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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(5): 1119-1125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2207207

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The results of the RECOVERY trial identified dexamethasone as the first pharmacological therapy that reduces mortality in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review on safety and efficacy of pulse glucocorticoid therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoronaVirus (CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infections and describe a case-series of COVID-19 patients treated with off-label pulse doses of methylprednisolone. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review on safety and efficacy of pulse therapy for betacoronaviridae infections as described in the protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020190183). All consecutive patients admitted to Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova di Reggio Emilia or Guastalla Hospital with COVID-19 between March 1st and April 30th, 2020 and treated with methylprednisolone 1 gram/day for at least three days were included in the case series. A retrospective review of available computed tomography (CT) scan and chest x-ray was performed independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical data, and discordances were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Twenty papers were included for SARS, but only two were comparative and were included in the primary endpoint analysis. Likewise, eleven papers were included for COVID-19, four of which were comparative and were considered for the primary outcome analysis. Included studies for both SARS and COVID-19 are mostly retrospective and highly heterogeneous, with lethality ranging from 0% to 100% and ICU admission rate ranging from 9% to 100%. Fourteen patients were included in our case series, 7 males and 7 females. CONCLUSIONS: No randomised controlled trial is available yet for corticosteroids pulse-therapy defined as at least ≥500mg/day methylprednisolone in patients with emerging coronavirus pneumonia. Lethality among our cohort is high (4/14), but this finding should be interpreted with caution due to the fact that in our setting pulse-steroids were used in patients not eligible for other treatments because of comorbidities or as rescue therapy. The incidence of steroid-related adverse events seems low in our cohort. The quality of the evidence on glucocorticoid pulse-therapy in SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is poor. Randomised controlled trials are greatly needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronaviridae , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24843, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been over 2 million deaths globally. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may be the main cause of death. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical features, outcomes, and ARDS characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Chongqing, China. METHODS: The epidemiology of COVID-19 from January 21, 2020, to March 15, 2020, in Chongqing, China, was analyzed retrospectively, and 75 ICU patients from two hospitals were included in this study. On day 1, 56 patients with ARDS were selected for subgroup analysis, and a modified Poisson regression was performed to identify predictors for the early improvement of ARDS (eiARDS). RESULTS: Chongqing reported a 5.3% case fatality rate for the 75 ICU patients. The median age of these patients was 57 (IQR 25-75) years, and no bias was present in the sex ratio. A total of 93% (n=70) of patients developed ARDS during ICU stay, and more than half had moderate ARDS. However, most patients (n=41, 55%) underwent high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, but not mechanical ventilation. Nearly one-third of patients with ARDS improved (arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/oxygen concentration >300 mm Hg) in 1 week, which was defined as eiARDS. Patients with eiARDS had a higher survival rate and a shorter length of ICU stay than those without eiARDS. Age (<55 years) was the only variable independently associated with eiARDS, with a risk ratio of 2.67 (95% CI 1.17-6.08). CONCLUSIONS: A new subphenotype of ARDS-eiARDS-in patients with COVID-19 was identified. As clinical outcomes differ, the stratified management of patients based on eiARDS or age is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25865, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191002

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. It involves multiple organs of infected individuals and encompasses diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody possibly induced by COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man presented to our clinic with left eye pain and vision loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the bilateral high intensity of the optic nerve sheaths. He tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the day of admission but he had no signs of respiratory illness. Laboratory testing revealed that MOG immunoglobulin G (MOG IgG) was positive, but other antibodies including aquaporin-4 were negative. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive acute ON possibly induced by COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 1 g/day for a total of 3 days, followed by an oral prednisolone taper was performed. OUTCOMES: His left eye pain was immediately relieved, and his decimal vision improved from 0.03 to 0.1 on the day of discharge. Outpatient follow-up 2 weeks later revealed left a decimal vision of 1.2, and a complete resolution of the left eye pain. LESSONS: Our case indicated that COVID-19 might trigger an autoimmune response that leads to MOG antibody-associated ON, similar to other pathogens that were reported in the past. The treatment response to steroid pulse therapy was preferable following a typical course of MOG antibody-positive ON.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Optic Neuritis/immunology , Autoantibodies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(10): 1787-1792, 2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether smokers are more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between smoking and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted using a large nationwide database. The case group included patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the control group was randomly sampled from the general Korean population in the National Health Insurance Service database by matching sex, age, and region of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate whether the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 was affected by smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 4167 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 20 937 matched controls were enrolled. The proportion of ex-smokers and current smokers was 26.6% of the total participants. In multivariate analysis, smoking was not associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, confidence interval [CI] = 0.50-0.62). When ex-smokers and current smokers were analyzed separately, similar results were obtained (current smoker OR = 0.33, CI = 0.28-0.38; ex-smoker OR = 0.81, CI = 0.72-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smoking tends to lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, these findings should be interpreted with caution. IMPLICATIONS: It is unclear whether smokers are more vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019. In this large nationwide study in South Korea, smoking tended to lower the risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution, and further confirmatory studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
6.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened to collapse hospital and ICU services, and it has affected the care programs for non-COVID patients. The objective was to develop a mathematical model designed to optimize predictions related to the need for hospitalization and ICU admission by COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Province of Granada (Spain). POPULATION: COVID-19 patients hospitalized, admitted to ICU, recovered and died from March 15 to September 22, 2020. STUDY VARIABLES: The number of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and hospitalized or admitted to ICU for COVID-19. RESULTS: The data reported by hospitals was used to develop a mathematical model that reflects the flow of the population among the different interest groups in relation to COVID-19. This tool allows to analyse different scenarios based on socio-health restriction measures, and to forecast the number of people infected, hospitalized and admitted to the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: The mathematical model is capable of providing predictions on the evolution of the COVID-19 sufficiently in advance as to anticipate the peaks of prevalence and hospital and ICU care demands, and also the appearance of periods in which the care for non-COVID patients could be intensified.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 565520, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199287

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses at the frontline of caring for COVID-19 patients might experience mental health challenges and supportive coping strategies are needed to reduce their stress and burnout. The aim of this study was to identify stressors and burnout among frontline nurses caring for COVID-19 patients in Wuhan and Shanghai and to explore perceived effective morale support strategies. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2020 among 110 nurses from Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, who were deployed at COVID-19 units in Wuhan and Shanghai. A COVID-19 questionnaire was adapted from the previous developed "psychological impacts of SARS" questionnaire and included stressors (31 items), coping strategies (17 items), and effective support measures (16 items). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results: Totally, 107 (97%) nurses responded. Participants mean age was 30.28 years and 90.7% were females. Homesickness was most frequently reported as a stressor (96.3%). Seven of the 17 items related to coping strategies were undertaken by all participants. Burnout was observed in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, with 78.5 and 92.5% of participants presenting mild levels of burnout, respectively. However, 52 (48.6%) participants experienced a severe lack of personal accomplishment. Participants with longer working hours in COVID-19 quarantine units presented higher emotional exhaustion (OR = 2.72, 95% CI 0.02-5.42; p = 0.049) and depersonalization (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.10-2.19; p = 0.033). Participants with younger age experienced higher emotional exhaustion (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 0.11-5.82; p = 0.042) and less personal accomplishment (OR = 3.80, 95% CI 0.47-7.13; p = 0.033). Conclusions: Nurses in this study experienced considerable stress and the most frequently reported stressors were related to families. Nurses who were younger and those working longer shift-time tended to present higher burnout levels. Psychological support strategies need to be organized and implemented to improve mental health among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193484

ABSTRACT

The contamination of patients' surroundings by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains understudied. We sampled the surroundings and the air of six negative-pressure non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) rooms in a designated isolation ward in Chengdu, China, that were occupied by 13 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who had returned from overseas travel, including 2 asymptomatic patients. A total of 44 of 112 (39.3%) surface samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 as detected by real-time PCR, suggesting extensive contamination, although all of the air samples were negative. In particular, in a single room occupied by an asymptomatic patient, four sites were SARS-CoV-2 positive, highlighting that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients do contaminate their surroundings and impose risks for others with close contact. Placement of COVID-19 patients in rooms with negative pressure may bring a false feeling of safety, and the importance of rigorous environment cleaning should be emphasized.IMPORTANCE Although it has been well recognized that the virus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, can be acquired by exposure to fomites, surprisingly, the contamination of patients' surroundings by SARS-CoV-2 is largely unknown, as there have been few studies. We performed an environmental sampling study for 13 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and found extensive contamination of patients' surroundings. In particular, we found that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients contaminated their surroundings and therefore imposed risks for other people. Environment cleaning should be emphasized in negative-pressure rooms. The findings may be useful to guide infection control practice to protect health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(9): 299-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2168692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection which emerged in December 2019, is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Infection with this virus can lead to severe respiratory illness, however, myocarditis has also been reported. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical features of myocarditis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate characteristics of myocarditis in patients infected with COVID-19 using the search term "Coronavirus" or "COVID" and "myocarditis," "heart," or "retrospective." Case reports and retrospective studies were gathered by searching Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. 11 articles were selected for review. RESULTS: COVID-19 myocarditis affected patients over the age of 50 and incidences among both genders were equally reported. Patients presented with dyspnea, cough, fever with hypotension and chest pain. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis with increased C-reactive protein, while arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated respiratory acidosis. All cardiac markers were elevated. Radiographic imaging of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities or bilateral infiltrates, while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging produced late gadolinium enhancements. Electrocardiography demonstrated ST-segment elevation or inverted T waves, while echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with cardiomegaly or increased wall thickness. Management with corticosteroids was favored in most cases, followed by antiviral medication. The majority of studies reported either recovery or no further clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Current available data on COVID-19 myocarditis is limited. Further research is needed to advance our understanding of COVID-19 myocarditis.

10.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(5): e007175, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153214

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 is an emerging viral pathogen responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Based on preliminary clinical reports, hypoxic respiratory failure complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death. Further, septic shock, late-onset cardiac dysfunction, and multiorgan system failure are also described as contributors to overall mortality. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other modalities of mechanical cardiopulmonary support are increasingly being utilized in the treatment of respiratory and circulatory failure refractory to conventional management, their role and efficacy as support modalities in the present pandemic are unclear. We review the rapidly changing epidemiology, pathophysiology, emerging therapy, and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019; and based on these data and previous experience with artificial cardiopulmonary support strategies, particularly in the setting of infectious diseases, provide consensus recommendations from American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. Of note, this is a living document, which will be updated periodically, as additional information and understanding emerges.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart , Lung , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
12.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(3): 360-368, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic options are currently emerging but none with universal consensus or proven efficacy. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 because of their immunosuppressed conditions due to chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs). It is therefore likely that solid organ transplant recipients will be treated with these experimental antivirals. METHODS: This article is not intended to provide a systematic literature review on investigational treatments tested against COVID-19; rather, the authors aim to provide recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring of ISDs in transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 based on a review of existing data in the literature. RESULTS: Management of drug-drug interactions between investigational anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and immunosuppressants is a complex task for the clinician. Adequate immunosuppression is necessary to prevent graft rejection while, if critically ill, the patient may benefit from pharmacotherapeutic interventions directed at limiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Maintaining ISD concentrations within the desired therapeutic range requires a highly individualized approach that is complicated by the pandemic context and lack of hindsight. CONCLUSIONS: With this article, the authors inform the clinician about the potential interactions of experimental COVID-19 treatments with ISDs used in transplantation. Recommendations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustments in the context of COVID-19 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e28005, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 disease are variable. Multiple factors can affect the disease progression and outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 in Jordan. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected for 557 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Prince Hamzah Hospital (PHH), Jordan. Analysis was performed using appropriate statistical tests with SPSS version 24. RESULTS: Of the 557 COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases admitted to PHH, the mean age was 34.4 years (SD 18.95 years; range 5 weeks to 87 years), 86.0% (479/557) were male, 41% (29/70) were blood group A+, and 57.1% (93/163) were overweight or obese. Significant past medical history was documented in 25.9% (144/557), significant surgical history in 12.6% (70/557), current smoking in 14.9% (83/557), and pregnancy in 0.5% (3/557). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.4 (SD 9.3; range 5 to 70) days; 52.6% (293/557) were asymptomatic, and 12.9% (72/557) had more than 5 symptoms, with generalized malaise and dry cough the most common symptoms. Only 2.5% (14/557) had a respiratory rate over 25 breaths/minute, and 1.8% (10/557) had an oxygen saturation below 85%. Laboratory investigations showed a wide range of abnormalities, with lymphocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer the most common abnormalities. Ground glass opacity was the most common imaging finding. Men had a significantly higher frequency of symptoms, incidence of smoking, reduced hemoglobin, increased monocyte %, elevated creatinine levels, and intensive care unit admissions compared with women (P<.05). Hospitalization duration was associated with increased age, male gender, symptom score, history of smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, elevated respiratory rate, and elevated monocyte %, CRP, ESR, creatinine, and D-dimer (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases admitted to PHH were asymptomatic. Variabilities in symptoms, signs, laboratory results, and imaging findings should be noted. Increased age, male gender, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25500, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus termed SARS-CoV-2, has spread quickly worldwide. Convalescent plasma (CP) obtained from patients following recovery from COVID-19 infection and development of antibodies against the virus is an attractive option for either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, since antibodies may have direct or indirect antiviral activities and immunotherapy has proven effective in principle and in many clinical reports. OBJECTIVE: We seek to characterize the latest advances and evidence in the use of CP for COVID-19 through a systematic review and quantitative analysis, identify knowledge gaps in this setting, and offer recommendations and directives for future research. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were continuously searched for studies assessing the use of CP for COVID-19, including clinical studies, commentaries, reviews, guidelines or protocols, and in vitro testing of CP antibodies. The screening process and data extraction were performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Quality appraisal of all clinical studies was conducted using a universal tool independent of study designs. A meta-analysis of case-control and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Substantial literature has been published covering various aspects of CP therapy for COVID-19. Of the references included in this review, a total of 243 eligible studies including 64 clinical studies, 79 commentary articles, 46 reviews, 19 guidance and protocols, and 35 in vitro testing of CP antibodies matched the criteria. Positive results have been mostly observed so far when using CP for the treatment of COVID-19. There were remarkable heterogeneities in the CP therapy with respect to patient demographics, donor antibody titers, and time and dose of CP administration. The studies assessing the safety of CP treatment reported low incidence of adverse events. Most clinical studies, in particular case reports and case series, had poor quality. Only 1 RCT was of high quality. Randomized and nonrandomized data were found in 2 and 11 studies, respectively, and were included for meta-analysis, suggesting that CP could reduce mortality and increase viral clearance. Despite promising pilot studies, the benefits of CP treatment can only be clearly established through carefully designed RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: There is developing support for CP therapy, particularly for patients who are critically ill or mechanically ventilated and resistant to antivirals and supportive care. These studies provide important lessons that should inform the planning of well-designed RCTs to generate more robust knowledge for the efficacy of CP in patients with COVID-19. Future research is necessary to fill the knowledge gap regarding prevention and treatment for patients with COVID-19 with CP while other therapeutics are being developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25075, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk assessment of patients with acute COVID-19 in a telemedicine context is not well described. In settings of large numbers of patients, a risk assessment tool may guide resource allocation not only for patient care but also for maximum health care and public health benefit. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether a COVID-19 telemedicine risk assessment tool accurately predicts hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a COVID-19 telemedicine home monitoring program serving health care workers and the community in Atlanta, Georgia, with enrollment from March 24 to May 26, 2020; the final call range was from March 27 to June 19, 2020. All patients were assessed by medical providers using an institutional COVID-19 risk assessment tool designating patients as Tier 1 (low risk for hospitalization), Tier 2 (intermediate risk for hospitalization), or Tier 3 (high risk for hospitalization). Patients were followed with regular telephone calls to an endpoint of improvement or hospitalization. Using survival analysis by Cox regression with days to hospitalization as the metric, we analyzed the performance of the risk tiers and explored individual patient factors associated with risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: Providers using the risk assessment rubric assigned 496 outpatients to tiers: Tier 1, 237 out of 496 (47.8%); Tier 2, 185 out of 496 (37.3%); and Tier 3, 74 out of 496 (14.9%). Subsequent hospitalizations numbered 3 out of 237 (1.3%) for Tier 1, 15 out of 185 (8.1%) for Tier 2, and 17 out of 74 (23%) for Tier 3. From a Cox regression model with age of 60 years or older, gender, and reported obesity as covariates, the adjusted hazard ratios for hospitalization using Tier 1 as reference were 3.74 (95% CI 1.06-13.27; P=.04) for Tier 2 and 10.87 (95% CI 3.09-38.27; P<.001) for Tier 3. CONCLUSIONS: A telemedicine risk assessment tool prospectively applied to an outpatient population with COVID-19 identified populations with low, intermediate, and high risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24320, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have focused on the characteristics of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and clinical risk factors. This study reports the prevalence of COVID-19 in an asymptomatic population of a hospital service area (HSA) and identifies factors that affect exposure to the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of COVID-19 in an HSA, identify factors that may increase or decrease the risk of infection, and analyze factors that increase the number of daily contacts. METHODS: This study surveyed 1694 patients between April 30 and May 13, 2020, about their work and living situations, income, behavior, sociodemographic characteristics, and prepandemic health characteristics. This data was linked to testing data for 454 of these patients, including polymerase chain reaction test results and two different serologic assays. Positivity rate was used to calculate approximate prevalence, hospitalization rate, and infection fatality rate (IFR). Survey data was used to analyze risk factors, including the number of contacts reported by study participants. The data was also used to identify factors increasing the number of daily contacts, such as mask wearing and living environment. RESULTS: We found a positivity rate of 2.2%, a hospitalization rate of 1.2%, and an adjusted IFR of 0.55%. A higher number of daily contacts with adults and older adults increases the probability of becoming infected. Occupation, living in an apartment versus a house, and wearing a face mask outside work increased the number of daily contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Studying prevalence in an asymptomatic population revealed estimates of unreported COVID-19 cases. Occupational, living situation, and behavioral data about COVID-19-protective behaviors such as wearing a mask may aid in the identification of nonclinical factors affecting the number of daily contacts, which may increase SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Housing , Infection Control , Masks , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e20236, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it has since spread worldwide. The Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM) established the COVID-19 telemedicine center of Korean medicine (KM telemedicine center) in Daegu and Seoul. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the results of the KM telemedicine center and the clinical possibility of using herbal medicines for COVID-19. METHODS: All procedures were conducted by voice call following standardized guidelines. The students in the reception group obtained informed consent from participants and they collected basic information. Subsequently, Korean Medicine doctors assessed COVID-19-related symptoms and prescribed the appropriate herbal medicine according to the KM telemedicine guidelines. The data of patients who completed the program by June 30, 2020, were analyzed. RESULTS: From March 9 to June 30, 2020, 2324 patients participated in and completed the KM telemedicine program. Kyung-Ok-Ko (n=2285) was the most prescribed herbal medicine, and Qingfei Paidu decoction (I and II, n=2053) was the second most prescribed. All COVID-19-related symptoms (headache, chills, sputum, dry cough, sore throat, fatigue, muscle pain, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, dyspnea, chest tightness, diarrhea, and loss of appetite) improved after treatment (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The KM telemedicine center has provided medical service to 10.8% of all patients with COVID-19 in South Korea (as of June 30, 2020), and it is still in operation. We hope that this study will help to establish a better health care system to overcome COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 177-186, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A concern about the susceptibility of immunocompromised patients to the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raised. We aimed at describing COVID-19 infections in the French cohort of lung transplant (LT) patients. METHODS: Multicenter nationwide cohort study of all LT recipients with COVID-19 diagnosed from March 1 to May 19, 2020. Recipient main characteristics and their management were retrieved. Hospitalization characteristics, occurrence of complications and survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-five LT patients with a COVID-19 infection were included. Median age was 50.4 (40.6-62.9) years, 16 (45.7%) were female, and 80% were double-LT recipients. Infection was community-acquired in 25 (71.4%). Thirty-one (88.6%) required hospitalization, including 13 (41.9%) in the intensive care unit. The main symptoms of COVID-19 were fever, cough, and diarrhea, present in 71.4%, 54.3%, and 31.4% of cases, respectively. Extension of pneumonia on chest CT was moderate to severe in 51.4% of cases. Among the 13 critically ill patients, 7 (53.9%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. Thrombotic events occurred in 4 patients. Overall survival rate was 85.7% after a median follow-up of 50 days (41.0-56.5). Four of 5 nonsurvivors had had bronchial complications or intensification of immunosuppression in the previous weeks. On univariate analysis, overweight was significantly associated with risk of death (odds ratio, 16.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-170.6; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: For the 35 LT recipients with COVID-19, the presentation was severe, requiring hospitalization in most cases, with a survival rate of 85.7%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
20.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(Suppl 1): i40-i47, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135025

ABSTRACT

Upper respiratory and pulmonary diseases are the primary manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, kidney involvement has also been recognized and extensively described. A large percentage of affected patients present with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, specific phenotypic aspects of AKI or other renal manifestations of COVID-19 remain sparsely characterized. Many reports indicate that proteinuria can be detected in AKI associated with COVID-19 (CoV-AKI) despite CoV-AKI being largely described as a form of acute tubular injury. On the other hand, individuals of African ancestry with the high-risk APOL1 genotype are uniquely at risk of developing collapsing glomerulopathy when they are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the entity now known as COVID-19-associated nephropathy (COVAN). Patients with COVAN typically present with nephrotic-range proteinuria. The exact incidence of proteinuria in COVID-19 is unclear due to heterogeneity in the frequency with which proteinuria has been assessed in cases of COVID-19, as well as methodological differences in the way proteinuria is measured and/or reported. In this review we discuss the current evidence of proteinuria as a manifestation of COVID-19 and elaborate on potential pathophysiological mechanisms associated with it.

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