning against the impact of the crisis on inequality and poverty. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10888-021-09485-8.

14.
Ann Plast Surg ; 86(5S Suppl 3): S354-S359, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. As a response, the United States shut down public gatherings and businesses in an effort to quarantine. This included the stopping of elective operations, which greatly affected plastic surgeons and their practices during the initial shutdown. OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the early impact of COVID-19 on the financial implications and practice patterns of plastic surgeons in the state of California during the initial shutdown of elective surgery and provide guidelines for effective management during future crises. METHODS: A 20-question survey was sent using Qualtrics XM software to 851 surgeon members of the California Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey was open from May 13, 2020, to May 29, 2020. Standard statistical analysis was completed to compare private practice and nonprivate practice plastic surgeons. RESULTS: We had a total of 140 respondents to our survey for a 16.5% response rate. The majority (77.1%) of the respondents were in a private practice setting. Private practice plastic surgeons reported a higher financial impact with a 79% reduction in financial income compared with nonprivate practice plastic surgeons at a 37% reduction (P < 0.0001). Additionally, private practice plastic surgeons demonstrated a higher reduction in case volume and were more likely to lay off or furlough staff, close their practice, and apply for loans (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our survey study showed that private practice plastic surgeons in the state of California faced the most financial hardship during the early shutdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. It serves as a valuable snapshot in our economic history and depicts the heavy financial impact of the stopping of elective surgery. Since the reopening of practices, new guidelines have been implemented to maintain safe elective surgery while the pandemic continues. Further follow-up studies on both the state and national level need to be completed to see the continued financial effects on private and nonprivate plastic surgery practices since the reopening and resumption of elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Surgery, Plastic , California , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11485, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253982

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been mandated to keep enlarged distances from others. We interviewed 136 German subjects over five weeks from the end of March to the end of April 2020 during the first wave of infections about their preferred interpersonal distance (IPD) before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to the pandemic, subjects adapted to distance requirements and preferred a larger IPD. This enlarged IPD was judged to partially persist after the pandemic crisis. People anticipated keeping more IPD to others even if there was no longer any risk of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also sampled two follow-up measurements, one in August, after the first wave of infections had been flattened, and one in October 2020, at the beginning of the second wave. Here, we observed that IPD varied with the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 within Germany. Overall, our data indicated that adaptation to distance requirements might happen asymmetrically. Preferred IPD rapidly adapted in response to distance requirements, but an enlargement of IPD may partially linger after the COVID-19 pandemic-crisis. We discuss our findings in light of proxemic theory and as an indicator for socio-cultural adaptation beyond the course of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Fear , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(4): 653-681, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a dramatic crisis in health care systems worldwide. These may have significant implications for the management of cardiometabolic diseases. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence to assess the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitalisations for cardiovascular diseases and their management. METHODS: Studies that evaluated volume of hospitalisations for cardiometabolic conditions and their management with comparisons between the COVID-19 and pre-COVID periods were identified from MEDLINE, Embase and the reference list of relevant studies from January 2020 to 25 February 2021. RESULTS: We identified 103 observational studies, with most studies assessing hospitalisations for acute cardiovascular conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, ischemic strokes and heart failure. About 89% of studies reported a decline in hospitalisations during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic times, with reductions ranging from 20.2 to 73%. Severe presentation, less utilization of cardiovascular procedures, and longer patient- and healthcare-related delays were common during the pandemic. Most studies reported shorter length of hospital stay during the pandemic than before the pandemic (1-8 vs 2-12 days) or no difference in length of stay. Most studies reported no change in in-hospital mortality among hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: Clinical care of patients for acute cardiovascular conditions, their management and outcomes have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients should be educated via population-wide approaches on the need for timely medical contact and health systems should put strategies in place to provide timely care to patients at high risk. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2021: CRD42021236102.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
17.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5563960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247434

ABSTRACT

Although the numbers of aged populations have risen considerably in the last few decades, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed an extensive vulnerability among these populations. Sarcopenia is an age-related disorder that increases hospitalization, dependencies, and mortality in older adults. It starts to develop in midlife or even earlier as a result of unbalanced diet/poor nutrition and low levels of physical activity, in addition to chronic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Given that social isolation is adopted as the most protective measure against COVID-19, the level of physical activity and the intake of adequate diet have considerably declined, especially among older adults-denoting an increased possibility for developing sarcopenia. Research also shows a higher vulnerability of sarcopenic people to COVID-19 as well as the development of wasting disorders such as sarcopenia and cachexia in a considerable proportion of symptomatic and recovering COVID-19 patients. Muscular wasting in COVID-19 is associated with poor prognosis. Accordingly, early detection and proper management of sarcopenia and wasting conditions in older adults and COVID-19 patients may minimize morbidity and mortality during the current COVID-19 crisis. This review explored different aspects of screening for sarcopenia, stressing their relevance to the detection of altered muscular structure and performance in patients with COVID-19. Current guidelines recommend prior evaluation of muscle strength by simple measures such as grip strength to identify individuals with proven weakness who then would be screened for muscle mass loss. The latter is best measured by MRI and CT. However, due to the high cost and radiation risk entailed by these techniques, other simpler and cheaper techniques such as DXA and ultrasound are given preference. Muscle loss in COVID-19 patients was measured during the acute phase by CT scanning of the pectoralis muscle simultaneously during a routine check for lung fibrosis, which seems to be an efficient evaluation of sarcopenia among those patients with no additional cost. In recovering patients, muscle strength and physical performance have been evaluated by electromyography and traditional tests such as the six-minute walk test. Effective preventive and therapeutic interventions are necessary in order to prevent muscle loss and associated physical decline in COVID-19 patients.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 139-141, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic might increase suicide behaviors. However, results are still limited and inconclusive, especially in adolescents. METHODS: To provide a preliminary evidence of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide attempts (SA), we compared data from the Catalonia Suicide Risk Code (CRSC), during the first 12 months of Spain COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to March 2021) with data of the previous 12 months (March 2019 to March 2020). The CRSC is a well-established population-based registry of suicide attempts (SA) which allows monitoring of the dynamic changes that COVID-19 may produce in a Spanish region. RESULTS: SA among adolescents increased 25% during the COVID-year, whatever, SA among adults decreased 16,5% in the same period. The increase of SA in girls was especially prominent in the starting school period in the COVID-year (September 2020-March 2021), where the increase reached 195%. LIMITATIONS: This study did not evaluate other individual risk factors of SA in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, so is unable to make concrete causal inferences. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that SA increased in adolescent girls during the last period of the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring the need to implement effective preventive measures by public health systems and stakeholders into response during this public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
19.
J Control Release ; 335: 449-456, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240426

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented global public health crisis. It is obvious that SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is needed to control the global COVID-19 public health crisis. Since obvious advantages including fast manufacturing speed, potent immunogenicity and good safety profile, six mRNA vaccines have been used to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in clinic with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) formulation via intramuscular injection. In this work, we first constructed RBD-encoding mRNA (RBD-mRNA) formulated in liposomes (LPX/RBD-mRNA) and investigated the influence of administration routes on the immunogenicity. LPX/RBD-mRNA can express RBD in vivo and successfully induced SARS-CoV-2 RBD specific antibodies in the vaccinated mice, which efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. Moreover, the administration routes were found to affect the virus neutralizing capacity of sera derived from the immunized mice and the types (Th1-type and Th2-type) of cellular immune responses. This study indicated that liposome-based RBD-mRNA vaccine with optimal administration route might be a potential candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection with good efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 37, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug repurposing otherwise known as drug repositioning or drug re-profiling is a time-tested approach in drug discovery through which new medical uses are being established for already known drugs. Antibiotics are among the pharmacological agents being investigated for potential anti-SARS-COV-2 activities. The antibiotics are used either to resolve bacterial infections co-existing with COVID-19 infections or exploitation of their potential antiviral activities. Herein, we aimed to review the various antibiotics that have been repositioned for the management of COVID-19. METHODS: This literature review was conducted from a methodical search on PubMed and Web of Science regarding antibiotics used in patients with COVID-19 up to July 5, 2020. RESULTS: Macrolide and specifically azithromycin is the most common antibiotic used in the clinical management of COVID-19. The other antibiotics used in COVID-19 includes teicoplanin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, tetracyclines, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime. In patients with COVID-19, antibiotics are used for their immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. The precise antiviral mechanism of most of these antibiotics has not been determined. Moreover, the use of some of these antibiotics against SARS-CoV-2 infection remains highly controversial and not widely accepted. CONCLUSION: The heavy use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic would likely worsen antibiotic resistance crisis. Consequently, antibiotic stewardship should be strengthened in order to prevent the impacts of COVID-19 on the antibiotic resistance crisis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Aminoglycosides/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Glycopeptides/therapeutic use , Humans , Macrolides/therapeutic use
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