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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25865, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191002

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. It involves multiple organs of infected individuals and encompasses diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody possibly induced by COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man presented to our clinic with left eye pain and vision loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the bilateral high intensity of the optic nerve sheaths. He tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the day of admission but he had no signs of respiratory illness. Laboratory testing revealed that MOG immunoglobulin G (MOG IgG) was positive, but other antibodies including aquaporin-4 were negative. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive acute ON possibly induced by COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 1 g/day for a total of 3 days, followed by an oral prednisolone taper was performed. OUTCOMES: His left eye pain was immediately relieved, and his decimal vision improved from 0.03 to 0.1 on the day of discharge. Outpatient follow-up 2 weeks later revealed left a decimal vision of 1.2, and a complete resolution of the left eye pain. LESSONS: Our case indicated that COVID-19 might trigger an autoimmune response that leads to MOG antibody-associated ON, similar to other pathogens that were reported in the past. The treatment response to steroid pulse therapy was preferable following a typical course of MOG antibody-positive ON.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Optic Neuritis/immunology , Autoantibodies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 571179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199300

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increases in psychiatric morbidity, including depression. It is unclear if people with depressive symptoms understand or apply COVID-19 information differently to the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine associations between depression, health beliefs, and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Hong Kong. This study gathered data from 11,072 Hong Kong adults via an online survey. Respondents self-reported their demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), face mask use, and health beliefs about COVID-19. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent variables associated with depression. The point-prevalence of probable depression was 46.5% (n = 5,150). Respondents reporting higher mask reuse (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.17-1.34), wearing masks for self-protection (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.06), perceived high susceptibility (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.23), and high severity (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.28-1.37) were more likely to report depression. Depression was less likely in those with higher scores for cues to action (OR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.80-0.84), knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), and self-efficacy to wear mask properly (OR = 0.90 95%CI 0.83-0.98). We identified a high point-prevalence of probable major depression and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, but this should be viewed with caution due to the convenience sampling method employed. Future studies should recruit a representative probability sample in order to draw more reliable conclusions. The findings highlight that COVID-19 health information may be a protective factor of probable depression and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Accurate and up-to-date health information should be disseminated to distressed and vulnerable subpopulations, perhaps using digital health technology, and social media platforms to prompt professional help-seeking behavior.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109973

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic resulting in over 2.7 million infected individuals and over 190,000 deaths and growing. Assertions in the literature suggest that respiratory disorders due to COVID-19 commonly present with pneumonia-like symptoms which are radiologically confirmed as opacities. Radiology serves as an adjunct to the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for confirmation and evaluating disease progression. While computed tomography (CT) imaging is more specific than chest X-rays (CXR), its use is limited due to cross-contamination concerns. CXR imaging is commonly used in high-demand situations, placing a significant burden on radiology services. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) has been suggested to alleviate this burden. However, there is a dearth of sufficient training data for developing image-based AI tools. We propose increasing training data for recognizing COVID-19 pneumonia opacities using weakly labeled data augmentation. This follows from a hypothesis that the COVID-19 manifestation would be similar to that caused by other viral pathogens affecting the lungs. We expand the training data distribution for supervised learning through the use of weakly labeled CXR images, automatically pooled from publicly available pneumonia datasets, to classify them into those with bacterial or viral pneumonia opacities. Next, we use these selected images in a stage-wise, strategic approach to train convolutional neural network-based algorithms and compare against those trained with non-augmented data. Weakly labeled data augmentation expands the learned feature space in an attempt to encompass variability in unseen test distributions, enhance inter-class discrimination, and reduce the generalization error. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that simple weakly labeled data augmentation (Acc: 0.5555 and Acc: 0.6536) is better than baseline non-augmented training (Acc: 0.2885 and Acc: 0.5028) in identifying COVID-19 manifestations as viral pneumonia. Interestingly, adding COVID-19 CXRs to simple weakly labeled augmented training data significantly improves the performance (Acc: 0.7095 and Acc: 0.8889), suggesting that COVID-19, though viral in origin, creates a uniquely different presentation in CXRs compared with other viral pneumonia manifestations.

7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 245-250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100753

ABSTRACT

Deep emotion traumas in societies around the globe are overcome by extreme human catastrophes such as natural disasters, social crises, war conflicts and infectious virus induced pandemic diseases, etc., can lead to enormous stress-related disorders. The current ongoing pandemic known as COVID-19 caused by novel Corona virus first appeared in Wuhan, city of China and then rapidly spread in the whole world. It has affected various frontiers of lives and caused numerous psychiatric problems like nervousness, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear and uncertainty, panic attacks, depression, obsessive compulsory disorder, xenophobia and racism, etc. Globally COVID-19 has persuaded public mental health crisis. Furthermore, inadequate resources of public mental health services in several countries are discussed in this review, which will be further straighten by the upcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All mental health sciences including Psychiatry can play a very important role in the comfort of COVID-19 infected individuals and their relatives, healthcare providers and society. We need to learn more about psychological and psychiatric features of COVID-19 from the perceptions of public and global mental health in order to cope up the present deteriorating situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Internationality , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 229-235, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100751

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 or Coronavirus pandemic has generated a very serious and grave global concern regarding the health of every person in the whole world. Besides, due to the rapid diffusion of the viral infection, there are already alarms on how to deal with the psychiatric aspects of COVID-19 pandemic in persons with an established diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, staff, and those in self-isolation. What is the influence of COVID-19 on mental health? The current study will review the psychiatric implications of COVID-19 pandemic on the general population, the bearing of social isolation, the prevention behaviours, and clinical cases of people who required psychiatric admission to hospital due to the emotional impact of COVID-19 social circumstances.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychiatry , COVID-19 , Humans
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 32-35, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100749

ABSTRACT

The increase in organisms transference and infectious pandemics across the globe have been accelerated by an increase in travel, international exchange and global changes in earth's climate. COVID-19, a virus caused by the novel coronavirus that was initially identified on December 2019, in Wuhan city of China is currently affecting 146 territories, states and countries raising distress, panic and increasing anxiety in individuals exposed to the (actual or supposed) peril of the virus across the globe. Fundamentally, these concerns ascend with all infections, including those of flu and other agents, and the same worldwide safeguards are compulsory and suggested for protection and the prevention of further diffusion. However, media has underlined COVID-19 as rather an exclusive threat, which has added to panic and stress in masses which can lead to several mental health issues like anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder which should be contained immediately in its initial phases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Global Health , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humans , Mass Media , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094114

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
13.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 57(4): 236-241, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vascular changes in the early period after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: This study included 50 eyes of 25 patients who had been hospitalized for polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 infection and 50 eyes of 25 healthy individuals. All subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography using a 6 × 6 macular protocol in the early period after hospital discharge and 6 months later. Foveal vessel density (VD) and parafoveal VD values were measured from 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and the deep capillary plexus (DCP). The choriocapillaris (CC) flow area and the foveal avascular zone area also were measured. The OCTA measurements of the patient group were compared both between time points and with the control group at each time point. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower VD values than control subjects in all parafoveal quadrants of both the SCP (superior, p = 0.01; inferior, p = 0.048; nasal, p = 0.003; temporal, p = 0.048) and the DCP (superior, p = 0.001; inferior, p = 0.011; nasal, p = 0.012; temporal, p = 0.018) at the initial checkup and in all parafoveal quadrants of the SCP (superior, p = 0.0001; inferior, p = 0.007; nasal, p = 0.001; temporal, p = 0.017) and in 2 of the parafoveal quadrants of the DCP (superior, p = 0.003; inferior, p = 0.016) at 6-month follow-up. CC flow area values were significantly lower at the 6-month follow-up than at the initial examination (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: It is important to perform appropriate follow-up for COVID-19 patients because retinal vascular flow changes may persist in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Vessels , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fovea Centralis/blood supply , Humans , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
14.
J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil ; 17(3): 256-269, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949684

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing world crisis and people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are vulnerable due to disparity in healthcare provision and physical and mental health multimorbidity. While most people will develop mild symptoms upon contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), some will develop serious complications. The aim of this study is to present guidelines for the care and treatment of people with IDs during the COVID-19 pandemic for both community teams providing care to people with IDs and inpatient psychiatric settings. The guidelines cover specific issues associated with hospital passports, individual COVID-19 care plans, the important role of families and carers, capacity to make decisions, issues associated with social distancing, ceiling of care/treatment escalation plans, mental health and challenging behavior, and caring for someone suspected of contracting or who has contracted SARS-CoV-2 within community or inpatient psychiatric settings. We have proposed that the included conditions recommended by Public Health England to categorize someone as high risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 should also include mental health and challenging behavior. There are specific issues associated with providing care to people with IDs and appropriate action must be taken by care providers to ensure that disparity of healthcare is addressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recognize that our guidance is focused upon healthcare delivery in England and invite others to augment our guidance for use in other jurisdictions.

15.
Front Psychol ; 11: 588910, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933804

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a situation in which people have to choose between economic and health values. This raises the question of what psychological mechanisms determine people's willingness to bear economic costs to protect health? To answer this question, we examined whether such willingness is better described by compensatory or lexicographic models of decision making in situations involving risk or uncertainty. We compared decisions regarding COVID-19 and occupational diseases to establish a pandemic-independent baseline and to determine whether the mechanisms behind the trade-offs are the same in both cases. Additionally, we tested whether people's willingness to accept economic costs is related to psychological factors such as fear, feeling of control, declared knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic, predictions concerning the expected length of the pandemic, and perceived effectiveness of actions taken to fight the coronavirus. In total, 354 Polish participants from Prolific Academic took part in this study. The results were consistent with the view that decisions are made primarily to protect sacred values and are therefore not based on compensatory models. In line with this view, participants were sensitive neither to the risk vs. uncertainty manipulation nor to the perceived effectiveness of the lockdown. Instead, their behavior was congruent with lexicographic models in which the protection of health and in particular the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to be the most important dimension, and the single criterion to be used in decision making.

16.
Front Psychol ; 11: 572153, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933780

ABSTRACT

Alongside concern about the physical health impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, public health officials have also raised concerns about the potential for massive mental health impact. This has led many to wonder, how are individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and especially those with contamination fears, doing in the era of COVID-19? We present data from eight patients in our residential treatment program for OCD who were admitted prior to any COVID-19 restrictions and continued in treatment at the facility during the pandemic. Much like the general population, our patients varied in the ways they were impacted by COVID-19, yet the majority experienced improvements in OCD symptoms despite the context. This is not to downplay the many ways in which our patients were personally affected by COVID-19. Rather our patients' relatively resilient responses mirror our program's treatment model, which emphasizes exposure and response prevention (ERP) within the complementary framework of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The intention of this article is to challenge the notion that by definition this population will fare worse than the general public or that ERP cannot proceed effectively during this time. In contrast, we underscore that effective OCD treatment can and should continue in the era of COVID-19.

17.
J Contemp Psychother ; 50(4): 243-250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906307

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus COVID-19 and the global pandemic has already had a substantial disruptive impact on society, posing major challenges to the provision of mental health services in a time of crisis, and carrying the spectre of an increased burden to mental health, both in terms of existing psychiatric disorder, and emerging psychological distress from the pandemic. In this paper we provide a framework for understanding the key challenges for psychologically informed mental health care during and beyond the pandemic. We identify three groups that can benefit from psychological approaches to mental health, and/or interventions relating to COVID-19. These are (i) healthcare workers engaged in frontline response to the pandemic and their patients; (ii) individuals who will experience the emergence of new mental health distress as a function of being diagnosed with COVID-19, or losing family and loved ones to the illness, or the psychological effects of prolonged social distancing; and (iii) individuals with existing mental health conditions who are either diagnosed with COVID-19 or whose experience of social distancing exacerbates existing vulnerabilities. Drawing on existing literature and our own experience of adapting treatments to the crisis we suggest a number of salient points to consider in identifying risks and offering support to all three groups. We also offer a number of practical and technical considerations for working psychotherapeutically with existing patients where COVID-19 restrictions have forced a move to online or technologically mediated delivery of psychological interventions.

18.
J Prev Interv Community ; 50(2): 151-162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864848

ABSTRACT

Recovery homes are a widespread community resource that might be utilized by some individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) and COVID-19. A growing collection of empirical literature suggests that housing can act as a low-cost recovery support system which could be effective in helping those with SUD sustain their recovery. Such settings could be already housing many residents affected by COVID-19. Many of these residents are at high risk for COVID-19 given their histories of SUD, homelessness, criminal justice involvement, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stable housing after treatment may decrease the risk of relapse to active addiction, and these types of settings may have important implications for those with housing insecurity who are at risk for being infected with COVID-19. Given the extensive network of community-based recovery homes, there is a need to better understand individual- and organizational-level responses to the COVID-19 pandemic among people in recovery homes as well as those managing and making referrals to the houses. At the present time, it is unclear what the effects of COVID-19 are on recovery home membership retention or dropout rates. This article attempts to provide a better understanding of the possible impact of COVID-19 on the infected and on recovery resources in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Housing , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(1): 19-21, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861001

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies to examine whether HIV predisposes to a higher incidence of COVID-19 or more severe disease are accumulating. Initial studies from New York City suggested more severe disease among people living with HIV (PLWH), but this was during a time when hospitals were over-capacity and health systems stretched. This report presents the incidence and outcomes among PLWH with COVID-19 in San Francisco over the first 6 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Community transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in San Francisco on March 5, 2020. This report examines the match of the San Francisco Department of Public Health COVID-19 testing database and the San Francisco Department of Public Health HIV Surveillance case registry from March 24, 2020, to September 3, 2020. RESULTS: Among 4252 COVID-19 tests performed among PLWH, 4.5% (N = 193) were positive for COVID-19, compared with a 3.5% (N = 9626) positivity rate among the 272,555 people without HIV tested for COVID-19 (P < 0.001). The mean age of those infected with HIV/COVID-19 was 48 years (20-76), 38.9% White, 38.3% Latinx, 11.9% Black, and 91.2% were men. Only 54.6% of coinfected PLWH were housed, with the remainder marginally housed. The rate of severe illness with COVID-19 was not increased among PLWH. DISCUSSION: In San Francisco, susceptibility to COVID-19 was increased among PLWH over the first 6 months of the pandemic, although clinical outcomes were similar to those without HIV. Homelessness and higher rates of congregate living situations among PLWH likely accounted for this disparity. Special efforts to house patients with marginal housing during the COVID-19 pandemic are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Homeless Persons , Housing , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): e67-e69, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new pandemic, and its impact by HIV status is unknown. National reporting does not include gender identity; therefore, data are absent on the impact of COVID-19 on transgender people, including those with HIV. Baseline data from the American Cohort to Study HIV Acquisition Among Transgender Women in High Risk Areas (LITE) Study provide an opportunity to examine pre-COVID factors that may increase vulnerability to COVID-19-related harms among transgender women. SETTING: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Miami, New York City, Washington, DC. METHODS: Baseline data from LITE were analyzed for demographic, psychosocial, and material factors that may affect vulnerability to COVID-related harms. RESULTS: The 1020 participants had high rates of poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, homelessness, and sex work. Transgender women with HIV (n = 273) were older, more likely to be Black, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to experience material hardship. Mental and behavioral health symptoms were common and did not differ by HIV status. Barriers to health care included being mistreated, provider discomfort serving transgender women, and past negative experiences; as well as material hardships, such as cost and transportation. However, most reported access to material and social support-demonstrating resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Transgender women with HIV may be particularly vulnerable to pandemic harms. Mitigating this harm would benefit everyone, given the highly infectious nature of this coronavirus. Collecting gender identity in COVID-19 data is crucial to inform an effective public health response. Transgender-led organizations' response to this crisis serve as an important model for effective community-led interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Boston , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mid-Atlantic Region , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Psychosocial Deprivation , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Southeastern United States
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