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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1602-1609, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups. RESULTS: Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the form of mouthwash and nasal spray as an auxiliary treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Forty hospitalized patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test were evaluated. They were randomly divided into an experimental group (n= 20; gargling with 1.0% H2O2 and nasal wash with 0.5% H2O2) or a control group (n= 20). The solutions were used for 7 days and the patients were monitored every 2 days, for a total of 8 days. At check-ups, patients were asked about their symptoms and possible adverse effects of the solutions. The presence and severity (mild, moderate, or severe) of symptoms were recorded. Data were compared using the Student test and the Fisher exact test (α= 0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the length of hospital stay (p= 0.65). The most frequent symptom on day 0 was coughing (72.0% in the experimental group and 76.5% in the control group), which abated over time. There was no significant difference between the groups in the evaluated symptoms. Most (75.0%) of the patients in the experimental group presented a reduction in dyspnea between days 0 and 2. Few patients reported adverse effects from the use of the solutions. CONCLUSIONS: H2O2 as a mouthwash and nasal spray is safe to use. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that H2O2 is effective as an auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): 606-611, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its life-threatening respiratory infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been evaluated, including COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Multiple large reports of CCP treatment in adults exist. Pediatric data on CCP safety and efficacy are limited. METHODS: Single-center prospective, open-label trial looking at safety, antibody kinetics and outcomes of CCP (10 mL/kg, max 1 unit) treatment for COVID-19 in hospitalized pediatric patients with moderate to severe disease or at high-risk for serious illness. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were enrolled. No infusion-related adverse events occurred. No hematologic or metabolic adverse events were noted during hospitalization or at 3-weeks. Ten patients had clinical improvement by day 7 (WHO eight-category ordinal severity scale for COVID-19). Following CCP, anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid IgG increased significantly at 24 hours and high levels were sustained at 7- and 21-days. Transient IgM response was noted. Twelve patients (92.3%) were discharged home, 9 (75%) by day 7 post-CCP. One remained on invasive ventilatory support 42 days after CCP and was eventually discharged to an intermediate care facility. The single patient death was retrospectively confirmed to have had brain death before CCP. CONCLUSION: CCP was well tolerated in pediatric patients, resulted in rapid antibody increase, and did not appear to interfere with immune responses measured at 21 days. More pediatric data are necessary to establish the efficacy of CCP, but our data suggest benefit in moderate to severe COVID-19 when used early. Other immunologic or antiviral interventions may be added as supported by emerging data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/standards , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kinetics , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
6.
PM R ; 14(2): 198-201, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors are at risk of functional decline. To address the current gap in knowledge about post-acute needs of those infected by COVID-19, we examined discharge function data to better prepare patients, providers, and health systems to return patients to optimal levels of functioning. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of functional decline and related rehabilitation needs at hospital discharge. DESIGN: Prospective chart review. SETTING: Academic tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults with a laboratory confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, with admission dates between March 4, 2020 and May 1, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Discharge location; need for outpatient physical, occupational, or speech therapy; need for durable medical equipment at discharge; presence of dysphagia at discharge; functional decline. RESULTS: Three hundred eleven potential cases were reviewed. The final number of cases included in analysis was N = 288; patient ages ranged from 20 to 95 years old (mean 66.80 ± 15.31 years). Nearly 20 % of COVID-19 survivors were discharged to a location other than their home. Forty-five percent of survivors experienced functional decline impacting their discharge. Eighty-seven survivors (80.6%) who showed functional change during hospitalization were referred for additional therapy at discharge. At least 73 (67.6%) of these patients required durable medical equipment at discharge (in 12 cases this was not clearly documented). Twenty-nine (26.7%) of the survivors who showed functional changes had ongoing dysphagia at the time of hospital discharge. Ninety-seven of the survivors (40.6%) were never assessed by a PM&R physician, physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech language pathologist during their hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mortality rates are frequently reported in the media, whereas the effects on function are not as well described. The information provided here highlights the need for rehabilitative services during and after hospitalization for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(2): 137-141, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may escape the inactivation by gastric acid because of hypochlorhydria caused by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which could predispose the patients to severe COVID-19. METHODS: We studied the association between prehospitalization PPI exposure and clinical outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 295 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included in the study. 15.6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were on PPIs at home. Mortality among PPI-users was 2.3 times higher than non-users, along with 2.3 times higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome after adjusting for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: We found that prehospitalization PPI-exposure is independently associated with worse clinical outcomes, including mortality in COVID-19 patients, regardless of the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Hospitalization , Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 327-334, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662105

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) have been used for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their effectiveness varies significantly. Moreover, the impact of CP treatment on the composition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in COVID-19 patients and antibody markers that differentiate between those who survive and those who succumb to the COVID-19 disease are not well understood. Herein, we performed longitudinal analysis of antibody profile on 115 sequential plasma samples from 16 hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with either CP or standard of care, only half of them survived. Differential antibody kinetics was observed for antibody binding, immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G/immunoglobulin A (IgM/IgG/IgA) distribution, and affinity maturation in "survived" versus "fatal" COVID-19 patients. Surprisingly, CP treatment did not predict survival. Strikingly, marked decline in neutralization titers was observed in the fatal patients prior to death, and convalescent plasma treatment did not reverse this trend. Furthermore, irrespective of CP treatment, higher antibody affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 prefusion spike was associated with survival outcome. Additionally, sustained elevated IgA response was associated with fatal outcome in these COVID-19 patients. These findings propose that treatment of COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma should be carefully targeted, and effectiveness of treatment may depend on the clinical and immunological status of COVID-19 patients, as well as the quality of the antibodies in the convalescent plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 127-132, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621567

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experiencing respiratory symptoms have different complications (inflammatory, co-infection, and thrombotic) that are identifiable by analytics patterns. Personalized treatment decisions decreased early mortality (odds ratio [OR] .144; 95% confidence interval [CI] .03-.686; P = .015). Increasing age (OR 1.06; P = .038) and therapeutic effort limitation (OR 9.684; P < .001) were associated with higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3339-3347, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of neurological complications observed in a hospital-based cohort of COVID-19 patients who required a neurological assessment. METHODS: We conducted an observational, monocentric, prospective study of patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized during the 3-month period of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain). We describe the neurological diagnoses that arose after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. These diagnoses could be divided into different groups. RESULTS: Only 71 (2.6%) of 2750 hospitalized patients suffered at least one neurological complication (77 different neurological diagnoses in total) during the timeframe of the study. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disorders (33.7%), cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) (27.3%), acute encephalopathy (19.4%), seizures (7.8%), and miscellanea (11.6%) comprising hiccups, myoclonic tremor, Horner syndrome and transverse myelitis. CVDs and encephalopathy were common in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to neuromuscular disorders, which usually appeared later on (p = 0.005). Cerebrospinal fluid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction was negative in 15/15 samples. The mortality was higher in the CVD group (38.1% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neurological complications is low in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Different mechanisms appear to be involved in these complications, and there was no evidence of direct invasion of the nervous system in our cohort. Some of the neurological complications can be classified into early and late neurological complications of COVID-19, as they occurred at different times following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3411-3417, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, several reports indicated neurological involvement in COVID-19 disease. Muscle involvement has also been reported as evidenced by creatine kinase (CK) elevations and reports of myalgia. METHODS: Creatine kinase, markers of inflammation, pre-existing diseases and statin use were extracted from records of Austrian hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Disease severity was classified as severe in case of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality. COVID-19 patients were additionally compared to an historical group of hospitalised influenza patients. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-one patients with SARS-CoV-2 and 258 with influenza were included in the final analysis. CK was elevated in 27% of COVID-19 and in 28% of influenza patients. CK was higher in severe COVID-19 as were markers of inflammation. CK correlated significantly with inflammation markers, which had an independent impact on CK when adjusted for demographic variables and disease severity. Compared to influenza patients, COVID-19 patients were older, more frequently male, had more comorbidities, and more frequently had a severe disease course. Nevertheless, influenza patients had higher baseline CK than COVID-19, and 35.7% of intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients had CK levels >1,000 U/L compared to only 4.7% of ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: HyperCKemia occurs in a similar frequency in COVID-19 and influenza infection. CK levels were lower in COVID-19 than in influenza in mild and severe disease. CK levels strongly correlate with disease severity and markers of inflammation. To date, it remains unclear whether hyperCKemia is due to a virus-triggered inflammatory response or direct muscle toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Muscles , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3360-3368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute neurological phenotypes are being increasingly recognised, with neurological complications reported in more than 30% of hospitalised patients. However, multicentric studies providing a population-based perspective are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentric study at five hospitals in Northern Portugal, representing 45.1% of all hospitalised patients in this region, between 1 March and 30 June 2020. RESULTS: Among 1261 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, 457 (36.2%) presented neurological manifestations, corresponding to a rate of 357 per 1000 in the North Region. Patients with neurologic manifestations were younger (68.0 vs. 71.2 years, p = 0.002), and the most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (13.4%), delirium (10.1%), and impairment of consciousness (9.7%). Acute well-defined central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 19.1% of patients, corresponding to a rate of 217 per 1000 hospitalised patients in the whole region. Assuming that all patients with severe neurological events were hospitalised, we extrapolated our results to all COVID-19 patients in the region, estimating that 116 will have a severe neurological event, corresponding to a rate of nine per 1000 (95% CI = 7-11). Overall case fatality in patients presenting neurological manifestations was 19.8%, increasing to 32.6% among those with acute well-defined CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised the population of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Northern Portugal and found that neurological symptoms are common and associated with a high degree of disability at discharge. CNS involvement with criteria for in-hospital admission was observed in a significant proportion of patients. This knowledge provides the tools for adequate health planning and for improving COVID-19 multidisciplinary patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3426-3436, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Headache is an important manifestation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, the aim was to identify factors associated with headache in COVID-19 and headache characteristics. METHODS: This case-control study includes COVID-19 hospitalized patients with pneumonia during March 2020. Controls comprise COVID-19 patients without headache and the cases are COVID-19 patients with headache. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. Headache characteristics were evaluated by semi-structured telephonic interview after discharge. RESULTS: Of a total of 379 COVID-19 patients, 48 (13%) developed headache. Amongst these, 30 (62%) were men and the median age was 57.9 (47-73) years. Headache was associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities and reduced mortality, as well as with low levels of C-reactive protein, mild acute respiratory distress syndrome and oropharyngeal symptoms. A logistic multiple regression model revealed that headache was directly associated with D-dimer and creatinine levels, the use of high flow nasal cannula and arthromyalgia, whilst urea levels, beta-lactamic treatment and hypertension were negatively associated with headache. COVID-19-associated headache characteristics were available for 23/48 (48%) patients. Headache was the onset symptom in 8/20 (40%) patients, of mild or moderate intensity in 17/20 (85%) patients, with oppressive characteristics in 17/18 (94%) and of holocranial 8/19 (42%) or temporal 7/19 (37%) localization. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that headache is associated with a more benign SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-associated headache appears as an early symptom and as a novel headache with characteristics of headache attributed to systemic viral infection. Further research addressing the underlying mechanisms to confirm these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3478-3490, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection predisposes patients to arterial and venous thrombosis. This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence in the literature for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in association with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify cases of COVID-19-associated CVT. The search period spanned 1 January 2020 to 1 December 2020, and the review protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42020214327) followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Identified studies were evaluated for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A proportion meta-analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of CVT among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We identified 57 cases from 28 reports. Study quality was mostly classified as low. CVT symptoms developed after respiratory disease in 90%, and the mean interval was 13 days. CVT involved multiple sites in 67% of individuals, the deep venous system was affected in 37%, and parenchymal hemorrhage was found in 42%. Predisposing factors for CVT beyond SARS-CoV-2 infection were present in 31%. In-hospital mortality was 40%. Using data from 34,331 patients, the estimated frequency of CVT among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.5). In an inpatient setting, CVT accounted for 4.2% of cerebrovascular disorders in individuals with COVID-19 (cohort of 406 patients, 95% CI: 1.47-11.39). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral venous thrombosis in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a rare, although there seems to be an increased relative risk. High suspicion is necessary, because the diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition in COVID-19 patients can be challenging. Evidence is still scarce on the pathophysiology and potential prevention of COVID-19-associated CVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2283-2293, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and thromboprophylaxis should be balanced against risk of bleeding. This study examined risks of VTE and major bleeding in hospitalized and community-managed SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with control populations. METHODS: Using nationwide population-based registries, 30-day risks of VTE and major bleeding in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were compared with those of SARS-CoV-2 test-negative patients and with an external cohort of influenza patients. Medical records of all COVID-19 patients at 6 departments of infectious diseases in Denmark were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: The overall 30-day risk of VTE was 0.4% (40/9460) among SARS-CoV-2 patients (16% hospitalized), 0.3% (649/226 510) among SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects (12% hospitalized), and 1.0% (158/16 281) among influenza patients (59% hospitalized). VTE risks were higher and comparable in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive (1.5%), SARS-CoV-2 negative (1.8%), and influenza patients (1.5%). Diagnosis of major bleeding was registered in 0.5% (47/9460) of all SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals and in 2.3% of those hospitalized. Medical record review of 582 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients observed VTE in 4% (19/450) and major bleeding in 0.4% (2/450) of ward patients, of whom 31% received thromboprophylaxis. Among intensive care patients (100% received thromboprophylaxis), risks were 7% (9/132) for VTE and 11% (15/132) for major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Among people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a population-based setting, VTE risks were low to moderate and were not substantially increased compared with SARS-CoV-2 test-negative and influenza patients. Risk of severe bleeding was low for ward patients, but mirrored VTE risk in the intensive care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
16.
Allergy ; 77(1): 118-129, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can present with lymphopenia and extraordinary complex multiorgan pathologies that can trigger long-term sequela. AIMS: Given that inflammasome products, like caspase-1, play a role in the pathophysiology of a number of co-morbid conditions, we investigated caspases across the spectrum of COVID-19 disease. MATERIALS & METHODS: We assessed transcriptional states of multiple caspases and using flow cytometry, the expression of active caspase-1 in blood cells from COVID-19 patients in acute and convalescent stages of disease. Non-COVID-19 subject presenting with various comorbid conditions served as controls. RESULTS: Single-cell RNA-seq data of immune cells from COVID-19 patients showed a distinct caspase expression pattern in T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and eosinophils compared with controls. Caspase-1 was upregulated in CD4+ T-cells from hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared with unexposed controls. Post-COVID-19 patients with lingering symptoms (long-haulers) also showed upregulated caspase-1activity in CD4+ T-cells that ex vivo was attenuated with a select pan-caspase inhibitor. We observed elevated caspase-3/7levels in red blood cells from COVID-19 patients compared with controls that was reduced following caspase inhibition. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary results suggest an exuberant caspase response in COVID-19 that may facilitate immune-related pathological processes leading to severe outcomes. Further clinical correlations of caspase expression in different stages of COVID-19 will be needed. CONCLUSION: Pan-caspase inhibition could emerge as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate or prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caspase Inhibitors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1 , Caspase 3 , Caspase 7 , Caspase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Caspases/genetics , Humans
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575816

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively evaluated 2879 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from four hospitals to evaluate the ability of demographic data, medical history, and on-admission laboratory parameters to predict in-hospital mortality. Association of previously published risk factors (age, gender, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking habit, obesity, renal failure, cardiovascular/ pulmonary diseases, serum ferritin, lymphocyte count, APTT, PT, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and platelet count) with death was tested by a multivariate logistic regression, and a predictive model was created, with further validation in an independent sample. A total of 2070 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were finally included in the multivariable analysis. Age 61-70 years (p<0.001; OR: 7.69; 95%CI: 2.93 to 20.14), age 71-80 years (p<0.001; OR: 14.99; 95%CI: 5.88 to 38.22), age >80 years (p<0.001; OR: 36.78; 95%CI: 14.42 to 93.85), male gender (p<0.001; OR: 1.84; 95%CI: 1.31 to 2.58), D-dimer levels >2 ULN (p = 0.003; OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.22 to 2.62), and prolonged PT (p<0.001; OR: 2.18; 95%CI: 1.49 to 3.18) were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality. A predictive model performed with these parameters showed an AUC of 0.81 in the development cohort (n = 1270) [sensitivity of 95.83%, specificity of 41.46%, negative predictive value of 98.01%, and positive predictive value of 24.85%]. These results were then validated in an independent data sample (n = 800). Our predictive model of in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients has been developed, calibrated and validated. The model (MRS-COVID) included age, male gender, and on-admission coagulopathy markers as positively correlated factors with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 632965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575687

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is raising with a second wave threatening many countries. Therefore, it is important to understand COVID-19 characteristics across different countries. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 525 hospitalized symptomatic COVID-19 patients, from the central federal hospital in Dubai-UAE during period of March to August 2020. Results: UAE's COVID-19 patients were relatively young; mean (SD) of the age 49(15) years, 130 (25%) were older than 60 and 4 (<1%) were younger than 18 years old. Majority were male(47; 78%). The mean (SD) BMI was 29 (6) kg/m2. While the source of contracting COVID-19 was not known in 369 (70%) of patients, 29 (6%) reported travel to overseas-country and 127 (24%) reported contact with another COVID-19 case/s. At least one comorbidity was present in 284 (54%) of patients and 241 (46%) had none. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (177; 34%) and hypertension (166; 32%). The mean (SD) of symptoms duration was 6 (3) days. The most common symptoms at hospitalization were fever (340; 65%), cough (296; 56%), and shortness of breath (SOB) (243; 46%). Most of the laboratory values were within normal range, but (184; 35%) of patients had lymphopenia, 43 (8%) had neutrophilia, and 116 (22%) had prolong international normalized ratio (INR), and 317 (60%) had high D-dimer. Chest x ray findings of consolidation was present in 334 (64%) of patients and CT scan ground glass appearance was present in 354 (68%). Acute cardiac injury occurred in 124 (24%), acute kidney injury in 111 (21%), liver injury in 101 (19%), ARDS in 155 (30%), acidosis in 118 (22%), and septic shock in 93 (18%). Consequently, 150 (29%) required ICU admission with 103 (20%) needed mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the special profile of COVID-19 in UAE. Patients were young with diabetes and/or hypertension and associated with severe infection as shown by various clinical and laboratory data necessitating ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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