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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173682

ABSTRACT

Dental health care workers around the world are in a constant state of fear and anxiety because they work in a constrained space of the dental practice. During routine dental procedures, they are exposed to aerosol and splatter. These airborne particles pose a great risk of transmitting contagious infections to health care workers and patients, especially in an era of social distancing due to COVID-19. The current study was conducted to evaluate contamination amount, duration, the distance of aerosol, and splatter produced after cavity preparation using a two-hole and four-hole handpiece. The study was performed on a dental manikin in a dental simulation laboratory at the College of Dentistry, King Faisal University Al Ahsa. The dental manikin was set to a reclined position to simulate the clinical operatory position of the patient for dental restorative procedures. Aerosol and splatter were collected on Grade 1 qualitative cotton cellulose filter paper. These were placed on adhesive tape extending from the headrest of the dental manikin in six different directions (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 o'clock) for up to 60 inches and on certain positions of the operator and assistant such as the chest, head, forearms, upper leg, and inside facemask. Class V cavity preparation was done by the principal investigator at a specific time of 3 min on tooth #11 using a two-hole high-speed handpiece, then on the next day, Class V cavity preparation was performed on tooth #21 by a four-hole handpiece. High volume suction was used throughout the cavity preparation. Immediately after cavity preparation, the first filter paper disc was replaced with new ones in all positions. The second set of filter papers was removed after 30 min. Transparent grids were used to count the contamination area on the filter paper disc. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean amount of aerosol and splatter produced by both handpieces, however, a statistically significant difference was found in an amount of aerosol and splatter produced at a 12, 24, and 36 inches distance immediately after cavity preparation and 30 min after cavity preparation, regardless of the type of handpiece used. It is advisable to refrain from removing the personal protective barriers immediately after the procedure within the vicinity of the dental practice. The use of other adjuncts such as high volume suction to reduce the spread of aerosol and splatter is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Suction
4.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(8): 543-546, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234178

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Social distancing due to COVID-19 may adversely impact treatment of adults with serious mental illness, especially those receiving intensive forms of community-based care, in part through weakening of the therapeutic alliance. Veterans and staff at a Veterans Affair (VA) medical center were surveyed 3 months after social distancing disrupted usual service delivery in intensive community-based treatment programs. Veterans (n = 105) and staff (n = 112) gave similar multi-item ratings of service delivery after social distancing, which involved far less face-to-face contact and more telephone contact than usual and rated their therapeutic alliances and clinical status similarly as "not as good" on average than before social distancing. Self-reported decline in therapeutic alliance was associated with parallel decline in clinical status indicators. Both veterans and staff indicated clear preference for return to face-to-face service delivery after the pandemic with some telehealth included.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Case Management/standards , Community Mental Health Services/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Patient Preference , Physical Distancing , Telemedicine/standards , Therapeutic Alliance , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veterans
5.
Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216232

ABSTRACT

The period of social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is characterized as an effective proposal to control the spread of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), however, it changes the social dynamics of individuals in society. Based on this question, the present study aimed to understand how was the performance of Brazilian physical education professionals during this period. The sample consisted of 400 Physical Education professionals from Brazil, 224 women (56.0%) and 176 men (44.0%), selected at random, by filling out a questionnaire. Sports activities were predominant among professionals, followed by bodybuilding activities or functional training. Most professionals performed their activities at home (71%) and used different digital platforms as work tools, noting that distance learning was a strategy used and well regarded by professionals. However, even with the use of specific intervention strategies, professional income showed fluctuations during the pandemic, with academic degrees being one of the factors responsible for changing the workload.

6.
J Surg Educ ; 78(5): 1544-1555, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201183

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: Subinternships are integral to medical education as tools for teaching and assessing fourth-year medical students. Social distancing due to COVID-19 has precluded the ability to offer in-person subinternships - negatively impacting medical education and creating uncertainty surrounding the residency match. With no precedent for the development and implementation of virtual subinternships, the Society of Academic Urologists (SAU) developed an innovative and standardized curriculum for the Virtual Subinternship in Urology (vSIU). METHODS: The vSIU committee's mandate was to create a standardized curriculum for teaching foundational urology and assessing student performance. Thirty-three members from 23 institutions were divided into working groups and given 3 weeks to develop 10 modules based on urologic subspecialties, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, technical skills training and student assessment. Working groups were encouraged to develop innovative learning approaches. The final curriculum was assembled into the "vSIU Guidebook." RESULTS: The vSIU Guidebook contains 212 pages - 64 pages core content and 2 appendices (patient cases and evaluations). It outlines a detailed 4-week curriculum with a sufficient volume of resources to offer a completely adaptable virtual course with the same rigor as a traditional subinternship. Modules contain curated teaching resources including journal articles, lectures, surgical videos and simulated clinical scenarios. Innovative learning tools include reflective writing, mentorship guidelines, videoconference-based didactics, surgical simulcasting and virtual technical skills training. The guidebook was disseminated to program directors nationally. NEXT STEPS: The vSIU is the first virtual subinternship in any specialty to be standardized and offered nationally, and it was implemented by at least 19 urology programs. This curriculum serves as a template for other specialties looking to develop virtual programs and feedback from educators and students will allow the curriculum to evolve. As the pandemic continues to challenge our paradigm, this rapid and innovative response exemplifies that the medical community will continue to meet the needs of an ever-changing educational landscape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e26330, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 led to the COVID-19 pandemic starting in January 2020. The Swiss Federal Council prescribed a lockdown of nonessential businesses. Students and employees of higher education institutions had to install home offices and participate in online lectures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this survey study was to evaluate lifestyle habits, such as physical activity (PA), sitting time, nutritional habits (expressed as median modified Mediterranean Diet Score [mMDS]), alcohol consumption habits, and sleeping behavior during a 2-month period of confinement and social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey participants were students and employees of a Swiss university of applied sciences. METHODS: All students and employees from Bern University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Professions (ie, nursing, nutrition and dietetics, midwifery, and physiotherapy divisions) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey during the COVID-19 confinement period. Information on the lifestyle dimensions of PA, sitting time, nutritional and alcohol consumption habits, and sleep behavior was gathered using adaptations of validated questionnaires. Frequency analyses and nonparametric statistical methods were used for data analysis. Significance was set at 5% α level of error. RESULTS: Prevalence of non-health-enhancing PA was 37.1%, with participants of the division of physiotherapy showing the lowest prevalence. Prevalence of long sitting time (>8 hours/day) was 36.1%. The median mMDS was 9, where the maximal score was 15, with participants of the division of nutrition and dietetics being more adherent to a Mediterranean diet as compared to the other groups. Prevalence of nonadherence to the Swiss alcohol consumption recommendations was 8.3%. Prevalence of low sleeping quality was 44.7%, while the median sleeping duration was 8 hours, which is considered healthy for adult populations. CONCLUSIONS: In the group analysis, differences in PA, sitting time, and mMDS were observed between different divisions of health professions as well as between Bachelor of Science students, Master of Science students, and employees. Therefore, public health messages regarding healthy lifestyle habits during home confinement should be more group specific. The results of this study may provide support for the implementation of group-specific health promotion interventions at universities in pandemic conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04502108; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04502108.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Faculty/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Quarantine , Sleep , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
8.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000655, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in nationwide social distancing and shelter-in-place orders meant to curb transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The effect of the pandemic on injury patterns has not been well described in the USA. The study objective is to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the distribution and determinants of traumatic injuries. METHODS: This retrospective multi-institutional cohort study included all hospital admissions for acute traumatic injury at six community level I trauma centers. Descriptive statistics were used to compare injury causes, diagnoses and procedures over two similar time periods: prepandemic (March 11-June 30, 2019) and pandemic (March 11-June 30, 2020). RESULTS: There were 7308 trauma patients included: 3862 (53%) prepandemic and 3446 (47%) during the pandemic. Cause of injury significantly differed by period (p<0.001). During the pandemic, there were decreases in motor vehicle crashes (from 17.0% to 14.0%, p<0.001), worksite injuries (from 5.2% to 4.1%, p=0.02), pedestrian injuries (from 3.0% to 2.2%, p=0.02) and recreational injuries (from 3.0% to 1.7%, p<0.001), while there were significant increases in assaults (6.9% to 8.5%, p=0.01), bicycle crashes (2.8% to 4.2%, p=0.001) and off-road vehicle injuries (1.8% to 3.0%, p<0.001). There was no change by study period in falls, motorcycle injuries, crush/strikes, firearm and self-inflicted injuries, and injuries associated with home-improvement projects. Injury diagnoses differed between time periods; during the pandemic, there were more injury diagnoses to the head (23.0% to 27.3%, p<0.001) and the knee/leg (11.7% to 14.9%, p<0.001). There were also increases in medical/surgical procedures (57.5% to 61.9%, p<0.001), administration of therapeutics/blood products (31.4% to 34.2%, p=0.01) and monitoring (11.0% to 12.9%, p=0.01). DISCUSSION: Causes of traumatic injury, diagnoses, and procedures were significantly changed by the pandemic. Trauma centers must adjust to meet the changing demands associated with altered injury patterns, as they were associated with increased use of hospital resources. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III (epidemiological).

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 558930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172975

ABSTRACT

Nation-wide community quarantines and social distancing are part of the new normal because of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Since extensive and prolonged lockdowns are relatively novel experiences, not much is known about the well-being of individuals in such extreme situations. This research effort investigated the relationship between well-being elements and resiliency of 533 Filipino adults who were placed under the nationwide enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants comprised of 376 females (70.56%) and 157 males (29.45%). The median and mode ages of the participants is 23 years, while 25 is the mean age. PERMA Profiler was used to measure participants' well-being elements, while Connor-Davidson Resiliency Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10) was used to measure their resiliency. Collected data were analyzed using the regression model and necessary condition analysis. This study corroborated that all the five pillars of well-being are significant positive correlates of resiliency (p < 0.00) in quarantined adults. The results shown accomplishment (ß = 0.447, p < 0.01) positively predicts resiliency, while negative emotions (ß = -0.171, p < 0.00) negatively predict resiliency. Lastly, the five pillars of well-being are necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions (ceiling envelopment with free disposal hull, CE-FDH p < 0.00) of resiliency. Our results cast a new light on well-being elements as constraints rather than enablers of resiliency. This novel result shows that optimum resiliency is only possible when all the five pillars of well-being are taken care of and when a person is at least minimally contented with their physical health. The present findings underscore the importance of a holistic as against an atomistic approach to maintaining good mental health, which suggests that deficiencies in certain areas of well-being may not be fully addressed by overcompensating on other areas, as all five pillars of well-being are necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions of resiliency. The study ends with the recommendation for the use of necessary condition analysis to study both classical and novel psychological research problems.

10.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05007, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are prevalent seasonal community viruses. Although not completely understood, SARS-CoV-2 may have the same means of transmission. Preventive social measures aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread could impact transmission of other respiratory viruses as well. The aim of this study is to report the detection of RSV and influenza during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19 pandemic in a heavily affected community. METHODS: Prospective study with pediatric and adult populations seeking care for COVID-19-like symptoms during the fall and winter of 2020 at two hospitals in Southern Brazil. RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A (Flu A), influenza B (Flu B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was performed for all participants. RESULTS: 1435 suspected COVID-19 participants (1137 adults, and 298 children). were included between May and August. Median age was 37.7 years (IQR = 29.6-47.7), and 4.92 years (IQR = 1.96-9.53), for the adult and child cohorts, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 469 (32.7%) while influenza and RSV were not detected at all. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission likely exerted a huge impact in the spread of alternate respiratory pathogens. These findings contribute to the knowledge about the dynamics of virus spread. Further, it may be considered for guiding therapeutic choices for these other viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/transmission , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Young Adult
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e048756, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153683

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Youth with brain-based disabilities (BBDs), as well as their parents/caregivers, often feel ill-prepared for the transfer from paediatric to adult healthcare services. To address this pressing issue, we developed the MyREADY TransitionTM BBD App, a patient-facing e-health intervention. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether the App will result in greater transition readiness compared with usual care for youth with BBD. Secondary aims included exploring the contextual experiences of youth using the App, as well as the interactive processes of youth, their parents/caregivers and healthcare providers around use of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aimed to randomise 264 youth with BBD between 15 and 17 years of age, to receive existing services/usual care (control group) or to receive usual care along with the App (intervention group). Our recruitment strategy includes remote and virtual options in response to the current requirements for physical distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We will use an embedded experimental model design which involves embedding a qualitative study within a RCT. The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire will be administered as the primary outcome measure. Analysis of covariance will be used to compare change in the two groups on the primary outcome measure; analysis will be intention-to-treat. Interviews will be conducted with subsets of youth in the intervention group, as well as parents/caregivers and healthcare providers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the research ethics board of each participating site in four different regions in Canada. We will leverage our patient and family partnerships to find novel dissemination strategies. Study findings will be shared with the academic and stakeholder community, including dissemination of teaching and training tools through patient associations, and patient and family advocacy groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03852550.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Intellectual Disability , Telemedicine , Transition to Adult Care , Adolescent , Adult , Canada , Humans , Mobile Applications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Int J Audiol ; 61(2): 97-101, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hearing difficulties exacerbate the damaging effects of enforced social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic on isolation and loneliness, and lead to accelerated mental health issues and cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Rapid online survey. Participants completed a series of online questionnaires regarding hearing ability, socialisation (pre- and during-pandemic), loneliness, anxiety, depression and cognitive function. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 80 participants over the age of 70 with access to the internet. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in socialisation levels from pre-pandemic in this population. Hearing difficulties were significantly associated with greater levels of loneliness, depression and self-perceived cognitive dysfunction after controlling for age, gender, and level of education. Additionally, compared to pre-pandemic, people with hearing difficulties had increased odds of reporting worsened anxiety, depression, and memory during the COVID-19 pandemic, although only the effect of hearing difficulties on the change in memory reached statistical significance after controlling for age, gender, and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The worse the self-reported hearing abilities are, the greater the negative impact of enforced social distancing on depression, loneliness and cognitive function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Hearing , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 607559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133969

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness with higher mortality in older adults. This condition is spread person-to-person through close contact, and among policies employed to decrease transmission are the improvement of hygiene habits and physical distancing. Although social distancing has been recognized as the best way to prevent the transmission, there are concerns that it may promote increased depression symptoms risk and anxiety, mainly in older adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to verify self-concept of social distancing in adults compared to older adults. All participants, over 18 years and residents of São Paulo state (Brazil), were invited to join this research study by a message application and answered an interdisciplinary questionnaire during the period from May 23 to June 23, 2020. The questions were divided into the following aspects: sociodemographic data, financial conditions, routine-related perception, perception of health, physical and emotional state, and eating habits. The younger adult group was composed of 139 participants, with a mean age of 43.15 years (±10.92), and the older adult group was composed of 437 participants with a mean age of 67.59 years (±6.13) of both sex. Changes in routine during the period of social distance were reported by 95% of adults and 96.8% of older adults, but adults indicated more significant alterations in routine. Although there was no difference between groups for several aspects, adults revealed greater alterations in sleep quality, evacuation frequency, and more difficulty to perform daily activities at home. Further studies are necessary to follow up the impacts of social distancing among adults and older adults in different socioeconomic contexts to better understand the long-term alterations and the necessity of interventions.

15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128012

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ineluctably caused social distancing and unemployment, which may bring additional health risks for patients with cancer. To investigate the association of the pandemic-related impacts with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with melanoma during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a cross-sectional study among Chinese patients with melanoma. A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to melanoma patients through social media. Demographic and clinical data, and pandemic-related impacts (unemployment and income loss) were collected. HRQoL was determined by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and its disease-specific module (the melanoma subscale, MS). A total of 135 patients with melanoma completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 14.2 years, 48.1% (65/135) were male, and 17.04% (34/135) were unemployed since the epidemic. Unemployment of the patients and their family members and income loss were significantly associated with a lower FACT-G score, while the MS score was associated with the unemployment of the patients' family members. Our findings suggested that unemployment is associated with impaired HRQoL in melanoma patients during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Melanoma/economics , Melanoma/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Melanoma/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
16.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(1): 129-133, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116133

ABSTRACT

In 2020 universities had to quickly implement remote education alternatives as a result of the social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To keep students engaged with the university, we implemented a teaching-learning model that relates physiology contents to the COVID-19 pandemic using online educational platforms. A 1-mo web course was proposed for health sciences students from the Federal University of Pampa. It included synchronous meetings twice a week and asynchronous activities using scientific articles, case studies, and interactive online tools. The students approved the methodology developed, assessing it as dynamic and innovative. They reported that the activity helped to better understand the relations between COVID-19 and physiological systems. The web course also contributed to the identification of reliable sources of news and stimulated the sharing of scientific content with their families. We concluded that the use of online platforms contextualizing the physiology content considering current events helps students in learning human physiology and improves their abilities to apply this information to their daily life, in this specific case, regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics , Physiology/education , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Brazil , Consumer Behavior , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Distancing , Students/psychology , Universities
17.
J World Fed Orthod ; 10(1): 9-13, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101206

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in technology, growing patient demand, and the need for social distancing due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 has expedited adoption of teledentistry in orthodontics as a means of consulting and monitoring a patient without an in-office visit. However, a lack of computer literacy and knowledge of software choices, and concerns regarding patient safety and potential infringement of regulations can make venturing into this new technology intimidating. In this article, various types of teledentistry systems for orthodontic practices, implementation guidelines, and important regulatory considerations on the use of teledentistry for orthodontic purposes are discussed. A thorough evaluation of the intended use of the software should precede commitment to a service. Selected service should be Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant at minimum and a Business Associate Agreement should be in place for protection of privacy. Ensuring the compatibility of the designated clinic computer with the system's requirements and installation of all safeguards must follow. Appointments should be documented in the same manner as in-office visits and teledentistry patients must be located within the clinician's statutory license boundary. Informed consent forms should include teledentistry or a supplemental teledentistry consent form should be used. Malpractice insurance covers everything usual and customary under the provider's license but the need for cyber liability insurance increases with teledentistry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Orthodontics , Telemedicine/methods , Artificial Intelligence , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Privacy/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589966, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081503

ABSTRACT

Social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic can impact mental health, triggering symptoms such as anxiety, stress and depression. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the levels of anxiety, depression and stress during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19 in students from a campus of the Federal Institute in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre/RS. A correlational and exploratory study was performed. The sample of the present research was composed by 208 students, who responded to a self-administered online questionnaire with sociodemographic variables and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale Short Form - DASS-21. The detected prevalence of symptoms classified as moderate-severe was 49% for stress, 39% for depression and 33% for anxiety. An association was found between higher levels of anxiety symptoms (OR = 5.652; 95% CI = 2.872-11.123; p < 0.001), depression (OR = 3.289; 95% CI = 1.810-5.978; p < 0.001) and stress (OR = 5.684; 95% CI = 3.120-10.355; p < 0.001) with occurrence of sleep problems during the period of social distancing. There was a protective factor provided by regular physical exercise in relation to depressive symptoms (OR = 0.490; 95% CI = 0.250-0.960; p =0.033). These data are extremely important for understanding the adverse effect on the mental health of students and for developing psychological support strategies, thus promoting well-being during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Education, Professional , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat social distancing and stay-at-home restrictions due to COVID-19, Canadian communities began a Facebook social media movement, #Caremongering, to support vulnerable individuals in their communities. Little research has examined the spread and use of #Caremongering to address community health and social needs. OBJECTIVES: We examined the rate at which #Caremongering grew across Canada, the main ways the groups were used, and differences in use by membership size and activity. METHODS: We searched Facebook Groups using the term "Caremongering" combined with the names of the largest population centres in every province and territory in Canada. We extracted available Facebook analytics on all the groups found, restricted to public groups that operated in English. We further conducted a content analysis of themes from postings in 30 groups using purposive sampling. Posted content was qualitatively analyzed to determine consistent themes across the groups and between those with smaller and larger member numbers. RESULTS: The search of Facebook groups across 185 cities yielded 130 unique groups, including groups from all 13 provinces and territories in Canada. Total membership across all groups as of May 4, 2020 was 194,879. The vast majority were formed within days of the global pandemic announcement, two months prior. There were four major themes identified: personal protective equipment, offer, need, and information. Few differences were found between how large and small groups were being used. CONCLUSIONS: The #Caremongering Facebook groups spread across the entire nation in a matter of days, engaging hundreds of thousands of Canadians. Social media appears to be a useful tool for spreading community-led solutions to address health and social needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Helping Behavior , Public Health/methods , Social Media , COVID-19/pathology , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Interaction
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