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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S22-S27, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574768

ABSTRACT

Disruption of health services due to the COVID-19 pandemic threatens to derail progress being made in tuberculosis control efforts. Forcibly displaced people and migrant populations face particular vulnerabilities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which leaves them at further risk of developing TB. They inhabit environments where measures such as "physical distancing" are impossible to realize and where facilities like camps and informal temporary settlements can easily become sites of rapid disease transmission. In this viewpoint we utilize three case studies-from Peru, South Africa, and Syria-to illustrate the lived experience of forced migration and mobile populations, and the impact of COVID-19 on TB among these populations. We discuss the dual pandemics of TB and COVID-19 in the context of migration through a syndemic lens, to systematically address the upstream social, economic, structural and political factors that - in often deleterious dynamics - foster increased vulnerabilities and risk. Addressing TB, COVID-19 and migration from a syndemic perspective, not only draws systematic attention to comorbidity and the relevance of social and structural context, but also helps to find solutions: the true reality of syndemic interactions can only be fully understood by considering a particular population and bio- social context, and ensuring that they receive the comprehensive care that they need. It also provides avenues for strengthening and expanding the existing infrastructure for TB care to tackle both COVID-19 and TB in migrants and refugees in an integrated and synergistic manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S96-S99, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575764

ABSTRACT

The WHO 2020 global TB Report estimates that in 2019 there were an estimated 500,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) of which only 186,772 MDR-TB cases were diagnosed, and positive treatment outcomes were achieved in 57% of them. These data highlight the need for accelerating and improving MDR-TB screening, diagnostic, treatment and patient follow-up services. The last decade has seen three new TB drugs being licensed; bedaquiline, delamanid and pretomanid, and combinations these new, existing and repurposed drugs are leading to improved cure rates. The all oral six month WHO regimen for MDR-TB is more tolerable, has higher treatment success rates and lower mortality. However, the unprecedented ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is having major direct and indirect negative impacts on health services overall, including national TB programs and TB services. This adds further to longstanding challenges for tackling MDR-TB such as cost, rollout of diagnostics and drugs, and implementation of latest WHO guidelines for MDR-TB. In light of COVID-19 disruption of TB services, it is anticipated the numbers of MDR-TB cases will rise in 2021 and 2022 and will affect treatment outcomes further. Investing more in development of new TB drugs and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimens is required in anticipation of emerging drug resistance to new TB drug regimens. There is an urgent need for protecting current investments in TB services, sustaining gains being made in TB control and accelerating roll out of TB diagnostic and treatment services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Clinical Protocols , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S82-S87, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The interaction of COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB) are still poor characterized. Here we evaluated the immune response specific for Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and SARS-CoV-2 using a whole-blood-based assay-platform in COVID-19 patients either with TB or latent TB infection (LTBI). METHODS: We evaluated IFN-γ level in plasma from whole-blood stimulated with Mtb antigens in the Quantiferon-Plus format or with peptides derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate (CD4-S). RESULTS: We consecutively enrolled 63 COVID-19, 10 TB-COVID-19 and 11 LTBI-COVID-19 patients. IFN-γ response to Mtb-antigens was significantly associated to TB status and therefore it was higher in TB-COVID-19 and LTBI-COVID-19 patients compared to COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.0007). Positive responses against CD4-S were found in 35/63 COVID-19 patients, 7/11 LTBI-COVID-19 and only 2/10 TB-COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, the responders in the TB-COVID-19 group were less compared to COVID-19 and LTBI-COVID-19 groups (p = 0.037 and 0.044, respectively). Moreover, TB-COVID-19 patients showed the lowest quantitative IFN-γ response to CD4-S compared to COVID-19-patients (p = 0.0336) and LTBI-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.0178). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that COVID-19 patients either TB or LTBI have a low ability to build an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 while retaining the ability to respond to Mtb-specific antigens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tuberculosis/immunology
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S16-S21, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575135

ABSTRACT

In this perspective, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis (TB)/HIV health services and approaches to mitigating the growing burden of these three colliding epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA countries bear significantly high proportions of TB and HIV cases reported worldwide, compared to countries in the West. Whilst COVID-19 epidemiology appears to vary across Africa, most countries in this region have reported relatively lower-case counts compared to the West. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden to already overstretched health systems in SSA, which, among other things, have been focused on the longstanding dual epidemics of TB and HIV. As with these dual epidemics, inadequate resources and poor case identification and reporting may be contributing to underestimations of the COVID-19 case burden in SSA. Modelling studies predict that the pandemic-related disruptions in TB and HIV services will result in significant increases in associated morbidity and mortality over the next five years. Furthermore, limited empirical evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with TB and HIV are associated with increased mortality risk in SSA. However, predictive models require a better evidence-base to accurately define the impact of COVID-19, not only on communicable diseases such as TB and HIV, but on non-communicable disease comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess morbidity and mortality data among both adults and children across the African continent, paying attention to geographic disparities, as well as the clinical and socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 in the setting of TB and/or HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2005-e2015, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) death in sub-Saharan Africa and the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis on COVID-19 outcomes are unknown. METHODS: We conducted a population cohort study using linked data from adults attending public-sector health facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, sex, location, and comorbidities, to examine the associations between HIV, tuberculosis, and COVID-19 death from 1 March to 9 June 2020 among (1) public-sector "active patients" (≥1 visit in the 3 years before March 2020); (2) laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 cases; and (3) hospitalized COVID-19 cases. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for COVID-19, comparing adults living with and without HIV using modeled population estimates. RESULTS: Among 3 460 932 patients (16% living with HIV), 22 308 were diagnosed with COVID-19, of whom 625 died. COVID-19 death was associated with male sex, increasing age, diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. HIV was associated with COVID-19 mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-2.70), with similar risks across strata of viral loads and immunosuppression. Current and previous diagnoses of tuberculosis were associated with COVID-19 death (aHR, 2.70 [95% CI, 1.81-4.04] and 1.51 [95% CI, 1.18-1.93], respectively). The SMR for COVID-19 death associated with HIV was 2.39 (95% CI, 1.96-2.86); population attributable fraction 8.5% (95% CI, 6.1-11.1). CONCLUSIONS: While our findings may overestimate HIV- and tuberculosis-associated COVID-19 mortality risks due to residual confounding, both living with HIV and having current tuberculosis were independently associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. The associations between age, sex, and other comorbidities and COVID-19 mortality were similar to those in other settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 300-305, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (TB) patients is unknown. METHODS: Participating centres completed a structured web-based survey regarding changes to TB patient management during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also included data from participating centres on patients aged ≥18 diagnosed with TB in 2 periods: March 15 to June 30, 2020 and March 15 to June 30, 2019. Clinical variables and information about patient household contacts were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: A total of 7 (70%) TB units reported changes in their usual TB team operations. Across both periods of study, 169 patients were diagnosed with active TB (90 in 2019, 79 in 2020). Patients diagnosed in 2020 showed more frequent bilateral lesions in chest X-ray than patients diagnosed in 2019 (P = 0.004). There was a higher percentage of latent TB infection and active TB among children in households of patients diagnosed in 2020, compared with 2019 (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial changes in TB care. TB patients diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic showed more extended pulmonary forms. The increase in latent TB infection and active TB in children of patient households could reflect increased household transmission due to anti-COVID-19 measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Child , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): 542-544, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338667

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may impede global tuberculosis elimination goals. In Jiangsu Province, China, tuberculosis notifications dropped 52% in 2020 compared to 2015-2019. Treatment completion and screening for drug resistance decreased continuously in 2020. Urgent attention must be paid to tuberculosis control efforts during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 644536, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259404

ABSTRACT

Background: To contain the pandemic of COVID-19, China has implemented a series of public health interventions that impacted the tuberculosis control substantially, but these impacts may vary greatly depending on the severity of the local COVID-19 epidemic. The impact of COVID-19 on TB control in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is little known. Methods: Based on the national TB Information Management System (TBIMS), this study accessed the actual impact of COVID-19 on TB by comparing TB notifications, pre-treatment delays, and clinical characteristics of TB cases between 2020 COVID-19 period and 2017-2019 baseline. The data were divided into three periods based on the response started to fight against COVID-19 in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, including the control period (10 weeks before the pandemic), intensive period (10 weeks during the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region lockdown), and regular (10 additional weeks after Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region reopen). Results: TB notification dropped sharply in the first week of the intensive period but took significantly longer to return to the previous level in 2020 compared with the 2017-2019 baseline. Totally, the TB notification rates decreased by more than 60% in the intensive period of COVID-19 compared with the average level of 2017-2019. The sputum smear-positive rate of TB patients diagnosed in intensive period of COVID-19 was significantly higher than that in the corresponding periods of 2017-2019 (P < 0.001). The rate of cavity on X-ray inspection of TB cases diagnosed in the intensive period of COVID-19 was significantly higher than that in period 2 of 2017-2019 (23.5 vs. 15.4%, P = 0.004). The patients' delay in the intensive period was significantly longer than that before the pandemic (P = 0.047). Conclusions: The TB notification in Ningxia was impacted dramatically by the pandemic of COVID-19. To compensate for the large numbers of missed diagnosis as well as delayed diagnosis during the intensive period of COVID-19, an urgent restoration of normal TB services, and further emphasis on enhanced active case finding and scale-up of household contact tracing and screening for TB-related symptoms or manifestation, will be essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 378, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective • To assess the efficacy of Ayurveda interventions and Yoga in rehabilitation of COVID-19 cases suffering with long term effects of COVID 19 as compared to WHO Rehabilitation Self-Management after COVID-19- Related Illness. Secondary Objective • To assess the safety of Ayurvedic interventions in cases suffering with long term effects of COVID 19 TRIAL DESIGN: Multi-centric, randomized, controlled, parallel group, open-label, exploratory study. The study duration is 9 months and the intervention period is 90 days from the day of enrolment of the participant. PARTICIPANTS: Patients of either sex between 18 to 60 years, ambulatory, willing to participate, with history (not more than 4 weeks) of positive RT-PCR for COVID-19 or IgM antibodies positivity for SARS CoV-2, but having negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 at the time of screening will be considered eligible for enrolment in the study. Critically ill patients with ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), requiring invasive respiratory support in the intensive care unit, known case of any malignancy, immune-compromised state (e.g. HIV), diabetes mellitus, active pulmonary tuberculosis, past history of any chronic respiratory disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, impaired cognition, atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, severe arrhythmia, concurrent serious hepatic disease or renal disease, pregnant or lactating women, patients on immunosuppressive medications, history of hypersensitivity to the trial drugs or their ingredients, depressive illness (before COVID-19), diagnosed psychotic illnesses, substance dependence or alcoholism will be excluded. The trial will be conducted at two medical colleges in Maharashtra, India. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention Arm (Group-I): Ayurveda interventions including Agastya Haritaki six gram and Ashwagandha tablet 500 mg twice daily orally after meals with warm water and two sessions of yoga (morning 30 minutes and evening 15 minutes) daily for 90 days, as per the post-COVID-19 care protocol provided in National Clinical Management Protocol based on Ayurveda and Yoga for management of COVID-19 published by Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India. Comparator Arm (Group-II): WHO Rehabilitation Self-Management after COVID-19 related illness for 90 days. The trial drugs are being procured from a GMP certified pharmaceutical company. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome: Change in respiratory function to be assessed by San Diego shortness of breath Questionnaire, 6-minutes walk test and pulmonary function test. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Change in High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Chest Change in Fatigue score assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale Change in Anxiety score assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Score Change in Sleep Quality assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Change in the quality of life assessed by COV19-QoL scale Safety of the interventions will be assessed by comparing hematological and biochemical investigations before and after the intervention period and Adverse Event/ Adverse drug reaction TIMELINES FOR OUTCOME ASSESSMENT: Subjective parameters and clinical assessment will be assessed at baseline, 15th day, 30th day, 60th day and 90th day. Laboratory parameters (CBC, LFT, KFT, HbA1c, Hs-CRP, D-dimer), Pulmonary function test and HRCT Chest will be done at baseline and after completion of study period i.e. 90th day. RANDOMISATION: Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 is used to generate the random number sequences. The participants will be randomized to two study groups in the ratio of 1:1. BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label design. However, the outcome assessor will be kept blinded regarding the study group allocation of the participants. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE) SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size for the study is calculated assuming improvement in 6-minutes walk test by 40 meter in Group I and a change of 10 meter in Group II with a standard deviation of 50 meter based on the results of the previous studies, with 95% Confidence Level (α = 0.05) and 80% power and expecting a dropout rate of 20%. The number of participants to be enrolled in the study should be approximately 55 in each group. Hence, a total of 110 participants will be enrolled in the trial at each study site. TRIAL STATUS: Participants' recruitment started on 1st May 2021. Anticipated end of recruitment is August 2021. Protocol number: CCRAS-01 Protocol version number: 1.1, 13th January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is prospectively registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) on 03rd March 2021 [ CTRI/2021/03/031686 ]. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Journal website (Additional file 1). This communication serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Yoga , Female , Humans , India , Lactation , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257120

ABSTRACT

The first COVID-19 case was reported in Ethiopia on 13th March 2020 and series of announcements of set of measures, proclamation and directives have been enacted to fight the coronavirus pandemic. These have implications for the regular health services including the TB control program. This brief communication assesses the impact of the COVID-19 response on the TB control activities of Addis Ababa health centers based on research project data. We compared the patient flows in pre-COVID-19 period (quarter 1, Q1) and during COVID-19 (quarter 2, Q2 and quarter 3, Q3) of 2020 at 56 health centers in Addis Ababa from all 10 sub-cities per sub-city. The patient flow declined from 3,473 in Q1 to 1,062 in Q2 and 1,074 in Q3, which is a decrease by 62-76% and 52-80% in Q2 and Q3 respectively as compared to that of Q1. In Q2, Kolfe keranio and Kirkos sub-cities recorded the biggest decline (76 and 75% respectively) whereas Yeka sub-city had the least decline (62%). In Q3, Kirkos sub-city had the biggest decline (80%) and Addis ketema sub-city had the lowest (52%). We conclude that the series of measures, state of emergency proclamation and government directives issued to counter the spread of COVID-19 and the public response to these significantly affected the TB control activities in Addis Ababa city as attested by the decrease in the patient flow at the clinics. Health authorities may inform the public that essential health services are still available and open to everyone in need of these services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Ethiopia , Humans
13.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(6): 288-293, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246083

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious mortality in the world, affecting mainly developing countries (DC), while diabetes (DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. This review analyzes the fact that diabetes is currently an important risk factor for developing TB, also presenting more complicated TB, more relapses and higher mortality. The DCs and the fourth world of the large cities are those with the highest incidence of TB and an increase in DM, which will make it difficult to control tuberculosis disease. At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic is complicating the management of both diseases due to the difficulty of access to control and treatment and the worsening of socioeconomic inequalities. It is necessary to establish a bidirectional screening for TB and DM and promote recommendations for the joint management of both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
14.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 24: 100247, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244760

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is a treatable and curable bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affects the lung. Since 2018, it has become the leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is a public health problem in French Guiana. The majority of reported cases are diagnosed among people coming from neighboring Latin American countries. Since March 2020, French Guiana has been affected, like the rest of the world, by the new infectious disease COVID19 linked to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. We here report a case of COVID19 and pulmonary tuberculosis coinfection. COVID19 pneumonia was the mode of discovery of the tuberculosis. In the present case, the tuberculosis appeared as parenchymal and endobronchial pseudotumoral lesion, which has been complicated by a bronchoesophageal fistula. The evolution of the parenchymal, endobronchial lesion and bronchoesophageal fistula was favorable after two months of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

15.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14023, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200338

ABSTRACT

Objective The study was conducted with the objective of describing High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest findings of clinically suspected COVID-19 patients having a negative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay as well as prevalence and distribution of the HRCT chest manifestations consistent with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted prospectively on a total of 48 patients with high clinical suspicion for COVID-19 and a negative RT-PCR assay that was presented to the Diagnostic Radiology Department of Capital Hospital, Islamabad from July 2020 to December 2020. These patients were included via non-probability consecutive sampling, had a positive history of contact with a known COVID-19 patient and/or any two of the following signs and symptoms; fever, cough, malaise, body aches, arthralgia, new-onset loss of taste and smell, and dyspnea or oxygen saturation less than 85%. A detailed history was sought after informed consent and all these patients underwent non-contrast HRCT chest scans that were reported by an experienced consultant radiologist. The scans showing positive features for COVID-19 pneumonia were assessed for the nature and distribution of the disease. Results Amongst 48 suspects with negative RT-PCR assay, 38 (79.2%) showed ground-glass opacities, a hallmark feature of COVID-19 pneumonia. A total of 22 (57.89%) of these 38 patients had ground-glass opacities with a crazy-paving pattern, nine (23.68%) mixed ground-glass opacities with consolidation, and seven (18.42%) had pure ground-glass opacities. Among these 79.2% suspects, ground-glass opacities were multifocal in 37 (97.37%), bilateral in 35 (92.10%), peripheral in 36 (94.74%), and dorsally located in 32 (81.6%) cases. Subpleural atelectatic bands were seen in 18 (47.36%) of these, bronchovascular markings were prominent in 15 (39.47%), and reverse halo sign was positive in nine (23.68%) cases. Out of the rest of the cases, three were diagnosed as interstitial lung disease, two as chronic lung disease, and one as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion The majority of clinically suspected cases for COVID-19 showed hallmark findings on non-contrast HRCT chest scans in keeping with coronavirus disease regardless of a negative RT-PCR assay.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195942

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the discourses of patients who were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the perception of why they acquired this health condition and barriers to seeking care in a priority city in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was an exploratory qualitative study, which used the theoretical-methodological framework of the Discourse Analysis of French matrix, guided by the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. The study was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Seven participants were interviewed who were undergoing treatment at the time of the interview. The analysis of the participants' discourses allowed the emergence of four discursive blocks: (1) impact of the social determinants in the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, (2) barriers to seeking care and difficulties accessing health services, (3) perceptions of the side effects and their impact on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, and (4) tuberculosis and COVID-19: a necessary dialogue. Through discursive formations, these revealed the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Considering the complexity involved in the dynamics of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, advancing in terms of equity in health, that is, in reducing unjust differences, is a challenge for public policies, especially at the current moment in Brazil, which is of accentuated economic, political and social crisis. The importance of psychosocial stressors and the lack of social support should also be highlighted as intermediary determinants of health. The study has also shown the situation of COVID-19, which consists of an important barrier for patients seeking care. Many patients reported fear, insecurity and worry with regard to returning to medical appointments, which might contribute to the worsening of tuberculosis in the scenario under study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Young Adult
17.
Semergen ; 46 Suppl 1: 55-64, 2020 Aug.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195436

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to promote the rapid identification of the contacts of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and therefore the control of the pandemic. Different methodologies and recommendations on contact tracing for Primary Health Care (PHC) and Public Health Services (PHS), like articles in Pubmed about COVID-19 and contact tracing, official contact definitions, the classic contact tracing model in tuberculosis (TB), information about apps for contact tracing and the role of the diagnostic tests, were reviewed. To establish efficient prevention and control measures, it is always necessary to implement contact tracing based on clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and isolation of cases and contacts and their follow-up. The classic contact tracing model in TB can be applied to this new infection, but accelerating the process given its acute nature and its potential severity. Good coordination between PHC and PHS and having sufficient resources is essential.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Public Health , COVID-19 , Forms as Topic , Humans
18.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(4): e25696, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160594

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Until COVID-19, tuberculosis (TB) was the leading infectious disease killer globally, disproportionally affecting people with HIV. The COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the gains made in the fight against both diseases. DISCUSSION: Although crucial guidance has been released on how to maintain TB and HIV services during the pandemic, it is acknowledged that what was considered normal service pre-pandemic needs to improve to ensure that we rebuild person-centred, inclusive and quality healthcare services. The threat that the pandemic may reverse gains in the response to TB and HIV may be turned into an opportunity by pivoting to using proven differentiated service delivery approaches and innovative technologies that can be used to maintain care during the pandemic and accelerate improved service delivery in the long term. Models of care should be convenient, supportive and sufficiently differentiated to avoid burdensome clinic visits for medication pick-ups or directly observed treatments. Additionally, the pandemic has highlighted the chronic and short-sighted lack of investment in health systems and the need to prioritize research and development to close the gaps in TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention, especially for children and people with HIV. Most importantly, TB-affected communities and civil society must be supported to lead the planning, implementation and monitoring of TB and HIV services, especially in the time of COVID-19 where services have been disrupted, and to report on legal, policy and gender-related barriers to access experienced by affected people. This will help to ensure that TB services are held accountable by affected communities for delivering equitable access to quality, affordable and non-discriminatory services during and beyond the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Successfully reaching the related targets of ending TB and AIDS as public health threats by 2030 requires rebuilding of stronger, more inclusive health systems by advancing equitable access to quality TB services, including for people with HIV, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, services must be rights-based, community-led and community-based, to ensure that no one is left behind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/therapy , Community Health Services , Humans
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S88-S90, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: All countries impacted by COVID-19 have had to change routine health service delivery. Although this has reversed some of the progress made in reducing the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease, there is an opportunity to incorporate lessons learned to improve TB programmes going forward. APPROACH: We use Pakistan as a case study to discuss three important adaptations in light of COVID-19: bringing care closer to patients; strengthening primary health care systems; and proactively addressing stigma and fear. FINDINGS: COVID-19 control in Pakistan has restricted people's ability to travel and this has forced the TB programme to reduce the need for in-person health facility visits and bring care closer to patients' homes. Strategies that may be useful for providing more convenient care to patients in the future include: : remote treatment support using telemedicine; collaborating with private healthcare providers; and establishing community medicine collection points. As part of the response to COVID-19 in Pakistan, the out-patient departments of major tertiary and secondary care hospitals were closed, and this highlighted the importance of strengthening primary healthcare for both better pandemic and TB control. Finally, stigma associated with COVID-19 and TB can be addressed using trusted community-based health workers, such as Lady Health Workers in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Community Health Workers , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 633297, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133913

ABSTRACT

The C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 17 (CXCL17) is chemotactic for myeloid cells, exhibits bactericidal activity, and exerts anti-viral functions. This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the respiratory tract, suggesting a role in lung defenses. However, little is known about the participation of CXCL17 against relevant respiratory pathogens in humans. Here, we evaluated the serum levels and lung tissue expression pattern of CXCL17 in a cohort of patients with severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) from Mexico City. Peripheral blood samples obtained on admission and seven days after hospitalization were processed for determinations of serum CXCL17 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of CXCL17 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) in lung autopsy specimens from patients that succumbed to the disease. Serum CXCL17 levels were also analyzed in two additional comparative cohorts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Additionally, the expression of CXCL17 was tested in lung autopsy specimens from COVID-19 patients. A total of 122 patients were enrolled in the study, from which 68 had pandemic influenza A(H1N1), 24 had COVID-19, and 30 with PTB. CXCL17 was detected in post-mortem lung specimens from patients that died of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and COVID-19. Interestingly, serum levels of CXCL17 were increased only in patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1), but not COVID-19 and PTB. CXCL17 not only differentiated pandemic influenza A(H1N1) from other respiratory infections but showed prognostic value for influenza-associated mortality and renal failure in machine-learning algorithms and regression analyses. Using cell culture assays, we also identified that human alveolar A549 cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages increase their CXCL17 production capacity after influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Our results for the first time demonstrate an induction of CXCL17 specifically during pandemic influenza A(H1N1), but not COVID-19 and PTB in humans. These findings could be of great utility to differentiate influenza and COVID-19 and to predict poor prognosis specially at settings of high incidence of pandemic A(H1N1). Future studies on the role of CXCL17 not only in severe pandemic influenza, but also in seasonal influenza, COVID-19, and PTB are required to validate our results.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Chemokines, CXC/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Lung/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Chemokines, CXC/genetics , Chemokines, CXC/immunology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Lung/pathology , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Young Adult
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