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1.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367728

ABSTRACT

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors and editor of the journal Current Diabetes Reviews, due to incoherent content.Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused.The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php. BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submit-ting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105250, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318947

ABSTRACT

Drug-drug interactions (DDI) potentially occurring between medications used in the course of COVID-19 infection and medications prescribed for the management of underlying comorbidities may cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contributing to worsening of the clinical outcome in affected patients. First, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine comorbidities observed in the course of COVID-19 disease associated with an increased risk of worsened clinical outcome from 24 published studies. In addition, the potential risk of DDI between medications used in the course of COVID-19 treatment in these studies and those for the management of observed comorbidities was evaluated for possible worsening of the clinical outcome. Our meta-analysis revealed an implication cardiometabolic syndrome (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes), chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as main co-morbidities associated with worsen the clinical outcomes including mortality (risk difference RD 0.12, 95 %-CI 0.05-0.19, p = 0.001), admission to ICU (RD 0.10, 95 %-CI 0.04-0.16, p = 0.001) and severe infection (RD 0.05, 95 %-CI 0.01-0.09, p = 0.01) in COVID-19 patients. Potential DDI on pharmacokinetic level were identified between the antiviral agents atazanavir and lopinavir/ritonavir and some drugs, used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as antiarrhythmics and anti-coagulants possibly affecting the clinical outcome including cardiac injury or arrest because of QTc-time prolongation or bleeding. Concluding, DDI occurring in the course of anti-Covid-19 treatment and co-morbidities could lead to ADRs, increasing the risk of hospitalization, prolonged time to recovery or death on extreme cases. COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic diseases, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be subjected to particular carefully clinical monitoring of adverse events with a possibility of dose adjustment when necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Interactions , Comorbidity , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Treatment Outcome
3.
Biochimie ; 187: 94-109, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252495

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of a number of vaccines for COVID-19, there remains a need for prevention and treatment of the virus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing disease COVID-19. This report discusses the key elements of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 that can be readily treated: viral entry, the immune system and inflammation, and the cytokine storm. It is shown that the essential nutrients zinc, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D and magnesium provide the ideal combination for prevention and treatment of COVID-19: prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry to host cells, prevention of proliferation of SARS-CoV-2, inhibition of excessive inflammation, improved control of the regulation of the immune system, inhibition of the cytokine storm, and reduction in the effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated non-communicable diseases. It is emphasized that the non-communicable diseases associated with COVID-19 are inherently more prevalent in the elderly than the young, and that the maintenance of sufficiency of zinc, ω-3 PUFAs, vitamin D and magnesium is essential for the elderly to prevent the occurrence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases and cancer. Annual checking of levels of these essential nutrients is recommended for those over 65 years of age, together with appropriate adjustments in their intake, with these services and supplies being at government cost. The cost:benefit ratio would be huge as the cost of the nutrients and the testing of their levels would be very small compared with the cost savings of specialists and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Lung Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
Microcirculation ; 28(7): e12718, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236400

ABSTRACT

Recently, accumulating evidence has highlighted the role of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 progression. Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related risk factors (eg, age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity). Equally, these are also risk factors for COVID-19. The purpose of this review was to explore CMD pathophysiology in COVID-19, based on recent evidence. COVID-19 mechanisms were reviewed in terms of imbalanced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-systems (RAAS), systemic inflammation and immune responses, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulatory disorders. Based on these mechanisms, we addressed CMD pathophysiology within the context of COVID-19, from five perspectives. The first was the disarrangement of local RAAS and Kallikrein-kinin-systems attributable to SARS-Cov-2 entry, and the concomitant decrease in coronary microvascular endothelial angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) levels. The second was related to coronary microvascular obstruction, induced by COVID-19-associated systemic hyper-inflammation and pro-thrombotic state. The third was focused on how pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-related systemic hypoxia elicited oxidative stress in coronary microvessels and cardiac sympathetic nerve activation. Fourthly, we discussed how autonomic nerve dysfunction mediated by COVID-19-associated mental, physical, or physiological factors could elicit changes in coronary blood flow, resulting in CMD in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we analyzed reciprocity between the coronary microvascular endothelium and perivascular cellular structures due to viremia, SARS-CoV-2 dissemination, and systemic inflammation. These mechanisms may function either consecutively or intermittently, finally culminating in CMD-mediated cardiovascular symptoms in COVID-19 patients. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Male , Microcirculation/physiology , Models, Cardiovascular , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e020997, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234323

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis, having killed more than 514 000 US adults as of March 2, 2021. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have unintended consequences on managing chronic conditions such as hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and health disparities in the United States. During the first wave of the pandemic in the United States, the combination of observed racial/ethnic inequities in COVID-19 deaths and social unrest reinvigorated a national conversation about systemic racism in health care and society. The 4th Annual University of Utah Translational Hypertension Symposium gathered frontline clinicians, researchers, and leaders from diverse backgrounds to discuss the intersection of these 2 critical social and public health phenomena and to highlight preexisting disparities in hypertension treatment and control exacerbated by COVID-19. The discussion underscored environmental and socioeconomic factors that are deeply embedded in US health care and research that impact inequities in hypertension. Structural racism plays a central role at both the health system and individual levels. At the same time, virtual healthcare platforms are being accelerated into widespread use by COVID-19, which may widen the divide in healthcare access across levels of wealth, geography, and education. Blood pressure control rates are declining, especially among communities of color and those without health insurance or access to health care. Hypertension awareness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy are essential. There is a need to improve the implementation of community-based interventions and blood pressure self-monitoring, which can help build patient trust and increase healthcare engagement.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Hypertension , Racism/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Hypertension/ethnology , Hypertension/therapy , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(5): 363-375, 2021 May.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219383

ABSTRACT

In over a year, the COVID-19 pandemic caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Social isolation and distancing measures have been the only prevention available for months. Scientific research has done a great deal of work, developing in a few months safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19. In the European Union, nowadays, four vaccines have been authorized for use: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), and three others are currently under rolling review.Vaccine allocation policy is crucial to optimize the advantage of treatment preferring people with the highest risk of contagion. These days the priority in the vaccination program is of particular importance since it has become clear that the number of vaccines is not sufficient for the entire Italian population in the short term. Cardiovascular diseases are frequently associated with severe COVID-19 infections, leading to the worst prognosis. The elderly population suffering from cardiovascular diseases is, therefore, to be considered a particularly vulnerable population. However, age cannot be considered the only discriminating factor because in the young-adult population suffering from severe forms of heart disease, the prognosis, if affected by COVID-19, is particularly ominous and these patients should have priority access to the vaccination program. The aim of this position paper is to establish a consensus on a priority in the vaccination of COVID-19 among subjects suffering from different cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Consensus , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiology , Coronary Disease/complications , Disease Vectors , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Transplantation , Heart Valve Diseases/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Italy/epidemiology , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Medical , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5069-5083, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for poor prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is necessary to enable the risk stratification and modify the patient's management. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the in-hospital mortality and risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All studies were searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was pooled. Odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for evaluation of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 80 studies were included with a pooled in-hospital mortality of 14% (95% CI: 12.2-15.9%). Older age (MD =13.32, 95% CI: 10.87-15.77; P<0.00001), male (OR =1.66, 95% CI: 1.37-2.01; P<0.00001), hypertension (OR =2.67, 95% CI: 2.08-3.43; P<0.00001), diabetes (OR =2.14, 95% CI: 1.76-2.6; P<0.00001), chronic respiratory disease (OR =3.55, 95% CI: 2.65-4.76; P<0.00001), chronic heart disease/cardiovascular disease (OR =3.15, 95% CI: 2.43-4.09; P<0.00001), elevated levels of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (MD =66.65, 95% CI: 16.94-116.36; P=0.009), D-dimer (MD =4.33, 95% CI: 2.97-5.68; P<0.00001), C-reactive protein (MD =48.03, 95% CI: 27.79-68.27; P<0.00001), and a decreased level of albumin at admission (MD =-3.98, 95% CI: -5.75 to -2.22; P<0.0001) are associated with higher risk of death. Patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR =62.85, 95% CI: 29.45-134.15; P<0.00001), acute cardiac injury (OR =25.16, 95% CI: 6.56-96.44; P<0.00001), acute kidney injury (OR =22.86, 95% CI: 4.60-113.66; P=0.0001), and septic shock (OR =24.09, 95% CI: 4.26-136.35; P=0.0003) might have a higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male, comorbidities, increased levels of acute inflammation or organ damage indicators, and complications are associated with the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, and should be integrated into the risk stratification system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(1): 17-26, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187236

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.95-1.44), P =0.151]. We found that the parameters of hyperlipidemia were not associated with the risk of 28-day all-cause mortality [adjusted HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.98-1.55), P = 0.075 in TG increase group; 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07), P = 0.123 in LDL-C increase group; and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.9-1.39), P = 0.299 in HDL-C decrease group, respectively]. Hyperlipidemia was also not significantly associated with the increased mortality of COVID-19 in patients accompanied with CVDs or type 2 diabetes, and in both male and female cohorts. Conclusion Our study support that the imbalanced lipid profile is not significantly associated with the 28-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients, even in those accompanied with CVDs or diabetes. Similar results were also obtained in subgroup analyses of abnormal lipid parameters. Therefore, hyperlipidemia might be not a major causative factor for poor outcome of COVID-19, which provides guidance for the intervention of inpatients during the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 15(2): 147-153, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177359

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 has permeated the very essence of human existence and society and disrupted healthcare systems. The attrition stemming from this highly contagious disease particularly affects those rendered vulnerable by age and infirmity, including those with underlying cardiovascular disease. This article critically reviews how best to integrate supportive care into the management of those affected. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous studies have described the pathophysiology of COVID-19, including that specifically arising in those with cardiovascular disease. Potential treatment strategies have emerged but there is limited guidance on the provision of palliative care. A framework for implementation of this service needs to be developed, perhaps involving the training of non-specialists to deliver primary palliative care in the community, bolstered by the use of telemedicine. The appropriate use of limited clinical resources has engendered many challenging discussions and complex ethical decisions. Prospective implementation of future policies requires the incorporation of measures to assuage moral distress, burnout and compassion fatigue in healthcare staff who are psychologically and physically exhausted. SUMMARY: Further research based on patient-centred decision making and advance care planning is required to ensure the supportive needs of COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease are adequately met. This research should focus on interventions applicable to daily healthcare practice and include strategies to safeguard staff well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Communication , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Advance Care Planning/organization & administration , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Compassion Fatigue/prevention & control , Compassion Fatigue/psychology , Cultural Competency , Decision Making , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/organization & administration
10.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13420, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143806

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has multiorgan involvement and its severity varies with the presence of pre-existing risk factors like cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension (HTN). Therefore, it is important to evaluate their effect on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. The objective of this meta-analysis and meta-regression is to evaluate outcomes of COVID-19 amongst patients with CVD and HTN. METHODS: English full-text observational studies having data on epidemiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were identified searching PubMed from December 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, following Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) protocol. Studies having pre-existing CVD and HTN data that described outcomes including mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) utilization were selected. Using random-effects models, risk of composite poor outcomes (meta-analysis) and isolated mortality and IMV utilization (meta-regression) were evaluated. Pooled prevalence of CVD and HTN, correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio (OR) were estimated. The forest plots and correlation plots were created using random-effects models. RESULTS: Out of 29 studies (n=27,950) that met the criteria, 28 and 27 studies had data on CVD and HTN, respectively. Pooled prevalence of CVD was 18.2% and HTN was 32.7%. In meta-analysis, CVD (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 2.29-4.94) and HTN (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.40) were associated with composite poor outcome. In age-adjusted meta-regression, pre-existing CVD was having significantly higher correlation of IMV utilization (r: 0.28; OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) without having any association with mortality (r: -0.01; OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1) among COVID-19 hospitalizations. HTN was neither correlated with higher IMV utilization (r: 0.01; OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1) nor correlated with higher mortality (r: 0.001; OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1). CONCLUSION: In age-adjusted analysis, though we identified pre-existing CVD as a risk factor for higher utilization of mechanical ventilation, pre-existing CVD and HTN had no independent role in increasing mortality.

11.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13124, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121996

ABSTRACT

Introduction Increased virulence, the severity of illness, and mortality have all been hypothesized with respect to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Our study aims to assess whether ACEi/ARB use in patients with COVID-19 conferred worsened severity of illness or increased mortality. Additionally, we explore the possibility of an unearthed protective benefit due to their interruption of the RAS signaling pathway as observed in cardiovascular diseases. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for studies relevant to COVID-19 severity, mortality, and inflammation in the context of ACEi/ARB use. Eight studies were included with a total of 17,943 patients, 4,292 (23.9%) of which were taking an ACEi or an ARB. The study population was 47.9% female and the average age across all studies was 65. The studies chosen had a sample size of at least 100 patients. Results Mortality outcomes were assessed in six studies and showed no significant difference in mortality among the ACEi/ARB and control groups (odds ratio [OR]: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.48-2.04). Seven studies assessed the severity of COVID-19 and showed no statistically significant difference in disease severity when comparing the ACEi/ARB group to the control group (odds ratio [OR]: 1.30, 95% CI 0.87-1.94). Four studies reported the length of stay with no significant difference between the ACEi/ARB groups as compared to non-users. Four studies included inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-Dimer, which were noted to be consistently lower in the ACEi/ARB groups when compared to control groups, however, this was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our study found no significant difference in mortality, severity of illness, or length of stay between ACEi/ARB users and non-users with COVID-19 infection. These results support the continuation of ACEi and ARBs in the setting of COVID-19 as advised by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA). The decrease in CRP and D-dimer suggests a possible protective effect related to ACEi/ARB use in COVID-19, however, more studies with larger sample sizes are needed to establish this effect.

12.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(2)2021 02 02.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and cancer have been described as possible risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer affects the risk of dying after a COVID-19 diagnosis in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Data were compiled from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases, the Norwegian Cardiovascular Disease Registry and the Cancer Registry of Norway. Univariable and multivariable regression models were used to calculate both relative and absolute risk. RESULTS: In the first half of 2020, 8 809 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 260 COVID-19-associated deaths were registered. Increasing age, male sex (relative risk (RR): 1.5; confidence interval (CI): 1.2-2.0), prior stroke (RR: 1.5; CI: 1.0-2.1) and cancer with distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis (RR: 3.0; CI: 1.1-8.2) were independent risk factors for death after a diagnosis of COVID-19. After adjusting for age and sex, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, hypertension, and non-metastatic cancer were no longer statistically significant risk factors for death. INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factor for death among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was age. Male sex, and a previous diagnosis of stroke or cancer with distant metastasis were also associated with an increased risk of death after a COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Risk Factors
13.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1083-1092, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096414

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The novel coronavirus has caused significant mortality worldwide and is primarily associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Apart from ARDS, clinical reports have shown noticeable cardiovascular complications among the patients of COVID-19. Infection from virus, stimulation of cytokine storm, altered immune response, and damage to myocardial tissue are some of the proposed mechanisms of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19.Areas covered: Based on the clinical reports of CVDs among COVID-19 patients, we have discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular pathogenesis, its prevalence, and association with COVID-19, and various available therapeutic modality for the treatment.Expert opinion: Seeing the cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients and its association with the existing drug, risk-benefit ratio of treatment paradigm, as well as the level of cardiac injury biomarkers must be monitored regularly. Additionally, a well-designed clinical trial should be conducted where head to head comparison can be made with anti-COVID-19 drugs and cardioprotective anti-inflammatory drugs. Nevertheless, vaccines are the best-suited approach, but until then, sanitization, social distancing, and active lifestyle are the best ways to beat this global pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Humans
14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(14): 1599-1609, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091243

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increase mortality risk from coronavirus infection (COVID-19). There are also concerns that the pandemic has affected supply and demand of acute cardiovascular care. We estimated excess mortality in specific CVDs, both 'direct', through infection, and 'indirect', through changes in healthcare. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used (i) national mortality data for England and Wales to investigate trends in non-COVID-19 and CVD excess deaths; (ii) routine data from hospitals in England (n = 2), Italy (n = 1), and China (n = 5) to assess indirect pandemic effects on referral, diagnosis, and treatment services for CVD; and (iii) population-based electronic health records from 3 862 012 individuals in England to investigate pre- and post-COVID-19 mortality for people with incident and prevalent CVD. We incorporated pre-COVID-19 risk (by age, sex, and comorbidities), estimated population COVID-19 prevalence, and estimated relative risk (RR) of mortality in those with CVD and COVID-19 compared with CVD and non-infected (RR: 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0).Mortality data suggest indirect effects on CVD will be delayed rather than contemporaneous (peak RR 1.14). CVD service activity decreased by 60-100% compared with pre-pandemic levels in eight hospitals across China, Italy, and England. In China, activity remained below pre-COVID-19 levels for 2-3 months even after easing lockdown and is still reduced in Italy and England. For total CVD (incident and prevalent), at 10% COVID-19 prevalence, we estimated direct impact of 31 205 and 62 410 excess deaths in England (RR 1.5 and 2.0, respectively), and indirect effect of 49 932 to 99 865 deaths. CONCLUSION: Supply and demand for CVD services have dramatically reduced across countries with potential for substantial, but avoidable, excess mortality during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24151, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072466

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still developing worldwide. The prognosis of the disease will become worse and mortality will be even higher when it is combined with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, COVID-19 is highly infectious and requires strict isolation measures. For acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a common cardiovascular disease, infection may aggravate the occurrence and development of ACS, making the management of more difficult. It will be an enormous challenge for clinical practice to deal with ACS in this setting of COVID-19.Aim to reduce the mortality of ACS patients during the epidemic of COVID-19 by standardizing procedures as much as possible.Pubmed and other relevant databases were searched to retrieve articles on COVID-19 and articles on ACS management strategies during previous influenza epidemics. The data was described and synthesized to summarize the diagnosis and management strategy of ACS, the preparation of catheter laboratory, and the protection of the medical staff in the context of COVID-19. Ethical approval is not required in this study, because it is a review with no recourse to patient identifiable information.Standardized diagnosis and treatment advice can help reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients with ACS. In the absence of contraindications, the third generation of thrombolytic drugs should be the first choice for thrombolytic treatment in the isolation ward. For patients who have to receive PCI, this article provides detailed protective measures to avoid nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Endocr Pract ; 26(8): 923-925, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067862

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered an international crisis resulting in excess morbidity and mortality with adverse societal, economic, and geopolitical consequences. Like other disease states, there are patient characteristics that impact clinical risk and determine the spectrum of severity. Obesity, or adiposity-based chronic disease, has emerged as an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. It is imperative to further stratify risk in patients with obesity to determine optimal mitigation and perhaps therapeutic preparedness strategies. We suspect that insulin resistance is an important pathophysiologic cause of poor outcomes in patients with obesity and COVID-19 independent of body mass index. This explains the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and cardiovascular disease with poor outcomes since insulin resistance is the main driver of both dysglycemia-based chronic disease and cardiometabolic-based chronic disease towards end-stage disease manifestations. Staging the severity of adiposity-related disease in a "complication-centric" manner (HTN, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, T2DM, obstructive sleep apnea, etc.) among different ethnic groups in patients with COVID-19 should help predict the adverse risk of adiposity on patient health in a pragmatic and actionable manner during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(5): 435-443, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060923

ABSTRACT

In this prospective, multicentric, observational study, we describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of people living with HIV (PLHIV) requiring hospitalization due to COVID-19 in Chile and compare them with Chilean general population admitted with SARS-CoV-2. Consecutive PLHIV admitted with COVID-19 in 23 hospitals, between 16 April and 23 June 2020, were included. Data of a temporally matched-hospitalized general population were used to compare demography, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms, and major outcomes. In total, 36 PLHIV subjects were enrolled; 92% were male and mean age was 44 years. Most patients (83%) were on antiretroviral therapy; mean CD4 count was 557 cells/mm3. Suppressed HIV viremia was found in 68% and 56% had, at least, one comorbidity. Severe COVID-19 occurred in 44.4%, intensive care was required in 22.2%, and five patients died (13.9%). No differences were seen between recovered and deceased patients in CD4 count, HIV viral load, or time since HIV diagnosis. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease were associated with a higher risk of death (p = 0.02 and 0.006, respectively). Compared with general population, the HIV cohort had significantly more men (OR 0.15; IC 95% 0.07-0.31) and younger age (OR 8.68; IC 95% 2.66-28.31). In PLHIV, we found more intensive care unit admission (OR 2.31; IC 95% 1.05-5.07) but no differences in the need for mechanical ventilation or death. In this cohort of PLHIV hospitalized with COVID-19, hypertension and cardiovascular comorbidities, but not current HIV viro-immunologic status, were the most important risk factors for mortality. No differences were found between PLHIV and general population in the need for mechanical ventilation and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , African Americans , Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
18.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(3): 575-583, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060427

ABSTRACT

The incidence of large disasters has been increasing worldwide. This has led to a growing interest in disaster medicine. In this review, we report current evidence related to disasters and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, such as cardiovascular diseases during disasters, management of disaster hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19. This review summarizes the time course and mechanisms of disaster-related diseases. It also discusses the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a cardiovascular risk management strategy to prevent cardiovascular events. During the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, we used the "Disaster Cardiovascular Prevention" system that was employed for blood pressure (BP) monitoring and risk management using ICT. We introduced an ICT-based BP monitoring device at evacuation centers and shared patients' BP values in the database to support BP management by remote monitoring, which led to improved BP control. Effective use of telemedicine using ICT is important for risk management of cardiovascular diseases during disasters and pandemics in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Disasters , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 29(1): 20-30, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055187

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it has become a pandemic problem. Cardiovascular diseases are common in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe forms of infection, and these are associated with higher mortality. SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause cardiovascular disease and worsen preexisting disease by direct invasion, hypoxia associated with pneumonia, and immunologic mechanisms. Because prompt detection and proper treatment can be critical to COVID-19 patients, echocardiographic examinations are essential diagnostic tools in the diagnosis and determination of treatment options. However, because there is an increased risk of infection during echocardiographic examinations, healthcare providers should pay attention to mitigate the risk of infection during the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.

20.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 201: 105951, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The new type of Coronavirus (2019-nCov) epidemic spread rapidly, causing more than 250 thousand deaths worldwide. The virus, which first appeared as a sign of pneumonia, was later called the SARS-COV-2 with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome by the World Health Organization. The SARS-COV-2 virus is triggered by binding to the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE 2) inhibitor, which is vital in cardiovascular diseases and the immune system, especially in conditions such as cerebrovascular, hypertension, and diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the prediction performance of death status based on the demographic/clinical factors (including COVID-19 severity) by data mining methods. METHODS: The dataset consists of 1603 SARS-COV-2 patients and 13 variables obtained from an open-source web address. The current dataset contains age, gender, chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes, renal, cardiovascular, etc.), some enzymes (ACE, angiotensin II receptor blockers), and COVID-19 severity, which are used to predict death status using deep learning and machine learning approaches (random forest, k-nearest neighbor, extreme gradient boosting [XGBoost]). A grid search algorithm tunes hyperparameters of the models, and predictions are assessed through performance metrics. Steps of knowledge discovery in databases are applied to obtain the relevant information. RESULTS: The accuracy rate of deep learning (97.15%) was more successful than the accuracy rate based on classical machine learning (92.15% for RF and 93.4% for k-NN), but the ensemble classifier XGBoost method gave the highest accuracy (99.7%). While COVID-19 severity and age calculated from XGBoost were the two most important factors associated with death status, the most determining variables for death status estimated from deep learning were COVID-19 severity and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model (XGBoost) achieved the best prediction of death status based on the factors as compared to the other algorithms. The results of this study can guide patients with certain variables to take early measures and access preventive health care services before they become infected with the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Deep Learning , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Algorithms , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index
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