Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e268-e274, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mexico is among the countries in Latin America hit hardest by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large proportion of older adults in Mexico have high prevalence of multimorbidity and live in poverty with limited access to health care services. These statistics are even higher among adults living in rural areas, which suggest that older adults in rural communities may be more susceptible to COVID-19. The objectives of the article were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics for people diagnosed with COVID-19 by age group, and to describe cases and mortality in rural and urban communities. METHOD: We linked publicly available data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Census. Municipalities were classified based on population as rural (<2,500), semirural (≥2,500 and <15,000), semiurban (≥15,000 and <100,000), and urban (≥100,000). Zero-inflated negative binomial models were performed to calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases, and deaths per 1,000,000 persons using the population of each municipality as a denominator. RESULTS: Older adults were more likely to be hospitalized and reported severe cases, with higher mortality rates. In addition, rural municipalities reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases and mortality related to COVID-19 per million than urban municipalities. The adjusted absolute difference in COVID-19 cases was 912.7 per million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-1746.4) and mortality related to COVID-19 was 390.6 per million (95% CI: 204.5-576.7). DISCUSSION: Urgent policy efforts are needed to mandate the use of face masks, encourage handwashing, and improve specialty care for Mexicans in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel respiratory disease associated with severe morbidity and high mortality in the elderly population and people with comorbidities. Studies have suggested that pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 compared to non-pregnant women. However, it's unclear whether pregnant women in Ghana are knowledgeable about COVID-19 and practice preventive measures against it. This study sought to assess the knowledge and preventive practices towards COVID-19 among pregnant women seeking antenatal services in Northern Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire in the Nabdam district in Ghana. A total of 527 pregnant women were randomly sampled from health facilities offering antenatal care services in the district. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the predictors and outcome variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of adequate knowledge and good COVID-19 preventive practices were 85.6%, (95% CI: 82.57, 88.59) and 46.6%, (95% CI: 42.41, 50.95) respectively. Having at least a primary education, residing in an urban area, and receiving COVID-19 education at a health facility were positively associated with adequate knowledge on COVID-19. Factors positively associated with good COVID-19 preventive practices were older age, having at least a primary education, pregnant women with a chronic disease, and living in an urban area. Multiparity was negatively associated with good COVID-19 preventive practices. CONCLUSION: Although majority of women had adequate knowledge of COVID-19, less than half of them were engaged in good COVID-19 preventive practices. Education of pregnant women on COVID-19 preventive practices should be intensified at health facilities while improving upon the water, sanitation and hygiene need particularly in rural communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Preventive Medicine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , Preventive Medicine/methods , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234718

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 on farmers' livelihoods and food security is a key concern in rural communities. This study investigates the impacts of the livelihood assets on the food security of rural households during the COVID-19 pandemic and determines those factors related to food security. The population of this study includes rural households in Dashtestan county, Bushehr province, in southern Iran. Based on the Krejcie and Morgan sampling table, 293 households were selected using the convenience sampling method. To measure food security, the American standard index and ordinal regression are used to analyze the factors. The results of the food security situation show highly precarious and food insecure situations among the studied rural households. The regression analysis shows that the most important assets affecting the food security of rural households under COVID-19 are financial, psychological, physical, and human assets, respectively. The results can help rural development planners and policymakers to improve both livelihoods and food security in rural communities, not just during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also in its aftermath.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Farmers , Agriculture , Food Security , Food Supply , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217063

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected people's social lives by inhibiting their movement; this seriously impacts the lives of older people in particular. Rural older people may have been particularly affected because they live dispersedly and in isolation. This study explored rural older people's perceptions of how COVID-19 has impacted their social lives. This qualitative study assessed participants who were 65 years and older and residing in rural Japanese communities. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 53 participants to explore their perceptions and challenges during COVID-19. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, and four themes were developed: the beginning of suffering, social cognitive suppression, reflection on rural contexts, and critical approaches to the pandemic based on rural standards. The daily activities of rural older people were suppressed due to social norms and pandemic-related standard precautionary measures based on urban areas. Specific infection control standards for rural areas and the provision of direct information to individuals in the community to sustain social support are needed. To effectively maintain rural social support, as well as the trust and accountability of rural citizens, constant dialog among local governments and rural citizens is required.

5.
J Hosp Palliat Nurs ; 23(3): 277-285, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207352

ABSTRACT

Hospice and palliative care providers throughout the United States have continued to provide compassionate patient- and family-centered care during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic while adapting to the need for scrupulous infection control measures and the accelerated use of telehealth. Prior to the pandemic, hospice and palliative care adopted telehealth slowly compared with other specialties, but its rapidly increasing utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic has long-term implications for access to primary and specialty palliative care, particularly for patients in rural communities and populations experiencing inequitable access to services. Telehealth also shows great promise for leveraging technology to provide care more effectively and efficiently. As more provider organizations become equipped with telehealth infrastructure, and as advocacy for broader reimbursement of these services grows, telehealth services for hospice and palliative care are expected to continue. This article highlights the work of expert clinicians from multiple hospice and palliative care organizations to develop best practices for conducting telehealth visits in inpatient and community settings. The authors propose that best practices be compiled and considered to ensure quality-driven, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines with interprofessional applicability.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Based Practice/organization & administration , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , United States/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the approved COVID-19 vaccine has been shown to be safe and effective, mass vaccination in Bangladeshi people remains a challenge. As a vaccination effort, the study provided an empirical evidence on willingness to vaccinate by sociodemographic, clinical and regional differences in Bangladeshi adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis from a household survey of 3646 adults aged 18 years or older was conducted in 8 districts of Bangladesh, from December 12, 2020, to January 7, 2021. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic, clinical and healthcare-releated factors on hesitancy and reluctance of vaccination for COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 3646 respondents (2212 men [60.7%]; mean [sd] age, 37.4 [13.9] years), 74.6% reported their willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 when a safe and effective vaccine is available without a fee, while 8.5% were reluctant to vaccinate. With a minimum fee, 46.5% of the respondents showed intent to vaccinate. Among the respondents, 16.8% reported adequate adherence to health safety regulations, and 35.5% reported high confidence in the country's healthcare system. The COVID-19 vaccine refusal was significantly high in elderly, rural, semi-urban, and slum communities, farmers, day-laborers, homemakers, low-educated group, and those who had low confidence in the country's healthcare system. Also, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was high in the elderly population, low-educated group, day-laborers, people with chronic diseases, and people with low confidence in the country's healthcare system. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of vaccine refusal and hesitancy was observed in rural people and slum dwellers in Bangladesh. The rural community and slum dwellers had a low literacy level, low adherence to health safety regulations and low confidence in healthcare system. The ongoing app-based registration for vaccination increased hesitancy and reluctancy in low-educated group. For rural, semi-urban, and slum people, outreach centers for vaccination can be established to ensure the vaccine's nearby availability and limit associated travel costs. In rural areas, community health workers, valued community-leaders, and non-governmental organizations can be utilized to motivate and educate people for vaccination against COVID-19. Further, emphasis should be given to the elderly and diseased people with tailored health messages and assurance from healthcare professionals. The media may play a responsible role with the vaccine education program and eliminate the social stigma about the vaccination. Finally, vaccination should be continued without a fee and thus Bangladesh's COVID vaccination program can become a model for other low and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(4): 94-108, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200304

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic affects psychiatric patients disproportionately compared to the general population. In this narrative review, we examine the impact of the pandemic on significant global health disparities affecting vulnerable populations of psychiatric patients: People of diverse ethnic background and color, children with disabilities, sexual and gender minorities, pregnant women, mature adults, and those patients living in urban and rural communities. The identified disparities cause worsened mental health outcomes placing psychiatric patients at higher risk for depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Those psychiatric patients who are ethnic minorities display barriers to care, including collective trauma and structural racism. Sexual and gender minorities with mental illness face discrimination and limited access to treatment. Pregnant women with psychiatric diagnoses show higher exposure to domestic violence. Children with disabilities face a higher risk of worsening behavior. Mature adults with psychiatric problems show depression due to social isolation. Psychiatric patients who live in urban communities face pollutants and overcrowding compared to those living in rural communities, which face limited access to telehealth services. We suggest that social programs that decrease discrimination, enhance communal resilience, and help overcome systemic barriers of care should be developed to decrease global health disparities in vulnerable population.

8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 44, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100358

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is recognized as global pandemic, affecting more than 300,000 worldwide. Ghana joined the international community by confirming first two COVID-19 cases on March 12, 2020. The study aimed to assess the public knowledge, risk perception and preparedness to respond the COVID-19 in the early stage of the outbreak in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from Ghanaian during the early stage of the outbreak from 12th to 20th March 2020. Electronic based questionnaire was developed to collected information on the public knowledge, risk perceptions and preparedness to respond the COVID-19. All people who were aged 18 years and over were invited to participate in the study. RESULTS: A total of 350 participants were recruited into the analysis; 56% were males, with the majority of the study population aged between 18-30 years (61.4%), single (68.9%) and attained tertiary education (95.1%). Regarding COVID-19, 62.7% had "good" knowledge about the outbreak, 68.3% had a high risk of contracting the COVID-19 infection and 81.4% had a moderate preparedness skill to prevent and control the disease. Internet (77.1%) was the major sources of information. Knowledge of COVID-19 was significantly associated with education (p<0.001), age (p=0.018), employment (p=0.011) and health-related occupation (P=0.001) but only religion was associated with risk perception. CONCLUSION: Though overall public knowledge was good, disparity exist among the least educated population, there was high risk perceptions and moderate preparedness skill to respond to COVID-19 among our study population. We recommend that educational campaigns through timely online update on COVID-19, van mobilization and mass media broadcasting should target all groups including those in the rural communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Ghana , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Religion , Risk , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa531, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited systematic surveillance for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the early months of the US epidemic curtailed accurate appraisal of transmission intensity. Our objective was to perform case detection of an entire rural community to quantify SARS-CoV-2 transmission using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody testing. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the rural town of Bolinas, California (population 1620), 4 weeks after shelter-in-place orders. Participants were tested between April 20 and 24, 2020. Prevalence by PCR and seroprevalence from 2 forms of antibody testing were performed in parallel (Abbott ARCHITECT immunoglobulin [Ig]G and in-house IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). RESULTS: Of 1891 participants, 1312 were confirmed Bolinas residents (>80% community ascertainment). Zero participants were PCR positive. Assuming 80% sensitivity, it would have been unlikely to observe these results (P < .05) if there were >3 active infections in the community. Based on antibody results, estimated prevalence of prior infection was 0.16% (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.02%-0.46%). The positive predictive value (PPV) of a positive result on both tests was 99.11% (95% CrI, 95.75%-99.94%), compared with PPV 44.19%-63.32% (95% CrI, 3.25%-98.64%) if 1 test was utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks after shelter-in-place, SARS-CoV-2 infection in a rural Northern California community was extremely rare. In this low-prevalence setting, use of 2 antibody tests increased seroprevalence estimate precision. This was one of the first community-wide studies to successfully implement synchronous PCR and antibody testing, particularly in a rural setting. Widespread testing remains an underpinning of effective disease control in conjunction with consistent uptake of public health measures.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055092

ABSTRACT

Prior to the 2020 outbreak of COVID-19, 70% of Australians' food purchases were from supermarkets. Rural communities experience challenges accessing healthy food, which drives health inequalities. This study explores the impact of COVID-19 on food supply and purchasing behaviour in a rural supermarket. Group model building workshops explored food supply experiences during COVID-19 in a rural Australian community with one supermarket. We asked three supermarket retailers "What are the current drivers of food supply into this supermarket environment?" and, separately, 33 customers: "What are the current drivers of purchases in this supermarket environment?" Causal loop diagrams were co-created with participants in real time with themes drawn afterwards from coded transcripts. Retailers' experience of COVID-19 included 'empty shelves' attributed to media and government messaging, product unavailability, and community fear. Customers reported fear of contracting COVID-19, unavailability of food, and government restrictions resulting in cooking more meals at home, as influences on purchasing behaviour. Supermarket management and customers demonstrated adaptability and resilience to normalise demand and combat reduced supply.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior/economics , Food Supply/economics , Models, Economic , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/economics , Female , Humans , Male
11.
AIDS Behav ; 25(5): 1331-1339, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037966

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may influence HIV/HCV transmission risk behaviors in rural communities. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with people who use drugs (PWUD) in five rural Oregon counties and asked about COVID-19 impact on substance use and harm reduction practices and their advice for improving public health responses. Participants (n = 36) reported using only methamphetamine (52.8%), only heroin (16.7%), or both (30.6%); 75% of participants reported recent injection. Three thematic categories emerged: SSP adaptations and accessibility, PWUD harm reduction practices, and policy suggestions. Participants noted the importance of SSPs to COVID-19 prevention and wellbeing, though some experienced increased barriers, leading to increased risky injection practices. Participants suggested need-based rather than one-for-one exchange, increasing syringe delivery services, encouraging secondary exchange by PWUD, and peers as trusted voices for information exchange. Rapid implementation of policy and practice changes are urgently required to improve SSP access, reinforce safer use, and prevent HIV/HCV and COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Harm Reduction , Humans , Oregon , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Compr Psychiatry ; 104: 152218, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926833

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: When the first COVID-19 infections were reported in Germany, fear and anxiety spread faster than the pandemic itself. While moderate amounts of fear of a COVID-19 infection may be functional, generalized anxiety and the potentially resulting distress and psychopathology may possibly be detrimental to people's health. Authorities need to avoid a countrywide panic, on the one hand, but foster a realistic awareness of the actual threat, on the other hand. OBJECTIVES: The current cross-sectional study aimed to investigate psychological reactions in response to the real or perceived infection threats. In particular, the analysis should reveal whether COVID-19-related fear and generalized anxiety in times of COVID-19 have distinct correlates. METHODS: A nationwide study was conducted from March 10th to May 4th 2020 in Germany (n = 15,308; 10,824 women, 4433 men, 51 other). Generalized anxiety was assessed using the GAD-7, while COVID-19-related fear was measured using a self-generated item. Both outcome variables were entered into linear regression models. Demographic information, depressive symptoms, trust in governmental interventions, subjective level of information regarding COVID-19 and media use were used to predict generalized anxiety and COVID-19-related fear. RESULTS: The data revealed distinct correlates of COVID-19-related fear and generalized anxiety. Although COVID-19-related fear and generalized anxiety had overlapping predictors, such as neuroticism, they most prominently differed in age distribution and direction of an urban-rural disparity: generalized anxiety decreases with age, but COVID-19-related fear is most pronounced in elderly participants. Generalized anxiety is also more prevalent in rural communities, but COVID-19-related fear is elevated in metropoles. Furthermore, the presence of a risk disease increases COVID-19-related fear, but not generalized anxiety. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that COVID-19-related fear is often justified considering the individual risk of infection or complication due to infection. Some of the characteristics that predict COVID-19-related fear leave generalized anxiety unaffected or show divergent predictive directions. The present findings hint toward two related, but discriminant constructs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Fear , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1671-1674, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922981

ABSTRACT

In the United States, outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), were initially reported in densely populated urban areas (1); however, outbreaks have since been reported in rural communities (2,3). Rural residents might be at higher risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness because, on average, they are older, have higher prevalences of underlying medical conditions, and have more limited access to health care services.* In May, after a cluster of seven COVID-19 cases was identified in a rural Ohio Amish community, access to testing was increased. Among 30 additional residents tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit),† 23 (77%) received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Rapid and sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with multiple social gatherings. Informant interviews revealed that community members were concerned about having to follow critical mitigation strategies, including social distancing§ and mask wearing.¶ To help reduce the ongoing transmission risk in a community, state and county health department staff members and community leaders need to work together to develop, deliver, and promote culturally responsive health education messages to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission and ensure that access to testing services is timely and convenient. Understanding the dynamics of close-knit communities is crucial to reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Amish/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amish/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Social Behavior , Young Adult
14.
J Addict Med ; 15(5): 383-389, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health, substance use, and overdose concerns among people who use drugs (PWUDs) in rural communities to explore reasons for changes and ways to mitigate COVID-19 impact in the future. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with PWUDs in 5 rural Oregon counties with high overdose rates. Participants were identified through participant-driven sampling along with flyer and text advertising (n = 36). Research staff conducted audio-recorded in-depth interviews via telephone, assessing COVID-19 effects on substance use, mental health, and overdose risk. Transcribed interviewers were coded for themes using a semantic approach. RESULTS: Participants reported various mental health symptoms and experiences due to COVID-19, including increased feelings of boredom, loneliness, and depression; increased worry and stress; and increased suicidal ideation. Participants described varying impacts of COVID-19 on substance use. Overall, participants who used only methamphetamine reported decreased use and people who used only heroin or heroin with methamphetamine reported increased use. Most participants reported that they were not concerned about overdose and that COVID-19 did not impact their concerns about overdose, despite increases in risky use and suicidal ideations. CONCLUSIONS: As rural communities respond to the evolving impacts of COVID-19, there is increasing need to identify strategies to address PWUD's mental, physical, and social health needs during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Heliyon ; 6(10): e05354, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907798

ABSTRACT

This article presents an analysis of the potential forest damage that occurred due to the COVID-19 pandemic in rural communities on the Forest Management Unit (FMUs). It focused on forest utilization and deforestation before and during the epidemic. Base on The data on online surveys using Google form instruments, Zoom meetings, and in-depth telephone interviews with the informants. The data of the research were analyzed descriptively using the mind mapping method. The data analysis shows that social and economic impacts potentially enhance the threat of forest resource utilization-increasing pressure on the forest due to the increase in forest product demand. Even though the government made efforts to minimize forest degradation and prevent illegal logging, the communities didn't follow the policy because there were no alternative solutions. The timber logging is carried out into a threat to forest degradation when it's not immediately prevented. The FMU needs to improve access to rural living near the forest to increase their forest income. These solutions are crucial for reducing illegal logging activities and forest degradation in the pandemic.

16.
Health Educ Res ; 35(5): 481-489, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889553

ABSTRACT

Awareness and knowledge have been identified as essential requirements to successfully combat the global threat which COVID-19 currently poses. Rural communities are particularly at risk because of their low socio-economic status and high illiteracy level. There is currently uncertainty regarding how to effectively raise awareness about the pandemic and educate rural communities about it. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of interpersonal communication in awareness creation and knowledge about COVID-19 among rural communities in a developing country. We tested three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The sample size was made up 470 participants. The questionnaire served as the instrument for data collection. In the analysis of data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The results demonstrate that interpersonal communication is effective in creating awareness about COVID-19 among rural communities. It was also found that interpersonal communication was effective in improving knowledge about the pandemic among rural communications. We explored the implications of these findings on healthcare delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communication , Coronavirus Infections , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Awareness , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Knowledge , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Am J Crim Justice ; 45(4): 731-742, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657378

ABSTRACT

Rural criminal justice organizations have been overlooked by researchers and underfunded in the United States, exacerbating problems caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Access to victims' services has been a longstanding issue in rural communities, but has become more difficult due to stay-at-home orders and changes in daily activities. Requirements such as social distancing, necessitated by COVID-19, have increased the risk of domestic violence and rural service providers are less prepared than those in more populated areas. Rural law enforcement agencies, on the other hand, have traditionally operated with smaller budgets and staffs-conditions that have complicated the response to the unprecedented event. Many of the recommended practices for policing during a pandemic have been more applicable to larger urban and suburban departments with more resources and officers extended across many units. The strain on rural victims' services and law enforcement has been felt only a few months into the coronavirus pandemic, while the long-term effects are not yet known.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL