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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2946-e2951, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning immunity occurs in patients who have recovered from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether true re-infection occurs. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing was performed directly on respiratory specimens collected during 2 episodes of COVID-19 in a patient. Comparative genome analysis was conducted to differentiate re-infection from persistent viral shedding. Laboratory results, including RT-PCR Ct values and serum Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG, were analyzed. RESULTS: The second episode of asymptomatic infection occurred 142 days after the first symptomatic episode in an apparently immunocompetent patient. During the second episode, there was evidence of acute infection including elevated C-reactive protein and SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion. Viral genomes from first and second episodes belong to different clades/lineages. The virus genome from the first episode contained a a stop codon at position 64 of ORF8, leading to a truncation of 58 amino acids. Another 23 nucleotide and 13 amino acid differences located in 9 different proteins, including positions of B and T cell epitopes, were found between viruses from the first and second episodes. Compared to viral genomes in GISAID, the first virus genome was phylogenetically closely related to strains collected in March/April 2020, while the second virus genome was closely related to strains collected in July/August 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological, clinical, serological, and genomic analyses confirmed that the patient had re-infection instead of persistent viral shedding from first infection. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 may continue to circulate among humans despite herd immunity due to natural infection. Further studies of patients with re-infection will shed light on protective immunological correlates for guiding vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Genome, Viral , Humans , Reinfection , Whole Genome Sequencing
2.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389487

ABSTRACT

Use of wastewater-based epidemiology as a tool to record and manage the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections in human populations requires information about the efficiency of methods to concentrate the virus from wastewater. In the present study, we spiked untreated wastewater with quantified SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical material and enriched the virus by polyethylene glycol precipitation and ultrafiltration with Vivaspin 10 kDa MWCO columns. SARS-CoV-2 was detected and quantified by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (E- and S-gene) and droplet digital PCR. The concentration of virus with precipitation resulted in mean recoveries between 59.4% and 63.7% whereas rates from 33.0% to 42.6% after ultrafiltration of samples were demonstrated. The results suggest that the use of both methods allows an effective and practicable enrichment of SARS-CoV-2 from raw wastewater.

3.
Respirology ; 26(7): 652-665, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243640

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused extensive disruption and mortality since its recent emergence. Concomitantly, there has been a race to understand the virus and its pathophysiology. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are manifold and not restricted to the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary manifestations involving the gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system, cardiovascular and renal systems have been widely reported. However, the pathophysiology of many of these manifestations is controversial with questionable support for direct viral invasion and an abundance of alternative explanations such as pre-existing medical conditions and critical illness. Prior research on SARS-Co-V and NL63 was rapidly leveraged to identify angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as the key cell surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2. The distribution of ACE2 has been used as a starting point for estimating vulnerability of various tissue types to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sophisticated organoid and animal models have been used to demonstrate such infectivity of extrapulmonary tissues in vitro, but the clinical relevance of these findings remains uncertain. Clinical autopsy studies are typically small and inevitably biased towards patients with severe COVID-19 and prolonged hospitalization. Technical issues such as delay between time of death and autopsy, use of inappropriate antibodies for paraffin-embedded tissue sections and misinterpretation of cellular structures as virus particles on electron micrograph images are additional problems encountered in the extant literature. Given that SARS-CoV-2 is likely to circulate permanently in human populations, there is no doubt that further work is required to clarify the pathobiology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Biological , Virus Internalization
4.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 32(6): 473-493, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236142

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the most unanticipated incidence of 2020 affecting the human population worldwide. Currently, it is utmost important to produce novel small molecule anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs urgently that can save human lives globally. Based on the earlier SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection along with the general characters of coronaviral replication, a number of drug molecules have been proposed. However, one of the major limitations is the lack of experimental observations with different drug molecules. In this article, 70 diverse chemicals having experimental SARS-CoV-2 3CLproinhibitory activity were accounted for robust classification-based QSAR analysis statistically validated with 4 different methodologies to recognize the crucial structural features responsible for imparting the activity. Results obtained from all these methodologies supported and validated each other. Important observations obtained from these analyses were also justified with the ligand-bound crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro enzyme. Our results suggest that molecules should contain a 2-oxopyrrolidine scaffold as well as a methylene (hydroxy) sulphonic acid warhead in proper orientation to achieve higher inhibitory potency against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Outcomes of our study may be able to design and discover highly effective SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors as potential anticoronaviral therapy to crusade against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Drug Design , Drug Discovery , Models, Molecular , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
5.
Immune Netw ; 21(2): e12, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231553

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population in late 2019, it has spread on an unprecedented scale worldwide leading to the first coronavirus pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to fatal cases. Although intensive research has been undertaken to increase understanding of the complex biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the detailed mechanisms underpinning the severe pathogenesis and interactions between the virus and the host immune response are not well understood. Thus, the development of appropriate animal models that recapitulate human clinical manifestations and immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 is crucial. Although many animal models are currently available for the study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, each has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and some models show variable results between and within species. Thus, we aim to discuss the different animal models, including mice, hamsters, ferrets, and non-human primates, employed for SARS-CoV-2 infection studies and outline their individual strengths and limitations for use in studies aimed at increasing understanding of coronavirus pathogenesis. Moreover, a significant advantage of these animal models is that they can be tailored, providing unique options specific to the scientific goals of each researcher.

6.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 17: 19-25, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 crisis is fuelling a state of fear among the human population at global level. Especially, those living in informal settlements and slums worldwide have been profoundly impacted by this pandemic. Individuals living in these places are already leading underprivileged lives. Thus, the economic and mental health problems caused by the COVID-19 crisis have further exacerbated their living standards, which has resulted, for instance, in tragedies such as suicides. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have sought to identify those individuals most at risk of displaying high levels of fear of COVID-19 in an informal settlement located in the capital city of Peru. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 449 inhabitants living in the Carmen Alto informal settlement. The questionnaire was made up of two parts: the first one inquired about demographic data and the second part consisted of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. RESULTS: The demographic variables of age, gender, marital status, educational level, occupation, whether a relative from the household was infected with COVID-19, and whether one of them died of this showed significant differences. It could be observed as well that the groups of females, stable workers, unemployed and those having completed a workforce education are at higher odds of displaying high levels of fear of COVID-19. As expected, the groups that had either a relative infected with COVID-19 or a relative death by this had the highest levels of fear towards the virus. CONCLUSION: The female participants are more likely to display higher levels of fear of COVID-19 due to the terrible effect that unfavorable events have on them. In the cases of the unemployed and stable workers, their proneness to show high levels of fear towards the virus is because they have lost their incomes, due to the loss of their jobs, and because of fear of infection, respectively. Hence, we hope that this work serves Peruvian (and other) health authorities to develop strategies that help individuals living in informal settlements and are in urgent need of mitigating mental health problems.

7.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(10): 1082-1089, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225244

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third highly pathogenic coronavirus to emerge in the human population in last two decades. SARS-CoV-2 spread from Wuhan, China, across the globe, causing an unprecedented public healthcare crisis. The virus showed remarkable age dependent pathology, with symptoms resembling common cold in most adults and children while causing more severe respiratory distress and significant mortality in older and frail humans. Even before the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak infectious diseases represented one of the major causes of death of older adults. Loss of immune function and reduced protection from infectious agents with age - immunosenescence - is a result of complex mechanisms affecting production and maintenance of immune cells as well as the initiation, maintenance and termination of properly directed immune responses. Here we briefly discuss the current knowledge on how this process affects age-dependent outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , Age Factors , Aged , Humans
8.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1267-1285, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210749

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was defined as a species of beta coronavirus causing atypical respiratory disease in humans. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented health and economic crisis worldwide. Little is known about the specifics of its influence on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). In this study, we aim to investigate the prevalence and mortality in PLWHA co-infected with COVID-19. METHODS: The databases PUBMED, EMBASE, BioRxiv, and medRxiv were searched up to 9 March 2021 to explore the prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA. Cohort studies and case series meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this review. RESULTS: We identified 14 eligible studies, 9 of which were cohort and 5 were case series. A total of 203,761 patients with COVID-19 were identified (7718 PLWHA vs. 196,043 non-PLWHA). Meta-analyses estimated the prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA was 0.774% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00393-0.01517] and 8.814% (95% CI 0.05766-0.13245) respectively. COVID-19 co-infected PLWHA do not seem to be associated with higher mortality, as compared to non-PLWHA [relative risk (RR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06)]. The presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, RR 5.2 (95% CI 4.25-6.36), hypertension and chronic cardiac disease, RR 4.2 (95% CI 1.09-16.10), and chronic kidney disease, RR 8.43 (95% CI 5.49-12.93) were associated with an increased mortality in COVID-19 co-infected PLWHA. CONCLUSION: The estimated prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA were 0.774% and 8.814%, respectively. Since most of the included studies used unmatched populations, comparisons between PLWHA and non-PLWHA should be interpreted with caution. Further investigations are needed for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between cluster of differentiation 4 cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, and COVID-19 related prognosis in PLWHA.

9.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 132, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several essential factors have played a crucial role in the spreading mechanism of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) in the human population. These factors include undetected cases, asymptomatic cases, and several non-pharmaceutical interventions. Because of the rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide, understanding the significance of these factors is crucial in determining whether COVID-19 will be eradicated or persist in the population. Hence, in this study, we establish a new mathematical model to predict the spread of COVID-19 considering mentioned factors. RESULTS: Infection detection and vaccination have the potential to eradicate COVID-19 from Jakarta. From the sensitivity analysis, we find that rapid testing is crucial in reducing the basic reproduction number when COVID-19 is endemic in the population rather than contact trace. Furthermore, our results indicate that a vaccination strategy has the potential to relax social distancing rules, while maintaining the basic reproduction number at the minimum possible, and also eradicate COVID-19 from the population with a higher vaccination rate. In conclusion, our model proposed a mathematical model that can be used by Jakarta's government to relax social distancing policy by relying on future COVID-19 vaccine potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Basic Reproduction Number , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Vaccination
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e041619, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively map the existing evidence assessing the impact of travel-related control measures for containment of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Rapid evidence map. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science, and COVID-19 specific databases offered by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the WHO. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included studies in human populations susceptible to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, SARS-CoV-1/severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus/Middle East respiratory syndrome or influenza. Interventions of interest were travel-related control measures affecting travel across national or subnational borders. Outcomes of interest included infectious disease, screening, other health, economic and social outcomes. We considered all empirical studies that quantitatively evaluate impact available in Armenian, English, French, German, Italian and Russian based on the team's language capacities. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We extracted data from included studies in a standardised manner and mapped them to a priori and (one) post hoc defined categories. RESULTS: We included 122 studies assessing travel-related control measures. These studies were undertaken across the globe, most in the Western Pacific region (n=71). A large proportion of studies focused on COVID-19 (n=59), but a number of studies also examined SARS, MERS and influenza. We identified studies on border closures (n=3), entry/exit screening (n=31), travel-related quarantine (n=6), travel bans (n=8) and travel restrictions (n=25). Many addressed a bundle of travel-related control measures (n=49). Most studies assessed infectious disease (n=98) and/or screening-related (n=25) outcomes; we found only limited evidence on economic and social outcomes. Studies applied numerous methods, both inferential and descriptive in nature, ranging from simple observational methods to complex modelling techniques. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a heterogeneous and complex evidence base on travel-related control measures. While this map is not sufficient to assess the effectiveness of different measures, it outlines aspects regarding interventions and outcomes, as well as study methodology and reporting that could inform future research and evidence synthesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Travel , Geography, Medical , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
11.
Microb Risk Anal ; 18: 100161, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174434

ABSTRACT

As a response to the pandemic caused by SARS-Cov-2 virus, on 15 March 2020, the Republic of Serbia introduced comprehensive anti-epidemic measures to curb COVID-19. After a slowdown in the epidemic, on 6 May 2020, the regulatory authorities decided to relax the implemented measures. However, the epidemiological situation soon worsened again. As of 7 February 2021, a total of 406,352 cases of SARSCov-2 infection have been reported in Serbia, 4,112 deaths caused by COVID-19. In order to better understand the epidemic dynamics and predict possible outcomes, we have developed an adaptive mathematical model SEAIHRDS (S-susceptible, E-exposed, A-asymptomatic, I-infected, H-hospitalized, R-recovered, d-dead due to COVID-19 infection, S-susceptible). The model can be used to simulate various scenarios of the implemented intervention measures and calculate possible epidemic outcomes, including the necessary hospital capacities. Considering promising results regarding the development of a vaccine against COVID-19, the model is extended to simulate vaccination among different population strata. The findings from various simulation scenarios have shown that, with implementation of strict measures of contact reduction, it is possible to control COVID-19 and reduce number of deaths. The findings also show that limiting effective contacts within the most susceptible population strata merits a special attention. However, the findings also show that the disease has a potential to remain in the population for a long time, likely with a seasonal pattern. If a vaccine, with efficacy equal or higher than 65%, becomes available it could help to significantly slow down or completely stop circulation of the virus in human population. The effects of vaccination depend primarily on: 1. Efficacy of available vaccine(s), 2. Prioritization of the population categories for vaccination, and 3. Overall vaccination coverage of the population, assuming that the vaccine(s) develop solid immunity in vaccinated individuals. With expected basic reproduction number of Ro=2.46 and vaccine efficacy of 68%, an 87% coverage would be sufficient to stop the virus circulation.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 664-676, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139855

ABSTRACT

Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, and -HKU1 widely spread in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive. In this study, we profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibody against spike proteins (S-IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivities of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between the levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG and the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. We found that SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titres mounted until days 22-28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titres increased until days 15-21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG titres against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increase. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detectable in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild patients at days 1-21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. At days 1-10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres correlated to disease severity in the age group over 60. Our data indicate that there is a correlation between cross-reactive antibody against HCoV-OC43 spike protein and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100828, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139579

ABSTRACT

Originating in Wuhan city, Hubei province of China, and rapid spread to multiple countries, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has emerged as a novel public health emergence. During early February, spread of misinformation and rumors driven by the fear of linking chicken meat and eggs in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among human population is witnessed in India. This resulted drastic reduction in consumption of poultry products with subsequent fall in demand thereby prices. The COVID-19-driven lockdown during March in the country has further accentuated the crippling poultry industry following the arrest of feed and healthcare essentials and destruction of eggs, chicks, and birds. Here, we have analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on the poultry industry and showed the realistic flow of events that resulted in its economic fallout by disruption of poultry protein chain during pandemic crisis. The projected loss caused because of these events for the Indian poultry industry is around USD 3053 million. The economic impact is not uniform across the country owing to regional differences in consumption pattern and percent non-vegetarians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Food Industry/trends , Poultry , Animals , Chickens , Communicable Disease Control , Eggs , Food Industry/economics , Humans , India/epidemiology
14.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 73, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused recurring and major outbreaks in multiple human populations around the world. The plethora of clinical presentations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been described extensively, of which olfactory dysfunction (OD) was established as an important and common extrapulmonary manifestation of COVID-19 infection. The aim of this protocol is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on peer-reviewed articles which described clinical data of OD in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This research protocol has been prospectively registered with the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020196202). CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed, as well as Chinese medical databases China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP and WANFANG, will be searched using keywords including 'COVID-19', 'coronavirus disease', '2019-nCoV', 'SARS-CoV-2', 'novel coronavirus', 'anosmia', 'hyposmia', 'loss of smell', and 'olfactory dysfunction'. Systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Articles will be screened according to pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria to extract studies that include new clinical data investigating the effect of COVID-19 on olfactory dysfunction. Included articles will be reviewed in full; data including patient demographics, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD, methods of olfactory assessment and relevant clinical outcomes will be extracted. Statistical analyses will be performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3. DISCUSSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol will aim to collate and synthesise all available clinical evidence regarding COVID-19-related OD as an important neurosensory dysfunction of COVID-19 infection. A comprehensive search strategy and screening process will be conducted to incorporate broad clinical data for robust statistical analyses and representation. The outcome of the systematic review and meta-analysis will aim to improve our understanding of the symptomatology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD and identify knowledge gaps in its disease process, which will guide future research in this specific neurosensory defect. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020196202.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Research Design , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085049

ABSTRACT

Use of wastewater-based epidemiology as a tool to record and manage the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections in human populations requires information about the efficiency of methods to concentrate the virus from wastewater. In the present study, we spiked untreated wastewater with quantified SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical material and enriched the virus by polyethylene glycol precipitation and ultrafiltration with Vivaspin 10 kDa MWCO columns. SARS-CoV-2 was detected and quantified by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (E- and S-gene) and droplet digital PCR. The concentration of virus with precipitation resulted in mean recoveries between 59.4% and 63.7% whereas rates from 33.0% to 42.6% after ultrafiltration of samples were demonstrated. The results suggest that the use of both methods allows an effective and practicable enrichment of SARS-CoV-2 from raw wastewater.

16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 694-705, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079023

ABSTRACT

The newly evolved coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which has precipitated a global COVID-19 pandemic among the human population, has been shown to be associated with disease in captive wild animals. Bats (Chiroptera) have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection and therefore may be at risk from disease when in contact with infected people. Numerous conservation fieldwork activities are undertaken across the United Kingdom bringing potentially infected people into close proximity with bats. In this study, we analysed the risks of disease from SARS-CoV-2 to free-living bat species in England through fieldworkers undertaking conservation activities and ecological survey work, using a qualitative, transparent method devised for assessing threats of disease to free-living wild animals. The probability of exposure of bats to SARS-CoV-2 through fieldwork activities was estimated to range from negligible to high, depending on the proximity between bats and people during the activity. The likelihood of infection after exposure was estimated to be high and the probability of dissemination of the virus through bat populations medium. The likelihood of clinical disease occurring in infected bats was low, and therefore, the ecological, economic and environmental consequences were predicted to be low. The overall risk estimation was low, and therefore, mitigation measures are advisable. There is uncertainty in the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in bats and therefore in the risk estimation. Disease risk management measures are suggested, including the use of personal protective equipment, good hand hygiene and following the existing government advice. The disease risk analysis should be updated as information on the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses in bats improves. The re-analysis may be informed by health surveillance of free-living bats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Occupational Exposure , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Chiroptera/virology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
iScience ; 23(11): 101697, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023610

ABSTRACT

The beginning of the 21st century has been marked by three distinct waves of zoonotic coronavirus outbreaks into the human population. The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and emerged as a global threat endangering the livelihoods of millions worldwide. Currently, and despite collaborative efforts, diverse therapeutic strategies from ongoing clinical trials are still debated. To address the need for such an immediate call of action, we leveraged the largest dataset of drug-induced transcriptomic perturbations, public SARS-CoV-2 transcriptomic datasets, and expression profiles from normal lung transcriptomes. Most importantly, our unbiased systems biology approach prioritized more than 50 repurposable drug candidates (e.g., corticosteroids, Janus kinase and Bruton kinase inhibitors). Further clinical investigation of these FDA-approved candidates as monotherapy or in combination with an antiviral regimen (e.g., remdesivir) could lead to promising outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(12): 1374-1379, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000366

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently one of the most important public health crises affecting the global human population. It continues to spread widely, as the world still lacks specific treatments and a vaccine for the virus. The scenario of COVID-19 in Yemen seems obscure due to the lack of adequate data, therefore, we developed an electronic questionnaire and distributed it online among Yemeni people. The aim of this study was to understand the COVID-19 epidemiological situation in Yemen better since there is currently limited published data and limited availability of COVID-19 testing. METHODOLOGY: A 34-question web-based survey was distributed on social media outlets targeting people in Yemen. Data aggregation, analysis, and visualization were performed using Tableau and Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: 2,341 individuals reported symptoms concerning for COVID-19 infection, with 25.4% reporting a chronic medical condition. Diabetes, hypertension, asthma, and immune deficiency were associated with increased severity of the disease, while obesity, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and liver disease were not. Only 37 individuals (1.6%) had a confirmatory COVID-19 PCR test. The presence of high fever, dyspnea, chest pain, and dysphagia were symptoms that tended to be correlated to worse clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some important information about the early overspread of COVID-19 within the Yemeni community in May, June, and July of 2020. It shows that online questionnaires may help in collecting data about pandemics in resource-limited countries where testing availability is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Social Media , Yemen/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 584694, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993402

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, which is caused by the novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), constituted significant public health concerns and impacted the human populations with massive economic and social burdens worldwide. The disease is known to infect people of all ages, including children, adults, and the elderly. Although several reports about pediatric COVID-19 were seen in the literature, we believe that the epidemiology and pathology of the infection described in these reports are not conclusive. Therefore, in this scientific communication, a narrative review study was performed to shed some light on the characteristic epidemiological features and clinical phenotypes of pediatric COVID-19. In this report, we had compiled and presented the different epidemiological features of the disease related to the age of infection, virus acquisition, explanations of the low infectivity rates, and consequences of infections. The discriminatory clinical manifestations of the disease in children were also addressed and discussed in this review. The search included the data published from the date of the start of the pandemic in December 2019 up to October 2020. Our literature search revealed that children of all ages, including neonates, had been infected by the virus. Despite the fact that pediatric COVID-19 is less common to occur, as compared to the disease in adults, the infected children usually manifest the disease symptomatology in benign form. Asymptomatic and symptomatic adult patients are the primary source of the virus to the children. Intrauterine transmission of the virus and breastfeeding infections to the neonates were hypothesized in some studies but ruled out since they were not confirmed. Intensive review and discussion warranting the low infection rates and benign conditions of COVID-19 in children were also made in this study. As documented in many studies, the infectivity, morbidity, and mortality rates of the disease among the children populations are much lower than those in adults. They also seem to be lower than those observed during SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV epidemics. The described clinical phenotypes of COVID-19 in children do not differ much from those of adults, and complications of the disease seem to be associated with comorbidities.

20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1767-1773, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944801

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has since caused a global pandemic. Experimental studies and sporadic reports have confirmed susceptibility of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the importance of pet animals in the epidemiology of this infection is unclear. This study reports on a first large-scale serosurvey of SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in Europe. From 26 February 2020, just one day after the first confirmed human case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Croatia, to 15 June 2020, dog and cat serum samples were collected from animals admitted to three veterinary facilities in Croatia. Additionally, on 25 May 2020, a total of 122 serum samples from employees of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Zagreb were collected. Total of 656 dogs and 131 cat serum samples were tested using an in-house microneutralisation test (MNT). Human serum samples, as well as 172 randomly selected, dog sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA-positive human sera were subsequently tested using MNT. Neutralising antibodies were confirmed in 0.76% cats and 0.31% dogs. ELISA reactivity was recorded in 7.56% tested dog sera. On the other hand, 5.19% of administrative, basic and pre-clinical sciences department personnel and 5.13% of animal health service providers and laboratory personnel tested ELISA positive. Neutralising antibodies were not confirmed in any of the human samples. In conclusion, seropositivity among pet animals in Croatia is low, especially when compared to results from China. A small number of seropositive animals with a low titre of neutralising antibodies suggest infections are rare and are following infections in the human population. Additionally, contact with animals does not seem to be an occupational risk for veterinary practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Croatia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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