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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22427, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of COVID-19, numerous rumors emerged on the internet in China and caused confusion among the public. However, the characteristics of these rumors in different phases of the epidemic have not been studied in depth, and the official responses to the rumors have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the rumor epidemic and official responses during the COVID-19 outbreak in China and to provide a scientific basis for effective information communication in future public health crises. METHODS: Data on internet rumors related to COVID-19 were collected via the Sina Weibo Official Account to Refute Rumors between January 20 and April 8, 2020, extracted, and analyzed. The data were divided into five periods according to the key events and disease epidemic. Different classifications of rumors were described and compared over the five periods. The trends of the epidemic and the focus of the public at different stages were plotted, and correlation analysis between the number of rumors and the number of COVID-19 cases was performed. The geographic distributions of the sources and refuters of the rumors were graphed, and analyses of the most frequently appearing words in the rumors were applied to reveal hotspots of the rumors. RESULTS: A total of 1943 rumors were retrieved. The median of the response interval between publication and debunking of the rumors was 1 day (IQR 1-2). Rumors in text format accounted for the majority of the 1943 rumors (n=1241, 63.9%); chat tools, particularly WeChat (n=1386, 71.3%), were the most common platform for initial publishing of the rumors (n=1412, 72.7%). In addition to text rumors, Weibo and web pages were more likely to be platforms for rumors released in multimedia formats or in a combination of formats, respectively. Local agencies played a large role in dispelling rumors among social media platforms (1537/1943, 79.1%). There were significant differences in the formats and origins of rumors over the five periods (P<.001). Hubei Province accounted for most of the country's confirmed rumors. Beijing and Wuhan City were the main centers for debunking of disinformation. The words most frequently included in the core messages of the rumors varied by period, indicating shifting in the public's concern. CONCLUSIONS: Chat tools, particularly WeChat, became the major sources of rumors during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, indicating a requirement to establish rumor monitoring and refuting mechanisms on these platforms. Moreover, targeted policy adjustments and timely release of official information are needed in different phases of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Social Media , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
2.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. FINDINGS: The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Jails , Public Health , Adult , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 561168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389192

ABSTRACT

Providing routine healthcare to patients with serious health illnesses represents a challenge to healthcare providers amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Treating cancer patients during this pandemic is even more complex due to their heightened vulnerability, as both cancer and cancer treatment weaken the immune system leading to a higher risk of both infections and severe complications. In addition to the need to protect cancer patients from unnecessary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection during their routine care, interruption, and discontinuation of cancer treatment can result in negative consequences on patients' health, in addition to the ghost of rationing healthcare resources in high demand during a global health crisis. This article aims to explore the ethical dilemmas faced by decision-makers and healthcare providers caring for cancer patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This includes setting triage criteria for non-infected cancer patients, fairly allocating limited healthcare resources between cancer patients and SARS-CoV-2 patients, prioritizing SARS-CoV-2 treatment or vaccine, once developed, for cancer patients and non-cancer patients, patient-physician communication on matters such as end-of-life and do-not-resuscitate (DNR), and lastly, shifting physicians' priorities from treating their own cancer patients to treating critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Ultimately, no straightforward decision can be easily made at such exceptionally difficult times. Applying different ethical principles can result in very different scenarios and consequences. In the end, we will briefly share the experience of the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), the only standalone comprehensive cancer center in the region.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100378, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275075

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a major social determinant of health affecting more than 10% of Americans. Social determinants of health are increasingly recognized as a driving force of health inequities. It is well established that food insecurity leads to adverse health outcomes outside of pregnancy, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and mental health problems. However, limited data exist about the impact of food insecurity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Food insecurity and other social determinants of health are rarely addressed as part of routine obstetrical care. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the crisis of food insecurity across the country, disproportionally affecting women and racial and ethnic minorities. Women's health providers should implement universal screening for maternal food insecurity and offer resources to women struggling to feed themselves and their families. Reducing maternal health inequities in the United States involves recognizing and addressing food insecurity, along with other social determinants of health, and advocating for public policies that support and protect all women's right to healthy food during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Food Insecurity , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e26956, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid dissemination of scientific and medical discoveries. Current platforms available for the distribution of scientific and clinical research data and information include preprint repositories and traditional peer-reviewed journals. In recent times, social media has emerged as a helpful platform to share scientific and medical discoveries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively analyze activity on social media (specifically, Twitter) and that related to publications in the form of preprint and peer-reviewed journal articles in the context of COVID-19 and gastroenterology during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-related data from Twitter (tweets and user data) and articles published in preprint servers (bioRxiv and medRxiv) as well as in the PubMed database were collected and analyzed during the first 6 months of the pandemic, from December 2019 through May 2020. Global and regional geographic and gastrointestinal organ-specific social media trends were compared to preprint and publication activity. Any relationship between Twitter activity and preprint articles published and that between Twitter activity and PubMed articles published overall, by organ system, and by geographic location were identified using Spearman's rank-order correlation. RESULTS: Over the 6-month period, 73,079 tweets from 44,609 users, 7164 journal publications, and 4702 preprint publications were retrieved. Twitter activity (ie, number of tweets) peaked in March 2020, whereas preprint and publication activity (ie, number of articles published) peaked in April 2020. Overall, strong correlations were identified between trends in Twitter activity and preprint and publication activity (P<.001 for both). COVID-19 data across the three platforms mainly concentrated on pulmonology or critical care, but when analyzing the field of gastroenterology specifically, most tweets pertained to pancreatology, most publications focused on hepatology, and most preprints covered hepatology and luminal gastroenterology. Furthermore, there were significant positive associations between trends in Twitter and publication activity for all gastroenterology topics (luminal gastroenterology: P=.009; hepatology and inflammatory bowel disease: P=.006; gastrointestinal endoscopy: P=.007), except pancreatology (P=.20), suggesting that Twitter activity did not correlate with publication activity for this topic. Finally, Twitter activity was the highest in the United States (7331 tweets), whereas PubMed activity was the highest in China (1768 publications). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential of social media as a vehicle for disseminating scientific information during a public health crisis. Sharing and spreading information on COVID-19 in a timely manner during the pandemic has been paramount; this was achieved at a much faster pace on social media, particularly on Twitter. Future investigation could demonstrate how social media can be used to augment and promote scholarly activity, especially as the world begins to increasingly rely on digital or virtual platforms. Scientists and clinicians should consider the use of social media in augmenting public awareness regarding their scholarly pursuits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/trends , China/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , PubMed/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Pulmonary Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Medicine/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605211021968, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259117

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may be experienced as traumatogenic and may fuel or exacerbate psychological distress and trauma-related symptoms. Based on trauma research, one might expect that survivors of childhood abuse would be susceptible to these negative outcomes during the pandemic, and that among this population a stronger relation between emotion regulation difficulties and symptomatology would be found. Aiming to explore these suppositions, an online survey was conducted among 710 Israeli adults. Of them, 370 were childhood abuse survivors. A history of childhood abuse, COVID-19-related stressors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic were assessed via self-report measures. Participants with a history of childhood abuse had elevated overall psychological distress as well as peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic, compared to nonabused participants, above and beyond demographic characteristics and COVID-19-related stressors. Emotion regulation difficulties were related to elevated psychological distress and peritraumatic stress symptoms among both childhood abuse survivors and nonabused participants. Nonetheless, a history of childhood abuse moderated the relations between the emotion regulation difficulty of being unable to engage in goal-directed behaviors when distressed (on one hand) and mental outcomes (on the other): Although the associations between inability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms were nonsignificant among nonabused participants, they were significant among childhood abuse survivors. The current findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse might be a risk factor for distress in the face of COVID-19, and that childhood abuse survivors would benefit from clinical interventions that promote emotion regulation skills during this ongoing global health crisis.

8.
Ann Plast Surg ; 86(5S Suppl 3): S354-S359, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. As a response, the United States shut down public gatherings and businesses in an effort to quarantine. This included the stopping of elective operations, which greatly affected plastic surgeons and their practices during the initial shutdown. OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the early impact of COVID-19 on the financial implications and practice patterns of plastic surgeons in the state of California during the initial shutdown of elective surgery and provide guidelines for effective management during future crises. METHODS: A 20-question survey was sent using Qualtrics XM software to 851 surgeon members of the California Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey was open from May 13, 2020, to May 29, 2020. Standard statistical analysis was completed to compare private practice and nonprivate practice plastic surgeons. RESULTS: We had a total of 140 respondents to our survey for a 16.5% response rate. The majority (77.1%) of the respondents were in a private practice setting. Private practice plastic surgeons reported a higher financial impact with a 79% reduction in financial income compared with nonprivate practice plastic surgeons at a 37% reduction (P < 0.0001). Additionally, private practice plastic surgeons demonstrated a higher reduction in case volume and were more likely to lay off or furlough staff, close their practice, and apply for loans (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our survey study showed that private practice plastic surgeons in the state of California faced the most financial hardship during the early shutdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. It serves as a valuable snapshot in our economic history and depicts the heavy financial impact of the stopping of elective surgery. Since the reopening of practices, new guidelines have been implemented to maintain safe elective surgery while the pandemic continues. Further follow-up studies on both the state and national level need to be completed to see the continued financial effects on private and nonprivate plastic surgery practices since the reopening and resumption of elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Surgery, Plastic , California , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
9.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5563960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247434

ABSTRACT

Although the numbers of aged populations have risen considerably in the last few decades, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed an extensive vulnerability among these populations. Sarcopenia is an age-related disorder that increases hospitalization, dependencies, and mortality in older adults. It starts to develop in midlife or even earlier as a result of unbalanced diet/poor nutrition and low levels of physical activity, in addition to chronic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Given that social isolation is adopted as the most protective measure against COVID-19, the level of physical activity and the intake of adequate diet have considerably declined, especially among older adults-denoting an increased possibility for developing sarcopenia. Research also shows a higher vulnerability of sarcopenic people to COVID-19 as well as the development of wasting disorders such as sarcopenia and cachexia in a considerable proportion of symptomatic and recovering COVID-19 patients. Muscular wasting in COVID-19 is associated with poor prognosis. Accordingly, early detection and proper management of sarcopenia and wasting conditions in older adults and COVID-19 patients may minimize morbidity and mortality during the current COVID-19 crisis. This review explored different aspects of screening for sarcopenia, stressing their relevance to the detection of altered muscular structure and performance in patients with COVID-19. Current guidelines recommend prior evaluation of muscle strength by simple measures such as grip strength to identify individuals with proven weakness who then would be screened for muscle mass loss. The latter is best measured by MRI and CT. However, due to the high cost and radiation risk entailed by these techniques, other simpler and cheaper techniques such as DXA and ultrasound are given preference. Muscle loss in COVID-19 patients was measured during the acute phase by CT scanning of the pectoralis muscle simultaneously during a routine check for lung fibrosis, which seems to be an efficient evaluation of sarcopenia among those patients with no additional cost. In recovering patients, muscle strength and physical performance have been evaluated by electromyography and traditional tests such as the six-minute walk test. Effective preventive and therapeutic interventions are necessary in order to prevent muscle loss and associated physical decline in COVID-19 patients.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 139-141, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic might increase suicide behaviors. However, results are still limited and inconclusive, especially in adolescents. METHODS: To provide a preliminary evidence of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide attempts (SA), we compared data from the Catalonia Suicide Risk Code (CRSC), during the first 12 months of Spain COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to March 2021) with data of the previous 12 months (March 2019 to March 2020). The CRSC is a well-established population-based registry of suicide attempts (SA) which allows monitoring of the dynamic changes that COVID-19 may produce in a Spanish region. RESULTS: SA among adolescents increased 25% during the COVID-year, whatever, SA among adults decreased 16,5% in the same period. The increase of SA in girls was especially prominent in the starting school period in the COVID-year (September 2020-March 2021), where the increase reached 195%. LIMITATIONS: This study did not evaluate other individual risk factors of SA in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, so is unable to make concrete causal inferences. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that SA increased in adolescent girls during the last period of the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring the need to implement effective preventive measures by public health systems and stakeholders into response during this public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
11.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 38, 2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December, 2019. As drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 remain in development, accurate virus detection plays a crucial role in the current public health crisis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) kits have been reliably used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, whereas isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based point-of-care automated kits have also been considered as a simpler and rapid alternative. However, as these kits have only been developed and applied clinically within a short timeframe, their clinical performance has not been adequately evaluated to date. We describe a comparative study between a newly developed cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA) kit (Kit A) and five RT-qPCR kits (Kits B-F) to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy. METHODS: Fifty-two clinical samples were used including throat swabs (n = 30), nasal swabs (n = 7), nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 7) and sputum specimens (n = 8), comprising confirmed (n = 26) and negative cases (n = 26). SARS-CoV-2 detection was simultaneously performed on each sample using six nucleic acid amplification kits. The sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy for each kit were assessed using clinical manifestation and molecular diagnoses as the reference standard. Reproducibility for RT-qPCR kits was evaluated in triplicate by three different operators using a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive sample. On the basis of the six kits' evaluation results, CPA kit (Kit A) and two RT-qPCR Kits (Kit B and F) were applied to the SARS-CoV-2 detection in close-contacts of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: For Kit A, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV/NPV and accuracy were 100%. Among the five RT-qPCR kits, Kits B, C and F had good agreement with the clinical diagnostic reports (Kappa ≥ 0.75); Kits D and E were less congruent (0.4 ≤ Kappa < 0.75). Differences between all kits were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reproducibility of RT-qPCR kits was determined using a coefficients of variation (CV) between 0.95% and 2.57%, indicating good reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative study to evaluate CPA and RT-qPCR kits' specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and could serve as a reference for clinical laboratories, thus informing testing protocols amid the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(3): 172-183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238266

ABSTRACT

Organizational factors impacting burnout have been underexplored among providers in low-income, minority-serving, safety-net settings. Our team interviewed 14 health care administrators, serving as key decision makers in Federally Qualified Health Center primary care clinics. Using a semistructured interview guide, we explored burnout mitigation strategies and elements of organizational culture and practice. Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed using the Braun and Clark (2006) Thematic Analysis method. Mission-Driven Ethos to Mitigate Provider Burnout emerged as the primary theme with 2 categories: (1) Promoting the Mission: "Bleeders" and (2) Competing Priorities: "Billers." These categories represent various properties and reflect administrators' use of organizational mission statement as a driver of staff recruitment, training, retention, and stratification. Data collection occurred before and during the COVID-19 global pandemic, as such additional themes associated with administrative behaviors during a prolonged, clinical crisis provide insight into possible strategies that may mitigate burnout in this setting.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Administrators , Safety-net Providers , Adult , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 642823, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231389

ABSTRACT

One of the main challenges in higher education is promoting students' autonomous and self-regulated learning, which involves managing their own emotions and learning processes in different contexts and circumstances. Considering that online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic may be an opportunity for university students to take greater responsibility for their learning, it is essential to explore the strategies they have developed in the face of emotional and learning challenges during the health crisis. This study aimed at analyzing the relationships between students' emotions, coping strategies, and self-regulated learning in online learning during COVID-19 home confinement. The participants were 1,290 Mexican students from different universities throughout the country, who answered an online self-report questionnaire from standardized instruments adapted to the pandemic. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential analyses, including a structural equation model (SEM). Findings indicate that, although anxiety, boredom, and frustration were present among participants during confinement, the primary emotions were gratitude, joy, and hope. Second, the main coping strategies used by students participating were focused on facing and reassessing the situation. Furthermore, tranquility, hope, gratitude, and joy were positively related to self-regulated learning, although, loneliness and disinterest were negatively related. Finally, it was found that an approach to coping strategies mediated the relationship between emotions and self-regulated learning. Thus, teachers should help students understand the relevance of active coping strategies and use student-centered learning models that promote autonomous and self-regulated learning, considering each learner's needs, during and after confinement.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 634291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221941

ABSTRACT

Anti-cancer treatment regimens can lead to both acute- and long-term myocardial injury due to off-target effects. Besides, cancer patients and survivors are severely immunocompromised due to the harsh effect of anti-cancer therapy targeting the bone marrow cells. Cancer patients and survivors can therefore be potentially extremely clinically vulnerable and at risk from infectious diseases. The recent global outbreak of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its infection called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a worldwide health emergency, and on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). A high fatality rate has been reported in COVID-19 patients suffering from underlying cardiovascular diseases. This highlights the critical and crucial aspect of monitoring cancer patients and survivors for potential cardiovascular complications during this unprecedented health crisis involving the progressive worldwide spread of COVID-19. COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, COVID-19 has shown cardiac injury symptoms similar to the cardiotoxicity associated with anti-cancer therapy, including arrhythmia, myocardial injury and infarction, and heart failure. Due to the significant prevalence of micro- and macro-emboli and damaged vessels, clinicians worldwide have begun to consider whether COVID-19 may in fact be as much a vascular disease as a respiratory disease. However, the underlying mechanisms and pathways facilitating the COVID-19-induced cardiac injury in cancer and non-cancer patients remain unclear. Investigations into whether COVID-19 cardiac injury and anti-cancer drug-induced cardiac injury in cancer patients and survivors might synergistically increase the cardiovascular complications and comorbidity risk through a "two-hit" model are needed. Identification of cardiac injury mechanisms and pathways associated with COVID-19 development overlapping with anti-cancer therapy could help clinicians to allow a more optimized prognosis and treatment of cancer survivors suffering from COVID-19. The following review will focus on summarizing the harmful cardiovascular risk of COVID-19 in cancer patients and survivors treated with an anti-cancer drug. This review will improve the knowledge of COVID-19 impact in the field of cardio-oncology and potentially improve the outcome of patients.

17.
J Mol Struct ; 1240: 130506, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220974

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented quick spreading of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for causing COVID-19 has put the whole world in vast crisis. Several prophylactic interventions are being performed to discover the effective anti-COVID-19 agent. Thus, the present study aims to identify the cryptogamic secondary metabolites (CSMs) as potent inhibitors of two major targets of SARS-Cov2, namely 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein (SGP), by implementing a computational approach. Molecular docking was carried out on Autodock 4.2 software with the 3CLpro (PDB ID:6LU7) and RBD of SGP (PDB ID:6W41) of the virus. Lopinavir and Arbidol were taken as positive controls to compare the efficacy of randomly selected 53 CSMs. The drug-likeness and pharmacokinetics properties of all metabolites were accessed to discern the anti-COVID 19 activity acting well at the physiological conditions. The docking results predicted that Marchantin E and Zeorin would potentially block the catalytic site of 3CLpro with the interaction energy values of -8.42 kcal/mol and -9.04 kcal/mol, respectively. In addition, Usnic acid revealed its ability to combat the interaction of RBD of SGP to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 in docking analysis. To certify the potent metabolites for both targets of SARS-CoV-2, MD analysis was performed for 100 ns. The results confirmed that Marchantin E could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and RBD of SGP as well as reveals excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The present study suggests that the identified CSMs could be quickly positioned for further experimental validation to propose promising inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(6): 331, 2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219008

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the changes of short-lived climate pollutants and other air pollutants during the COVID-19 pandemic in Tehran, Iran. Concentrations of air pollutants were obtained from 21 monitoring stations for the period from 5 January 2019 to 5 August 2019, representing normal conditions unaffected by COVID-19, and the period 5 January 2020 to 5 August 2020, i.e., during the COVID-19 crisis. We concentrated our analysis on three time windows (23 February 2020 to 15 March 2020, 18 March 2020 to 3 April 2020, and 5 April 2020 to 17 April 2020) during the lockdown when different sets of measures were taken to limit the spread of COVID-19. In comparison to the period not affected by COVID-19 measures, mean concentrations of pollutants were increased during the first lockdown period; when the number of COVID-19 patients increased sharply compared to the other periods, the mean surface concentrations of NO2, SO2, and CO were decreased and concentrations of other pollutants (i.e., O3, PM10, and PM2.5) were increased during the second lockdown period compared to the corresponding period in 2019. In the third period, the mean concentrations were decreased compared to the corresponding period in 2019. For the full period, decreases in mean concentrations of O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10 and increases in PM2.5 were observed during the COVID-19 crisis, compared to 2019. Overall, the strongest reductions, 12% and 6%, respectively, were observed for CO and NO2, pointing to reduced emissions from traffic as a result of lockdown measures. The concentrations of other pollutants changed little, suggesting that the lockdown measures did not result in strong changes in the emissions from stationary sources.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Bioethics ; 35(6): 581-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216724

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an immense and worldwide impact. In light of future pandemics or subsequent waves of COVID-19 it is crucial to focus on the ethical issues that were and still are raised in this COVID-19 crisis. In this paper, we look at issues that are raised in the testing and tracing of patients with COVID-19. We do this by highlighting and expanding on an approach suggested by Fineberg that could serve as a public health approach. In this way, we highlight several ethical issues. As regards testing, questions are raised such as whether it is ethical to use less reliable tests in order to increase testing capacity or minimize harm for patients. Another issue is how wide testing should be and whether selective testing is in accordance with principles of social justice. Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 might have some degree of immunity but attributing certain 'immunopriviliges' raises ethical questions. The use of various tracing methodologies (mobile apps or databases and trained tracers) raised evident questions of social justice and privacy. We argue why it is key to always uphold a test of proportionality where a fair balance must be sought.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/ethics , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing/ethics , Ethics , Mass Screening/ethics , Pandemics , Public Health/ethics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Data Management , Humans , Mobile Applications , Privacy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice
20.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210714

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this survey study was to investigate the impact of Covid-19 on the lives of individuals living with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). SUBJECT AND METHODS: An online survey was distributed through social media to individuals with a diagnosis of PID to investigate behaviors and concerns during the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty seven responses were collected, of which 495 surveys were 100% complete; partial responses were analyzed. Respondents have been extremely cautious and have minimized their potential Covid-19 exposure risk. In this study, 56.6% (n = 289) participated in telehealth visits with the physician responsible for managing their PID during the Covid-19 pandemic. Respondents reported they would be somewhat comfortable with returning to normal activities if there was widespread herd immunity (40.9%, n = 209), an effective vaccine (46.0%. n = 235), or public health protections (44.0%, n = 225). The majority of respondents were extremely concerned (57.3%, n = 293) about additional waves of Covid-19 cases when their state or country reopens. CONCLUSION: The PID community is aware of the health risks posed by this public health crisis, and have done as much as possible to minimize their risk to community exposure. This pandemic has highlighted the importance of continuous medical care for a vulnerable population through the use of telemedicine. Healthcare providers should be aware of the emotional burden and increased psychiatric distress, often presenting as fear, anxiety, or depression, in patients with a chronic medical condition during a public health crisis such as the Covid-19 pandemic.

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