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1.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211018983, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820033

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has resulted in dramatic changes to the conduct of surgery both from a patient management perspective and in protecting healthcare providers. The current study reports on the status of COVID-19 infections in patients presenting for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on circuit complications. A tracking process for monitoring the presence of COVID-19 in adult cardiac surgery patients was integrated into a case documentation system across United States hospitals where out-sourced perfusion services were provided. Assessment included infection status, testing technique employed, surgery status and CPB complications. Records from 5612 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery between November 1, 2020 and January 18, 2021 from 176 hospitals were reviewed. A sub-cohort of coronary artery bypass graft patients (3283) was compared using a mixed effect binary logistic regression analysis. 4297 patients had negative test results (76.6%) while 49 (0.9%) tested positive for COVID-19, and unknown or no results were reported in 693 (12.4%) and 573 (10.2%) respectively. Coagulation complications were reported at 0.2% in the negative test results group versus 4.1% in the positive test result group (p < 0.001). Oxygenator gas exchange complications were 0.2% in the negative test results group versus 2.0% in the positive test results group (p = 0.088). Coronary artery bypass graft patients with a positive test had significantly higher risk for any CPB complication (p = 0.003) [OR 10.38, CI 2.18-49.53] then negative test patients [OR 0.01, CI 0.00-0.20]. The present study has shown that patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB who test positive for COVID-19 have higher CPB complication rate than those who test negative.

2.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 29(5): 597-607, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818582

ABSTRACT

AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has left negative spillover effects on the entire health care system. Previous studies have suggested significant declines in cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental, retrospective cohort study of ACS hospitalisations by using a multi-institutional administrative claims database in Japan. We used interrupted time series analyses to ascertain impacts on cases, treatment approaches, and in-hospital mortality before and after Japan's state of emergency to respond to COVID-19. The primary outcome was the change in ACS cases per week. RESULTS: A total of 30,198 ACS cases (including 21,612 acute myocardial infarction and 8,586 unstable angina) were confirmed between 1st July 2018 and 30th June 2020. After the state of emergency, an immediate decrease was observed in ACS cases per week (-18.3%; 95% confidence interval, -13.1 to -23.5%). No significant differences were found in the severity of Killip classification (P=0.51) or cases of fibrinolytic therapy (P=0.74). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on in-hospital mortality in ACS patients was no longer observed after adjustment for clinical characteristics (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.12; P=0.49). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the characteristics and trends of ACS cases in a Japanese population by applying interrupted time series analyses. Our findings provide significant insights into the association between COVID-19 and decreases in ACS hospitalisations during the pandemic.

4.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 0(0)2021 Jun 18.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was declared in 2020. The shortage of diagnostic tests limited monitoring of the first wave of the pandemic. This study estimates and describes the wave in Navarre (Spain). METHODS: Enhanced epidemiological surveillance, seroepidemiological survey estimates and mortality registries were used to characterise the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from February to June 2020 in Navarre. RESULTS: A total of 10,358 persons (1.6?% of population) were confirmed with COVID-19, 1,943 cases were hospitalized (3 per 1,000 inhabitants), 139 were admitted to the ICU (21 per 100,000 inhabitants), and 529 people died from confirmed COVID-19 (80 per 100,000). Mortality increased exponentially with age, exceeding 1?% in people over 85 years. 58?% of deaths occurred amongst nursing home residents. The mortality registry received reporting of 733 confirmed or probable COVID-19 deaths, while the excess deaths during this period were 613 (20.9?%) concentrated from mid-March to the end of April. It is estimated that, at the end of June, 6.7?% (n?=?44,000) of the population had detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and 10.3?% had had the infection. The estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence increased sharply in the first half of March and decreased quickly during the home lockdown in the second half of March. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the pandemic produced a high number of cases, hospitalizations and deaths in Navarre in a few weeks. The pronounced decrease of SARS-CoV-2 infections during the home lockdown suggests considerable efficacy and impact of this measure for transmission control.

5.
Exp Physiol ; 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807292

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Lactate is considered an important substrate for mitochondria in the muscles, heart and brain during exercise and is the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys. In this light, we review the (patho)physiology of lactate metabolism in sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). What advances does it highlight? Elevated blood lactate is strongly associated with mortality in septic patients. Lactate seems unrelated to tissue hypoxia but is likely to reflect mitochondrial dysfunction and high adrenergic stimulation. Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit near-normal blood lactate, indicating preserved mitochondrial function, despite a systemic hyperinflammatory state similar to sepsis. ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients, elevated plasma lactate is often interpreted as a sign of organ hypoperfusion and/or tissue hypoxia. This view on lactate is likely to have been influenced by the pioneering exercise physiologists around 1920. August Krogh identified an oxygen deficit at the onset of exercise that was later related to an oxygen 'debt' and lactate accumulation by A. V. Hill. Lactate is considered to be the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys during submaximal exercise, but hepatic elimination is attenuated by splanchnic vasoconstriction during high-intensity exercise, causing an exponential increase in blood lactate. With the development of stable isotope tracers, lactate has become established as an important energy source for muscle, brain and heart tissue, where it is used for mitochondrial respiration. Plasma lactate > 4 mM is strongly associated with mortality in septic shock, with no direct link between lactate release and tissue hypoxia. Herein, we provide evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction and adrenergic stimulation as explanations for the sepsis-induced hyperlactataemia. Despite profound hypoxaemia and intense work of breathing, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rarely exhibit hyperlactataemia (> 2.5 mM), while presenting a systemic hyperinflammatory state much like sepsis. However, lactate dehydrogenase, which controls the formation of lactate, is markedly elevated in plasma and strongly associated with mortality in severe COVID-19. We briefly review the potential mechanisms of the lactate dehydrogenase elevation in COVID-19 and its relationship to lactate metabolism based on mechanisms established in contracting skeletal muscle and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

6.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 74(7): 608-615, 2021 Jul.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in acute situations, where it is associated with more complications and higher mortality. METHODS: Analysis of the international HOPE registry (NCT04334291). The objective was to assess the prognostic information of AF in COVID-19 patients. A multivariate analysis and propensity score matching were performed to assess the relationship between AF and mortality. We also evaluated the impact on mortality and embolic events of the CHA2DS2-VASc score in these patients. RESULTS: Among 6217 patients enrolled in the HOPE registry, 250 had AF (4.5%). AF patients had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. After propensity score matching, these differences were attenuated. Despite this, patients with AF had a higher incidence of in-hospital complications such as heart failure (19.3% vs 11.6%, P = .021) and respiratory insufficiency (75.9% vs 62.3%, P = .002), as well as a higher 60-day mortality rate (43.4% vs 30.9%, P = .005). On multivariate analysis, AF was independently associated with higher 60-day mortality (hazard ratio, 1.234; 95%CI, 1.003-1.519). CHA2DS2-VASc score acceptably predicts 60-day mortality in COVID-19 patients (area ROC, 0.748; 95%CI, 0.733-0.764), but not its embolic risk (area ROC, 0.411; 95%CI, 0.147-0.675). CONCLUSIONS: AF in COVID-19 patients is associated with a higher number of complications and 60-day mortality. The CHA2DS2-VASc score may be a good risk marker in COVID patients but does not predict their embolic risk.

7.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of coagulation profiles - via traditional and whole blood thromboelastometry tests - in COVID-19 positive vs. COVID-19 negative patients admitted to medical wards for acute pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to Internal Medicine wards of Padova University Hospital between 7 March and 30 April 2020 for COVID-19-related pneumonia (cases) vs. non-COVID-19 pneumonia (controls). A group of healthy subjects acted as baseline for thromboelastometry parameters. RESULTS: Fifty-six cases (mean age 64±15 yrs, M/F 37/19) and 56 controls (mean age 76±11 yrs, M/F 35/21) were enrolled. Cases and controls showed markedly hypercoagulable thromboelastometry profiles vs. healthy subjects, mainly characterized by a significantly shorter propagation phase of coagulation (Clot Formation Time, CFT) and significantly increased maximum clot firmness (MCF) (p <0.001 in all comparisons). COVID-19 patients with pneumonia had significantly shorter CFT and higher MCF (p <0.01 and <0.05, respectively in all comparisons) vs. controls. CONCLUSION: Patients admitted to internal medicine wards for COVID-19 pneumonia presented a markedly prothrombotic state, which seems peculiar to COVID-19 rather than pneumonia itself.

8.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 155(11): 488-490, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804801

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is controversy concerning the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers (ARB) for treating hypertensive patients with Covid-19. It has been hypothesized that these drugs might increase the risk of severe Covid-19, but some authors suggested that blocking the renin-angiotensin system might actually decrease this risk. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all the consecutive hypertensive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a health area. The outcome variable was hospitalization because of severe Covid-19. RESULTS: 539 subjects were diagnosed of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 157 (29.1%) had hypertension and were included in the study. Sixty-nine cases (43.9%) were hospitalized because of severe Covid-19. In multivariable analysis older age, diabetes and hypertensive myocadiopathy were related to a higher risk of hospital admission. ARB treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization (HR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.88). A similar albeit not significant trend was observed for ACEI. CONCLUSION: ARB or ACEI treatment was not associated with a worse clinical outcome in consecutive hypertensive patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe controversia respecto al uso de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA) o los bloqueadores de los receptores tipo I de la angiotensina II (ARA-II) para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en COVID-19. Se ha sugerido que estos fármacos podrían tanto aumentar como reducir el riesgo de COVID-19 grave. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos de un área sanitaria, con hipertensión e infección por SARS-CoV-2. Variable de resultados: ingreso hospitalario por COVID-19 grave. RESULTADOS: Fueron diagnosticados 539 sujetos por infección por SARS-CoV-2. De estos, 157 (29,1%) eran hipertensos y se incluyeron en el estudio. Se ingresaron 69 (43,9%) pacientes por COVID-19 grave. En el análisis multivariante, la edad más elevada, la diabetes y la miocardiopatía hipertensiva se relacionaron con el riesgo de ingreso hospitalario. El tratamiento con ARA-II se asoció con un riesgo significativamente más bajo de ingreso (HR: 0,29, IC 95%: 0,10-0,88). Una tendencia similar, aunque no significativa, se encontró para los IECA. CONCLUSIÓN: el tratamiento con ARA-II o IECA no se asoció con una peor evolución clínica en pacientes hipertensos consecutivos infectados por SARS-CoV-2.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100527, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, is a new dangerous childhood disease that is temporally associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the typical presentation and outcomes of children diagnosed with this hyperinflammatory condition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to communicate the clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging results, and outcomes of individuals with MIS-C. We searched four medical databases to encompass studies characterizing MIS-C from January 1st, 2020 to July 25th, 2020. Two independent authors screened articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. This review was registered with PROSPERO CRD42020191515. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 39 observational studies (n = 662 patients). While 71·0% of children (n = 470) were admitted to the intensive care unit, only 11 deaths (1·7%) were reported. Average length of hospital stay was 7·9 ± 0·6 days. Fever (100%, n = 662), abdominal pain or diarrhea (73·7%, n = 488), and vomiting (68·3%, n = 452) were the most common clinical presentation. Serum inflammatory, coagulative, and cardiac markers were considerably abnormal. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were necessary in 22·2% (n = 147) and 4·4% (n = 29) of patients, respectively. An abnormal echocardiograph was observed in 314 of 581 individuals (54·0%) with depressed ejection fraction (45·1%, n = 262 of 581) comprising the most common aberrancy. INTERPRETATION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a new pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is dangerous and potentially lethal. With prompt recognition and medical attention, most children will survive but the long-term outcomes from this condition are presently unknown. FUNDING: Parker B. Francis and pilot grant from 2R25-HL126140. Funding agencies had no involvement in the study.

10.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0139, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has stretched ICU resources in an unprecedented fashion and outstripped personal protective equipment supplies. The combination of a novel disease, resource limitations, and risks to medical personnel health have created new barriers to implementing the ICU Liberation ("A" for Assessment, Prevention, and Manage pain; "B" for Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials and Spontaneous Breathing Trials; "C" for Choice of Analgesia and Sedation; "D" for Delirium Assess, Prevent, and Manage; "E" for Early Mobility and Exercise; and "F" for Family Engagement and Empowerment [ABCDEF]) Bundle, a proven ICU care approach that reduces delirium, shortens mechanical ventilation duration, prevents post-ICU syndrome, and reduces healthcare costs. This narrative review acknowledges barriers and offers strategies to optimize Bundle performance in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCES STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The most relevant literature, media reports, and author experiences were assessed for inclusion in this narrative review including PubMed, national newspapers, and critical care/pharmacology textbooks. DATA SYNTHESIS: Uncertainty regarding coronavirus disease 2019 clinical course, shifts in attitude, and changes in routine behavior have hindered Bundle use. A domino effect results from: 1) changes to critical care hierarchy, priorities, and ICU team composition; 2) significant personal protective equipment shortages cause; 3) reduced/restricted physical bedside presence favoring; 4) increased depth of sedation and use of neuromuscular blockade; 5) which exacerbate drug shortages; and 6) which require prolonged use of limited ventilator resources. Other identified barriers include manageable knowledge deficits among non-ICU clinicians unfamiliar with the Bundle or among PICU specialists deploying pediatric-based Bundle approaches who are unfamiliar with adult medicine. Both groups have been enlisted to augment the adult ICU work force to meet demand. Strategies were identified to facilitate Bundle performance to liberate patients from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: We acknowledge current challenges that interfere with comprehensive management of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Rapid response to new circumstances precisely requires established safety mechanisms and protocols like the ABCDEF Bundle to increase ICU and ventilator capacity and help survivors maximize recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 as early as possible.

11.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0140, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of acute limb ischemia caused by arterial thrombosis due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Clinical observation of a patient. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT: A 59-year-old female with history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and prior smoking. INTERVENTION: Clinical observation and data extraction from electronic medical records. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We report a case of peripheral arterial thrombosis associated with coronavirus disease 2019, resulting in acute limb ischemia of the right lower extremity. This event was heralded by a sudden and significant elevation in d-dimer levels. At the time of surgery, a long, gelatinous clot was retrieved from the right popliteal artery. Perioperatively, she continued to have absent pedal Doppler signals and after multiple embolectomy attempts, required distal arterial cut down with removal of additional thrombi and resultant improvement of distal arterial flow. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates the importance of regularly checking d-dimer levels and vigilant monitoring for arterial thrombotic events, as they can rapidly become catastrophic.

12.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(6): e2973, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care systems worldwide have been affected by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emergence since December 2019. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a steep decrease in elective surgery scheduling, to the extent of complete cancellation without future planning of safe development. PURPOSE: We performed a review of the literature and diagnosis data analysis with the aim to reduce the risk of operating a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 during the incubation period. METHODS: We searched for specific words and phrases about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in the PubMed database (US National Library of Medicine) from December 2019 to April 2020. A detailed analysis of the clinical picture and existing diagnostic tests for COVID-19 was performed to achieve the desired objectives. RESULTS: A total of 1273 out of 5930 articles about COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 did meet the criteria for the searched terms. We reviewed 105 articles, and 60 were selected for analysis. Specific recommendations were described based on our revision. CONCLUSIONS: With the combination of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody tests + real-time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 implemented in different time periods by taking into account the natural history of the disease, it is possible to decrease the risk of operating a patient during the incubation period higher than 93%. Adding other security measures can further increase this percentage. As long as there is no immunity to COVID-19, these measures will help us to perform safer elective surgeries.

13.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(7): e3043, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795022

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presented a dramatic challenge to healthcare systems. Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital (Rozzano, MI, Italy) was declared a regional hub for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Our plastic surgery team, in consultation with our breast surgery colleagues, decided to perform immediate implant-based breast reconstruction for patients undergoing mastectomy for cancer. In this report, we present our experience performing breast reconstruction with a new protocol in the first month following the COVID-19 pandemic in the most affected region in Italy. METHODS: We adopted a new protocol to treat patients with breast cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main goals of our protocol were to reduce the risk of COVID-19 spread for both patients and clinicians, postpone nononcologic and more advanced surgery, develop rapid recovery for early patient discharge (within 24 hours from surgery) through pain management, and finally reduce postoperative consultations. RESULTS: The protocol was applied to 51 patients between early March and early April 2020. After 1 month, we decided to retrospectively review our experience. We found no significant differences in terms of postoperative pain and complication rate compared with our data in the pre-COVID period. CONCLUSION: Our new protocol is safe and effective, enabling tumor resection and immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, without increasing risks to the patient or staff.

14.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 701-704, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus (COVID-19) is an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel corona virus and declared to be a global health emergency and a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Prevention strategies to control the transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as closing of schools, refraining from gathering, and social distancing, have direct impacts on mental well-being. SARS-CoV-2 has a devastating psychological impact on the mental health status of the community and, particularly when associated with psychotic symptoms, it could affect the overall quality-of-life. The virus also has the potential to enter and infect the brain. As a result, psychosis symptoms could be an emerging phenomenon associated with the corona virus pandemic. The presence of psychotic symptoms may complicate the management options of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article review is to elaborate the relationships between COVID-19 and psychotic symptoms. METHODOLOGY: We independently searched different electronic databases, such as Google scholar, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, and other relevant sources published in English globally, by using the search terms "psychosis and COVID-19", "corona virus", "brief psychotic", "schizophrenia", "organic psychosis", "infectious disease", "mental illness", "pandemics", and "psychiatry" in various permutations and combinations. RESULTS: The results of the included studies revealed that patients with a novel corona virus had psychotic symptoms, including hallucination in different forms of modality, delusion, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviors. The patients with COVID-19-related psychotic symptoms had responded with a short-term administration of the antipsychotic medication. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: A corona virus-related psychosis has been identified in different nations, but it is difficult to conclude that a novel corona virus has been biologically related to psychosis or exacerbates psychotic symptoms. Therefore, to identify the causal relationships between COVID-19 and psychosis, the researchers should investigate the prospective study on the direct biological impacts of COVID-19 and psychosis, and the clinicians should pay attention for psychotic symptoms at the treatment center and isolation rooms in order to reduce the complication of a novel corona virus.

15.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 569414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in patients with pneumonia in December 2019 in China and it spread rapidly to the rest of the world becoming a global pandemic. Several observational studies have reported that cancer is a risk factor for COVID-19. On the other hand, ACE2, a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was found to be aberrantly expressed in many tumors. However, the characterization of aberrant ACE2 expression in malignant tumors has not been elucidated. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis of the ACE2 expression profile across 31 types of tumors. METHODS: Distribution of ACE2 expression was analyzed using the GTEx, CCLE, TCGA pan-cancer databases. We evaluated the effect of ACE2 on clinical prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier survival plot and COX regression analysis. Correlation between ACE2 and immune infiltration levels was investigated in various cancer types. Additionally, the correlation between ACE2 and immune neoantigen, TMB, microsatellite instability, Mismatch Repair Genes (MMRs), HLA gene members, and DNA Methyltransferase (DNMT) was investigated. The frequency of ACE2 gene mutation in various tumors was analyzed. Functional enrichment analysis was conducted in various cancer types using the GSEA method. RESULTS: In normal tissues, ACE2 was highly expressed in almost all 31 organs tested. In cancer cell lines, the expression level of ACE2 was low to medium. Although aberrant expression was observed in most cancer types, high expression of ACE2 was not linked to OS, DFS, RFS, and DFI in most tumors in TCGA pan-cancer data. We found that ACE2 expression was significantly correlated with the infiltrating levels of macrophages and dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells in multiple tumors. A positive correlation between ACE2 expression and immune neoantigen, TMB, and microsatellite instability was found in multiple cancers. GSEA analysis which was carried out to determine the effect of ACE2 on tumors indicated that several cancer-associated pathways and immune-related pathways were hyperactivated in the high ACE2 expression group of most tumors. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ACE2 is not correlated with prognosis in most cancer types. However, elevated ACE2 is significantly correlated with immune infiltrating levels, including those of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs in multiple cancers, especially in lung and breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that ACE2 may affect the tumor environment in cancer patients with COVID-19.

16.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S86-S89, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the trend of prevalence of symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some studies have been conducted outside India, but for Indian patients, there is no such study available. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the trends of symptoms in Indian patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (73 males, 24 females, and 3 transgenders) admitted under institutional isolation at a tertiary care center in India using a self-designed survey-based questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of results done based on age and sex. RESULTS: COVID incidence recorded is high in male (73%) as compared to female (24%), yet female patients have a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. CONCLUSION: Male patients are more as far as COVID incidence is concerned, while female patients show high prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. Patients presenting with COVID-positive report suffer a significant burden of symptoms, and timely recognition of symptoms and their management can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19.

17.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001656, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, also called severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originated in Wuhan, China. It has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and has been declared a global pandemic by the WHO. Influenza occurs mainly during the winter, with the burden of disease determined by several factors, including the effectiveness of the vaccine that season, the characteristics of the circulating viruses, and how long the season lasts. We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with influenza A and COVID-19 co-infection. LEARNING POINTS: COVID-19 can co-occur with other viral infections.Some of these co-infections have active treatments, while supportive treatment is the mainstay of treatment for others.

18.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(3): 285-292, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the increased COVID-19 risk shown in transplant recipients, the prevalence, clinical course, and outcomes of COVID-19 infections among liver transplant recipients were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and used to survey medical services for liver transplant recipients seen at our center in terms of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients infected with COVID-19 were identified from 265 liver transplant recipients. Most patients were male and had COVID-19 despite quarantine at home. All patients received modified immunosuppressive drugs during infection with COVID-19 with minor changes in routine immunosuppressive therapy. Among the identified patients, 21 recovered and 4 patients died. One of the dead patients, in addition to having a liver transplant, had brain cancer with metastasis to the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: In liver transplant recipients infected with COVID-19, immunosuppressive drugs seemed to cause only mild to moderate illnesses or even helped them recover from the disease. However, more evidence is needed to prove this hypothesis. It is also recommended that transplant recipients should be warned about personal hygiene and be monitored closely by organ transplant centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
19.
Work ; 67(4): 783-790, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the pandemic process, COVID-19 has a serious occupational safety risk for healthcare professionals. Therefore, determining their health and safety perceptions and attitudes in the pandemic process is very important. This study aims to determine which is more effective in work accident prevention behavior: safety awareness and competencies of healthcare professionals or perception of fatalism. METHOD: For this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to 326 healthcare professionals. The questionnaire consists of four parts: (1) demographic information of the employees, (2) scale of preventing occupational accidents, (3) fatalism perception scale in occupational health and safety, and (4) security awareness and competency scale. Descriptive statistical methods, multiple regression and correlation analysis were used in the analysis of the data. RESULTS: It was determined that the participants' safety awareness and competencies were at the high level and their fatalism perceptions were at the low level. The average of the responses given by the participants to the scale of preventing work accidents was above the middle level. According to the study, the safety awareness and competencies of health workers were found to be about three times more effective on the behavior of preventing work accidents than the perception of fatalism. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it is important to recommend managers to take the step to increase the safety awareness and competencies of those working in their institutions.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational/prevention & control , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Health , Adult , Awareness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
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