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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines are now clinically available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. The impact of vaccines on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39,156) within a large United States healthcare system who underwent 48,333 pre-procedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between December 17, 2020 and February 8, 2021. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination with at least one dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was relative risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test among those asymptomatic persons who had received at least one dose of vaccine, as compared to persons who had not received vaccine during the same time period. Relative risk was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, patient residence relative to the hospital (local vs. non-local), healthcare system regions, and repeated screenings among patients using mixed effects log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Positive molecular tests in asymptomatic individuals were reported in 42 (1.4%) of 3,006 tests performed on vaccinated patients and 1,436 (3.2%) of 45,327 tests performed on unvaccinated patients (RR=0.44 95% CI: 0.33-0.60; p<.0001). Compared to unvaccinated patients, the risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among those >10 days after 1 st dose (RR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.12-0.37; p<.0001) and >0 days after 2 nd dose (RR=0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.44; p<.0001) in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine showed a significant association with a reduced risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured during pre-procedural molecular screening. The results of this study demonstrate the impact of the vaccines on reduction in asymptomatic infections supplementing the randomized trial results on symptomatic patients.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3375-3383, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-related factors and dysfunctional coping might favor the development of mental distress induced by COVID-19 containment measures. Aim of this study was exploring the relationship between disability, coping strategies, daily life reorganization and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an Italian MS population during the COVID-19 lockdown, in order to identify potentially modifiable factors that could inform clinical management of mental distress in people with MS. METHODS: We explored the relationship between mental distress, disability and coping strategies in the Italian MS population under lockdown. Structural equation modeling was applied to information collected via web survey to identify modifiable factors that could account for mental distress. RESULTS: A total of 845 participants (497 with MS and 348 controls) were included in the study. The MS group had higher scores than the control group for depression (p = 0.005), but not for anxiety, emotional dyscontrol or sleep disturbances. The structural equation modeling explained 74% of the variance observed in depression score. Within the model, three latent factors were characterized from measured variables: motor disability and cognitive dysfunction contributed to disability (ß = 0.509 and ß = 0.836; p < 0.001); positive attitude and exercise contributed to active attitude (ß = 0.386 and ß = 0.297; p < 0.001); and avoidance, social support and watching television contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.301, ß = 0.243 and ß = 0.212; p < 0.001). With regard to the relationship between latent factors and their influence on depression, disability contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.855; p < 0.001), while both passive and active attitude significantly influenced depression (ß = 0.729 and ß = -0.456; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As a practical implication of our model, favoring exercise would enhance active attitude and its positive impact on mental well-being while, at the same time, reducing the negative impact of disability on depression, representing a valuable tool in facing COVID-19-related mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Motor Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3467-3477, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is debate as to whether there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to associated factors. This study aimed to systematically review the factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD. METHODS: A search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up to November 2020 (updated until 1 April 2021). Observational studies that analyzed factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD were selected and revised. RESULTS: The authors included six studies (four case-controlled studies and two cross-sectional studies) in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. The authors found that the following factors were associated with COVID-19 in people with PD: obesity (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.99, I2 : 0%), any pulmonary disease (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.17-3.15, I2 : 0%), COVID-19 contact (OR: 41.77, 95% CI: 4.77 - 365.56, I2 : 0%), vitamin D supplementation (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.83, I2 : 0%), hospitalization (OR: 11.78, 95% CI: 6.27-22.12, I2 : 0%), and death (OR: 11.23, 95% CI: 3.92-32.18, I2 : 0%). The authors did not find any significant association between COVID-19 and hypertension, diabetes, cardiopathy, cancer, any cognitive problem, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal or hepatic disease, smoking, and tremor. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analyses were limited by the number of events and some methodological limitations. Despite this, the authors assessed the available evidence, and the results may be useful for future health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Parkinson Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3396-3402, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The COVID-19 emergency may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with regard to people with MS (pwMS) chronic exposure to a wide range of challenging life events has been shown to be correlated with worsening of neurological symptoms, increased lesion burden on brain magnetic resonance imaging and relapses. The aim was to investigate perceived stress, depression, perceived social support, habits and behaviour changes in pwMS through COVID-19 in comparison to a control group. METHODS: A web-based survey was posted on SMsocialnetwork.com to investigate perceived stress (using the Perceived Stress Scale), depression (with Patient Health Questionnaire 2) and perceived social support (using Social Provision Scale 10 item) in pwMS and a control group through the COVID-19 pandemic. A secondary group of people with migraine was investigated. RESULTS: In all, 1286 answers from 612 pwMS and 674 control people were included in the final analysis. The answers from 318 people with migraine were included for a secondary analysis. A higher proportion of pwMS were depressed (43.1% vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001), had a high level of perceived stress (58% vs. 39.8%; p < 0.001) and felt significantly less social support (median 33 vs. 35; Q1-Q3 28-36 vs. 32-37; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. A higher percentage of people with migraine were depressed (50% vs. 43%, p = 0.04) compared to pwMS. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the negative impact that prolonged stress may have on clinical and radiological disease activity of pwMS, and bearing in mind that a beneficial effect has been demonstrated and achieved with stress management, it is suggested to promote stress control in these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
5.
Stem Cell Investig ; 7: 11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579497

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented with debilitating respiratory consequences especially more pronounced in high risk individuals. Individuals with underlying systemic diseases are more prone and vulnerable to suffer severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. The pathophysiological changes identified cytokine storm mechanism for out setting the series of adverse clinical conditions. Thereby, associating it with high mortality rates. This warrants urgent consideration of divergent modalities such as the cellular therapy. Cellular therapy (CT) is a new medical paradigm wherein cellular material is administered to patients for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have yielded the most promising results among stromal vascular fraction (SVF); placental cells; natural killer (NK) cell and platelet lysate respectively. Following the administration of the CT as per preferred route, these play pivotal role in modifying the microenvironment of the lung tissue with their distinct sets of mechanism. Evidences have shown how their immunomodulatory action repairs and prevents lung injury which in turn improvise the compliance of lungs. In this review article we have discussed these emerging novel approaches and their target step serving as a ray of hope to combat severe form of COVID-19. Currently these aren't approved for preventing or treating COVID-19 cases, however clinical trials are afoot to dispense the utmost understanding in terms of efficacy and safety concerns.

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23795, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been widely communicated that individuals with underlying health conditions are at higher risk of severe disease due to COVID-19 than healthy peers. As social distancing measures continue during the COVID-19 pandemic, experts encourage individuals with underlying conditions to engage in telehealth appointments to maintain continuity of care while minimizing risk exposure. To date, however, little information has been provided regarding telehealth uptake among this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the telehealth use, resource needs, and information sources of individuals with chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary objectives include exploring differences in telehealth use by sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Data for this study were collected through an electronic survey distributed between May 12-14, 2020, to members of 26 online health communities for individuals with chronic disease. Descriptive statistics were run to explore telehealth use, support needs, and information sources, and z tests were run to assess differences in sociodemographic factors and information and support needs among those who did and did not use telehealth services. RESULTS: Among the 2210 respondents, 1073 (49%) reported engaging in telehealth in the past 4 months. Higher proportions of women engaged in telehealth than men (890/1781, 50% vs 181/424, 43%; P=.007), and a higher proportion of those earning household incomes of more than US $100,000 engaged in telehealth than those earning less than US $30,000 (195/370, 53% vs 241/530 45%; P=.003). Although 59% (133/244) of those younger than 40 years and 54% (263/486) of those aged 40-55 years used telehealth, aging populations were less likely to do so, with only 45% (677/1500) of individuals 56 years or older reporting telehealth use (P<.001 and P=.001, respectively). Patients with cystic fibrosis, lupus, and ankylosing spondylitis recorded the highest proportions of individuals using telehealth when compared to those with other diagnoses. Of the 2210 participants, 1333 (60%) participants either looked up information about the virus online or planned to in the future, and when asked what information or support would be most helpful right now, over half (1151/2210, 52%) responded "understanding how COVID-19 affects people with my health condition." CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the study sample reported participating in telehealth in the past 4 months. Future efforts to engage individuals with underlying medical conditions in telehealth should focus on outreach to men, members of lower-income households, and aging populations. These results may help inform and refine future health communications to further engage this at-risk population in telehealth as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Telemedicine/methods , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Internet , Learning Health System , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574052

ABSTRACT

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologicals, Dexamethasone and rIL-7 are of considerable interest in treating COVID-19 patients who are in danger of, or have become, seriously ill. Yet reducing sepsis mortality by lowering circulating levels of TNF lost favour when positive endpoints in earlier simplistic models could not be reproduced in well-conducted human trials. Newer information with anti-TNF biologicals has encouraged reintroducing this concept for treating COVID-19. Viral models have had encouraging outcomes, as have the effects of anti-TNF biologicals on community-acquired COVID-19 during their long-term use to treat chronic inflammatory states. The positive outcome of a large scale trial of dexamethasone, and its higher potency late in the disease, harmonises well with its capacity to enhance levels of IL-7Rα, the receptor for IL-7, a cytokine that enhances lymphocyte development and is increased during the cytokine storm. Lymphoid germinal centres required for antibody-based immunity can be harmed by TNF, and restored by reducing TNF. Thus the IL-7- enhancing activity of dexamethasone may explain its higher potency when lymphocytes are depleted later in the infection, while employing anti-TNF, for several reasons, is much more logical earlier in the infection. This implies dexamethasone could prove to be synergistic with rIL-7, currently being trialed as a COVID-19 therapeutic. The principles behind these COVID-19 therapies are consistent with the observed chronic hypoxia through reduced mitochondrial function, and also the increased severity of this disease in ApoE4-positive individuals. Many of the debilitating persistent aspects of this disease are predictably susceptible to treatment with perispinal etanercept, since they have cerebral origins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Interleukin-17/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
9.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 22, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557646

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented an unprecedented global challenge for the healthcare community. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to get transmitted during the asymptomatic phase, and its high infectivity have led to the rapid transmission of COVID-19 beyond geographic regions facilitated by international travel, leading to a pandemic. To guide effective control and interventions, primary data is required urgently, globally, including from low- and middle-income countries where documentation of cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 is limited. Objectives: This study aims to describe the cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: We propose to conduct an observational cohort study involving 5000 patients recruited from hospitals in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Eligible adult COVID-19 patients will be recruited from the participating hospitals and followed-up until 30 days post admission. The outcomes will be reported at discharge and includes the need of ICU admission, need of ventilator, death (with cause), major adverse cardiovascular events, neurological outcomes, acute renal failure, and pulmonary outcomes. Conclusion: Given the enormous burden posed by COVID-19 and the associated severe prognostic implication of CVD involvement, this study will provide useful insights on the risk factors for severe disease, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients particularly from low and middle income countries from where the data remain scant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Global Health , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
10.
CJC Open ; 3(10): 1217-1220, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540460

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on cardiac surgery patients. Significant reductions in access to surgical treatment have forced surgeons to prioritise patients and follow strict COVID-19 protocols to protect surgeons, staff, and patients. Adult cardiac surgery and the COVID-19 pandemic: aggressive infection mitigation strategies are necessary in the operating room and surgical recovery. Nosocomial infections among cardiac surgery patients have been reported and are associated with a high mortality rate. As a COVID-19 tertiary care centre and a tertiary cardiac centre, we tried to balance the need to operate on urgent cardiac cases while protecting patients and staff from COVID-19. Methods: During the first wave of the pandemic, we performed 579 surgeries. We report findings from an outbreak of 4 nosocomial infections. Results: All patients tested negative within 24 hours of surgery or admission. Three patients were positive after surgery, suggesting an overall nosocomial rate during the first wave of 0.5% (3/579). One patient admitted for evaluation tested positive during mass screening. Two of the 4 patients died after respiratory complications. No health care worker (HCW) or family member with direct contact with these patients tested positive for COVID-19. Nosocomial COVID-19 infection is uncommon when adhering to safety protocols. Although uncommon, the mortality rate is high (50%) in our series. Conclusions: As widespread vaccination of HCWs and high-risk individuals susceptible to COVID-19 is in progress, we suggest that cardiac surgery patients, when feasible, be vaccinated before surgery given this could prevent excess mortality, protect HCWs and reduce resource use.

11.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 28(6): 941-942, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528402
12.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525626

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which has recently affected the world, has caused serious adversities in many areas as well as on the mental health of individuals. People have had a serious fearful mood due to situations such as catching COVID-19, having health problems after catching the disease, and worrying about infecting someone else. This negative mood is discussed in the literature through the concept of the fear of COVID-19. Accordingly, the mediator role of the fear of COVID-19 in the relationship between psychological resilience and life satisfaction was examined in this study. This study was conducted with 430 Turkish university students, 279 women and 151 men, who are between the ages of 18 and 30. The data of the study were collected with the psychological resilience, the fear of COVID-19 and life satisfaction scales. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that psychological resilience is a negative predictor of the fear of COVID-19 and a positive predictor of life satisfaction, and that the fear of COVID-19 is a negative predictor of life satisfaction. It was also concluded that the fear of COVID-19 mediates the relationship between psychological resilience and life satisfaction. The results are discussed in relation to the relevant literature, and suggestions are made for practitioners and researchers.

13.
Neuromolecular Med ; 23(4): 561-571, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525619

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, which causes COVID-19, is particularly devastating for individuals with chronic medical conditions, in particular those with Down Syndrome (DS) who often exhibit a higher prevalence of respiratory tract infections, immune dysregulation and potential complications. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is much higher in DS than in the general population, possibly increasing further the risk of COVID-19 infection and its complications. Here we provide a biological overview with regard to specific susceptibility of individuals with DS to SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as data from a recent survey on the prevalence of COVID-19 among them. We see an urgent need to protect people with DS, especially those with AD, from COVID-19 and future pandemics and focus on developing protective measures, which also include interventions by health systems worldwide for reducing the negative social effects of long-term isolation and increased periods of hospitalization.

14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3487-3496, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Black individuals have been disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether there are any biological factors that predispose Black patients to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To compare in-hospital morbidity, mortality, and inflammatory marker levels between Black and White hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed data for Black and White patients aged ≥18 years hospitalized with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test between March 1, 2020, and August 4, 2020. MAIN MEASURES: The exposure was self-identified race documented in the medical record. The primary outcome of was in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admission, hospital morbidities, and inflammatory marker levels. KEY RESULTS: A total of 1,424 Black and White patients were identified. The mean ± SD age was 56.1 ± 17.4 years, and 663 (44.5%) were female. There were 683 (48.0%) Black and 741 (52.0%) White patients. In the univariate analysis, Black patients had longer hospital stays (8.1 ± 10.2 vs. 6.7 ± 8.3 days, p = 0.011) and tended to have higher rates of in-hospital death (11.0% vs. 7.3%), myocardial infarction (6.9% vs. 4.5%), pulmonary embolism (PE; 5.0% vs. 2.3%), and acute kidney injury (AKI; 39.4% vs. 23.1%) than White patients (p <0.05). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, only PE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.07, 95% CI, 1.13-3.79) and AKI (aOR 2.16, 95% CI, 1.57-2.97) were statistically significantly associated with Black race. In comparison with White patients, Black patients had statistically significantly higher peak plasma D-dimer (standardized ß = 0.10), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (standardized ß = 0.13), ferritin (standardized ß = 0.09), and lactate dehydrogenase (standardized ß = 0.11), after adjusting for potential confounders (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Black hospitalized COVID-19 patients had increased risks of developing PE and AKI and higher inflammatory marker levels compared with White patients. This observation may be explained by differences in the prevalence and severity of underlying comorbidities and other unmeasured biologic risk factors between Black and White patients. Future research is needed to investigate the mechanism of these observed differences in outcomes of severe COVID-19 infection in Black versus White patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526827

ABSTRACT

Despite direct viral effect, the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes an overproduction of cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6). Therefore, tocilizumab (TOC), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptors, was considered as a possible therapeutic option. Patients were selected from the SARSTer database, containing 2332 individuals with COVID-19. Current study included 825 adult patients with moderate to severe course. Analysis was performed in 170 patients treated with TOC and 655 with an alternative medication. The end-points of treatment effectiveness were death rate, need for mechanical ventilation, and clinical improvement. Patients treated with TOC were balanced compared to non-TOC regarding gender, age, BMI, and prevalence of coexisting conditions. Significant effect of TOC on death was demonstrated in patients with baseline IL-6 > 100 pg/mL (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-0.57). The best effectiveness of TOC was achieved in patients with a combination of baseline IL-6 > 100 pg/mL and either SpO2 ≤ 90% (HR: 0.07) or requiring oxygen supplementation (HR: 0.18). Tocilizumab administration in COVID-19 reduces mortality and speeds up clinical improvement in patients with a baseline concentration of IL-6 > 100 pg/mL, particularly if they need oxygen supplementation owing to the lower value of SpO2 ≤ 90%.

16.
Front Physiol ; 12: 634839, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526786

ABSTRACT

Though the current preponderance of evidence indicates the toxicity associated with the smoking of tobacco products through conventional means, less is known about the role of "vaping" in respiratory disease. "Vaping" is described as the use of electronic cigarettes (E-Cigarettes or E-Cigs), which has only more recently been available to the public (∼10 years) but has quickly emerged as a popular means of tobacco consumption worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak as a global pandemic in March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 can easily be transmitted between people in close proximity through direct contact or respiratory droplets to develop coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). Symptoms of COVID-19 range from a mild flu-like illness with high fever to severe respiratory distress syndrome and death. The risk factors for increased disease severity remain unclear. Herein, we utilize a murine-tropic coronavirus (beta coronavirus) MHV-A59 along with a mouse model and measures of pathology (lung weight/dry ratios and histopathology) and inflammation (ELISAs and cytokine array panels) to examine whether vaping may exacerbate the pulmonary disease severity of coronavirus disease. While vaping alone did result in some noted pathology, mice exposed with intranasal vaped e-liquid suffered more severe mortality due to pulmonary inflammation than controls when exposed to coronavirus infection. Our data suggest a role for vaping in increased coronavirus pulmonary disease in a mouse model. Furthermore, our data indicate that disease exacerbation may involve calcium (Ca2+) dysregulation, identifying a potential therapeutic intervention.

17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3114-3119, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526431

ABSTRACT

Current results do not provide conclusive evidence on the effect of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 alone or in combination with other factors. To address this limitation, in this study we used a citizen science initiative on the COVID-19 pandemic to collect data worldwide during 2 October 2020-30 October 2020 (1,233 individuals) in a structured way for analysing factors and characteristics of affected individuals in relation to BCG vaccination. For the first time, the results of our study suggested that vaccination with BCG may increase the risk for COVID-19 at certain age, particularly in individuals vaccinated at childhood. Childhood BCG vaccination increased the likelihood of being diagnosed with COVID-19 fivefold in COVID-19 low-incidence countries and threefold in high-incidence countries. A reasonable explanation for this effect is the activation of certain innate immunity mechanisms associated with inflammatory reactions. These factors should be considered when analysing the risks associated with this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citizen Science , Animals , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/veterinary , Child , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/veterinary
18.
Public Adm Rev ; 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526400

ABSTRACT

While Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) does not discriminate against particular groups, our social structures and systems mean some people are more at risk in a pandemic context-from both the disease and the social and policy responses to the pandemic. This is particularly so for people with disability, in part because they often have poorer health outcomes from underlying conditions but also due to discrimination and social exclusion. Here, we draw from a survey about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Australian children and young people with disability and their families. Respondents faced a range of inequities prior to the pandemic, and COVID-19 has further exposed and often exacerbated them. We conclude that recent developments in the Australian disability context to personalize services have arguably made people with disability and their families less safe within a pandemic context, and we outline some ways in which these issues might be addressed.

19.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e268-e274, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mexico is among the countries in Latin America hit hardest by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large proportion of older adults in Mexico have high prevalence of multimorbidity and live in poverty with limited access to health care services. These statistics are even higher among adults living in rural areas, which suggest that older adults in rural communities may be more susceptible to COVID-19. The objectives of the article were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics for people diagnosed with COVID-19 by age group, and to describe cases and mortality in rural and urban communities. METHOD: We linked publicly available data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Census. Municipalities were classified based on population as rural (<2,500), semirural (≥2,500 and <15,000), semiurban (≥15,000 and <100,000), and urban (≥100,000). Zero-inflated negative binomial models were performed to calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases, and deaths per 1,000,000 persons using the population of each municipality as a denominator. RESULTS: Older adults were more likely to be hospitalized and reported severe cases, with higher mortality rates. In addition, rural municipalities reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases and mortality related to COVID-19 per million than urban municipalities. The adjusted absolute difference in COVID-19 cases was 912.7 per million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-1746.4) and mortality related to COVID-19 was 390.6 per million (95% CI: 204.5-576.7). DISCUSSION: Urgent policy efforts are needed to mandate the use of face masks, encourage handwashing, and improve specialty care for Mexicans in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2985-e2991, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection will remain a rare event, only occurring in individuals who fail to mount an effective immune response, or whether it will occur more frequently when humoral immunity wanes following primary infection. METHODS: A case of reinfection was observed in a Belgian nosocomial outbreak involving 3 patients and 2 healthcare workers. To distinguish reinfection from persistent infection and detect potential transmission clusters, whole genome sequencing was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs of all individuals including the reinfection case's first episode. Immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibody responses were quantified in serum of all individuals, and viral infectiousness was measured in the swabs of the reinfection case. RESULTS: Reinfection was confirmed in a young, immunocompetent healthcare worker as viral genomes derived from the first and second episode belonged to different SARS-CoV-2 clades. The symptomatic reinfection occurred after an interval of 185 days, despite the development of an effective humoral immune response following symptomatic primary infection. The second episode, however, was milder and characterized by a fast rise in serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Although contact tracing and viral culture remained inconclusive, the healthcare worker formed a transmission cluster with 3 patients and showed evidence of virus replication but not of neutralizing antibodies in her nasopharyngeal swabs. CONCLUSIONS: If this case is representative of most patients with coronavirus disease 2019, long-lived protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after primary infection might not be likely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Belgium/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
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