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1.
JGH Open ; 4(6): 1102-1107, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898843

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is associated with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, comorbidities recently related to COVID-19 severity. Here, we assessed if tomographic HS is also a risk factor for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: We included 213 patients with a positive real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and chest computed tomography (CT) from an out-hospital facility and a hospital. We obtained information on demographics; weight; height; smoking history; diabetes; hypertension; and cardiovascular, lung, and renal disease. Two radiologists scored the CO-RADs system (COVID-19 Reporting and Data System) (1 = normal, 2 = inconsistent, 3-4 = indeterminate, and 5 = typical findings) and the chest CT severity index (≥20 of 40 was considered severe disease). They evaluated the liver-to-spleen ratio (CTL/S) and defined tomographic steatosis as a CTL/S index ≤0.9. We used descriptive statistics, χ2 and t student tests, logistic regression, and reported odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Of the patients, 61% were men, with a mean age of 51.2 years, 48.3% were CO-RADs 1 and 51.7% CO-RADs 2-5. Severe tomographic disease was present in 103 patients (48.4%), all CO-RADs 5. This group was older; mostly men; and with a higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and HS (69.9 vs 29%). On multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.058, 95% CI 1.03-1.086, P < 0.0001), male gender (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.03-3.8, P = 0.04), and HS (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-9.7, P < 0.0001) remained associated. Conclusion: HS was independently associated with severe COVID pneumonia. The physiopathological explanation of this finding remains to be elucidated. CTL/S should be routinely measured in thoracic CT scans in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3426-3436, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Headache is an important manifestation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, the aim was to identify factors associated with headache in COVID-19 and headache characteristics. METHODS: This case-control study includes COVID-19 hospitalized patients with pneumonia during March 2020. Controls comprise COVID-19 patients without headache and the cases are COVID-19 patients with headache. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. Headache characteristics were evaluated by semi-structured telephonic interview after discharge. RESULTS: Of a total of 379 COVID-19 patients, 48 (13%) developed headache. Amongst these, 30 (62%) were men and the median age was 57.9 (47-73) years. Headache was associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities and reduced mortality, as well as with low levels of C-reactive protein, mild acute respiratory distress syndrome and oropharyngeal symptoms. A logistic multiple regression model revealed that headache was directly associated with D-dimer and creatinine levels, the use of high flow nasal cannula and arthromyalgia, whilst urea levels, beta-lactamic treatment and hypertension were negatively associated with headache. COVID-19-associated headache characteristics were available for 23/48 (48%) patients. Headache was the onset symptom in 8/20 (40%) patients, of mild or moderate intensity in 17/20 (85%) patients, with oppressive characteristics in 17/18 (94%) and of holocranial 8/19 (42%) or temporal 7/19 (37%) localization. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that headache is associated with a more benign SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-associated headache appears as an early symptom and as a novel headache with characteristics of headache attributed to systemic viral infection. Further research addressing the underlying mechanisms to confirm these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(12): 1578-1581, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595632

ABSTRACT

AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently encountered disease that was declared a pandemic by WHO in 2020. Obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may aggravate the severity of COVID-19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between MAFLD and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control study, enrolling 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of fatty liver by computed tomography scan. All medical records of eligible patients were reviewed including demographic, clinical, laboratory parameters and data regarding the presence of NAFLD and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: NAFLD was identified in 22/71 (31%) of the study group. Out of 71, thirteen suffered from severe COVID-19. NAFLD patients had more severe COVID-19 compared with non-NAFLD subjects, 8/22 (36.3%) vs. 5/49(10.2%), (P < 0.005), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NAFLD subjects were more likely to have severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 14.48, P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION: NAFLD represents a high risk for severe COVID-19 irrespective to gender, and independent of metabolic syndrome specifically in male gender. Moreover, obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were also significantly associated with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 632965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575687

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is raising with a second wave threatening many countries. Therefore, it is important to understand COVID-19 characteristics across different countries. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 525 hospitalized symptomatic COVID-19 patients, from the central federal hospital in Dubai-UAE during period of March to August 2020. Results: UAE's COVID-19 patients were relatively young; mean (SD) of the age 49(15) years, 130 (25%) were older than 60 and 4 (<1%) were younger than 18 years old. Majority were male(47; 78%). The mean (SD) BMI was 29 (6) kg/m2. While the source of contracting COVID-19 was not known in 369 (70%) of patients, 29 (6%) reported travel to overseas-country and 127 (24%) reported contact with another COVID-19 case/s. At least one comorbidity was present in 284 (54%) of patients and 241 (46%) had none. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (177; 34%) and hypertension (166; 32%). The mean (SD) of symptoms duration was 6 (3) days. The most common symptoms at hospitalization were fever (340; 65%), cough (296; 56%), and shortness of breath (SOB) (243; 46%). Most of the laboratory values were within normal range, but (184; 35%) of patients had lymphopenia, 43 (8%) had neutrophilia, and 116 (22%) had prolong international normalized ratio (INR), and 317 (60%) had high D-dimer. Chest x ray findings of consolidation was present in 334 (64%) of patients and CT scan ground glass appearance was present in 354 (68%). Acute cardiac injury occurred in 124 (24%), acute kidney injury in 111 (21%), liver injury in 101 (19%), ARDS in 155 (30%), acidosis in 118 (22%), and septic shock in 93 (18%). Consequently, 150 (29%) required ICU admission with 103 (20%) needed mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the special profile of COVID-19 in UAE. Patients were young with diabetes and/or hypertension and associated with severe infection as shown by various clinical and laboratory data necessitating ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 610-617, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555470

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of direct renin inhibitor aliskiren for the treatment of severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension. Methods: The antihypertensive effects and safety of aliskiren was retrospectively analyzed in three severe and one critical COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Results: Four patients, two males and two females, with an average age of 78 years (66-87 years), were referred to hospital mainly because of respiratory symptoms. Three were diagnosed by positive novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) nucleic acid or antibody, and the critical patient with cardiac insufficiency was clinically determined. Two patients were treated with calcium channel antagonist (CCB), one with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and one with angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist (ARB). After admission, ACEI and ARB were discontinued, one patient with heart failure was treated by aliskiren combined with diuretic.Three patients were treated with aliskiren combined with CCB among whom two withdrew CCB due to low blood pressure after 1 to 2 weeks. Based on comprehensive treatment including antiviral and oxygenation treatment, blood pressure was satisfactorily controlled by aliskiren after three to four weeks without serious adverse events. All patients were finally discharged. Conclusion: Our preliminary clinical data shows that antihypertensive effect of aliskiren is satisfactory and safe for severe COVID-19 patients complicated with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renin/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies
6.
Heart Views ; 21(3): 220-224, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389617

ABSTRACT

Review of the literature and reported case series has not reported an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart transplant recipients. However, this population is at increased risk of a more severe infection with increased mortality because of age and the presence of multiple comorbid conditions There is no significant difference in presenting symptoms in transplant recipients as compared to nontransplant patients, although diarrhea has been reported to be more frequent in transplant patients, a common side effect of immunosuppressive medications. Standard preventive measures have been shown to be equally protective in heart transplant recipients. Risk factors for severe disease and mortality are similar in both transplant recipients and nontransplant patients and include older age and the presence of comorbidities hypertension being the most common. The SARS-CoV-2 infection did not increase the risk of transplant allograft rejection. Currently, there are no specific treatment recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 infection in transplant recipients. However, the International Society of Heart and Lung and Transplant has issued guidance on how to modulate immunosuppressive therapy during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367728

ABSTRACT

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors and editor of the journal Current Diabetes Reviews, due to incoherent content.Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused.The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php. BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submit-ting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.

8.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021035, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine how comorbidities were associated with outcomes (illness severity or death) among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Data were provided by the National Medical Center of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. These data included the clinical and epidemiological information of all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who were discharged on or before April 30, 2020 in Korea. We conducted comorbidity network and multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. The outcome variable was the clinical severity score (CSS), categorized as mild (oxygen treatment not needed), severe (oxygen treatment needed), or death. RESULTS: In total, 5,771 patients were included. In the fully adjusted model, chronic kidney disease (CKD) (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 5.61) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.35 to 7.52) were significantly associated with disease severity. CKD (OR, 5.35; 95% CI, 2.00 to 14.31), heart failure (HF) (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22 to 8.15), malignancy (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.59 to 7.17), dementia (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.45 to 4.72), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.46 to 3.49) were associated with an increased risk of death. Asthma and hypertension showed statistically insignificant associations with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Underlying diseases contribute differently to the severity of COVID-19. To efficiently allocate limited medical resources, underlying comorbidities should be closely monitored, particularly CKD, COPD, and HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of shock index (SI) and modified shock index (mSI) in predicting the intensive care unit (ICU) requirement and in-hospital mortality among coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients who are admitted to the emergency department (ED). Likewise, the effects of patients' conditions such as age, gender, and comorbidity on prognosis will be analyzed. METHODS: The files were retrospectively scanned for all COVID-19 patients over the age of 18 years who were admitted to the ED and hospitalized between January 1, 2021, and March 15, 2021. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess each scoring system discriminatory for predicting in-hospital mortality and ICU admission. RESULTS: There were 464 patients included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 62.4 ± 16.7, of which 245 were men and 219 were women. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension (200; 43.1%), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (174; 37.5%), and coronary artery disease (154; 33.2%). In terms of in-hospital mortality, the AUC of SI, and mSI were 0.719 and 0.739, respectively. In terms of an ICU requirement, the AUC of SI, and mSI were 0.704 and 0.729, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was concluded that SI and mSI are useful in predicting in-hospital mortality and ICU requirement in COVID-19 patients. In addition, another important result of the study is that advanced age, male gender, and hypertension may be associated with a poor prognosis.

10.
Clin Hypertens ; 27(1): 11, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been concerns regarding the safety of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS)-blocking agents including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study sought to evaluate the impact of hypertension and the use of ACEI/ARB on clinical severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 3,788 patients aged 30 years or older who were confirmed with COVID-19 with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were identified from a claims-based cohort in Korea. The primary study outcome was severe clinical events, a composite of intensive care unit admission, need for ventilator care, and death. RESULTS: Patients with hypertension (n = 1,190, 31.4 %) were older and had higher prevalence of comorbidities than those without hypertension. The risk of the primary study outcome was significantly higher in the hypertension group, even after multivariable adjustment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.69). Among 1,044 patients with hypertensive medical treatment, 782 (74.9 %) were on ACEI or ARB. The ACEI/ARB subgroup had a lower risk of severe clinical outcomes compared to the no ACEI/ARB group, but this did not remain significant after multivariable adjustment (aOR, 0.68; 95 % CI, 0.41 to 1.15). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hypertension had worse COVID-19 outcomes than those without hypertension, while the use of RAAS-blocking agents was not associated with increased risk of any adverse study outcomes. The use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs did not increase the risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, supporting current guidance to continue these medications when indicated.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 623608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247874

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension may affect the prognosis of COVID-19 illness. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics associated with the disease severity and mortality in hypertensive vs. non-hypertensive deceased COVID-19 patients. Methods: We included all the deceased patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to >200 health facilities in Wuhan between December 1 and February 24, 2020. The median survival time in COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension, the association of hypertension with the disease severity, and the risk factors associated with the COVID-19 mortality stratified by the hypertension status were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, logistic regression, and Cox proportional regression, respectively before and after the propensity score-matching (PS) for age and sex. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the studied 1,833 COVID-19 patients was 40.5%. Patients with hypertension were more likely to have severe COVID-19 illness than patients without hypertension; the PS-matched multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.44 (1.77-3.08). Moreover, the median survival time in the hypertension group was 3-5 days shorter than the non-hypertension group. There was a 2-fold increased risk of COVID-19 mortality in the hypertension group compared with the non-hypertension group; the PS-matched multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.04 (1.61-2.72), and the significant increased risk of COVID-19 mortality in the moderate vs. mild COVID-19 illness was confined to patients with hypertension. Additionally, the history and the number of underlying chronic diseases, occupation, and residential location showed stronger associations with the COVID-19 mortality among patients with hypertension than patients without hypertension. Conclusion: Hypertension was associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 illness.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder that frequently causes acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the precise clinical and biochemical variables associated with AKI progression in patients with severe COVID-19 remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on 278 hospitalized patients who were admitted to the ward and intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 between March 2020 and June 2020, at the University Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with COVID-19 confirmed on RT-PCR were included. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We evaluated the incidence of AKI, several clinical variables, medicines used, and outcomes in two sub-groups: COVID-19 patients with AKI (Cov-AKI), and COVID-19 patients without AKI (non-AKI). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: First, an elevated incidence of AKI (71.2%) was identified, distributed across different stages of the KDIGO criteria. We further observed higher levels of creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the Cov-AKI group than in the non-AKI group, at hospital admission. On univariate analysis, Cov-AKI was associated with older age (>62 years), hypertension, CRP, MCV, leucocytes, neutrophils, NLR, combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment, use of mechanical ventilation, and vasoactive drugs. Multivariate analysis showed that hypertension and the use of vasoactive drugs were independently associated with a risk of higher AKI in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we preferentially found an altered erythrocyte and leukocyte cellular profile in the Cov-AKI group compared to the non-AKI group, at hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the development of AKI in patients with severe COVID-19 was related to inflammatory blood markers and therapy with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, with vasopressor requirement and hypertension considered potential risk factors. Thus, attention to the protocol, hypertension, and some blood markers may help assist doctors with decision-making for the management of COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
13.
J Hematol ; 10(2): 64-70, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was first discovered in December 2019 and turned to be pandemic in early March 2020. We aimed to describe the dominant ABO group and outcomes of critically ill patients (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and mortality) in a Saudi Arabian setting. METHODS: We conducted an observational, analytic cross-sectional, retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital. Around 90 candidates tested positive for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study during admission to critical care unit between May 2020 and September 2020. Blood group was detected in all patients included in the study during admission to critical care unit. RESULTS: In this study, data of 90 patients with COVID-19 admitted to critical care unit were collected. Some prevalent medical conditions were collected, in which hypertension (64.2%) and diabetes mellitus (58.9%) were the most reported comorbidities among patients and there was no significant difference between groups. Most of the sample had blood group of O (45.6%), while the least group was AB (5.6%). Patients with blood group of A/AB showed the highest mortality vs. group O/B (32% vs. 18.5%) with significant P value of 0.001. Patients of groups A/AB had higher risk for intubation than O/B groups (52.0% and 49.2%, respectively; confidence interval of 0.44 - 2.8 with insignificant P value of 0.055). Length of stay in critical care unit was significantly higher in group A/AB with a mean course of 18.20 days in comparison to group O/B with a mean course of 12.63 days (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that critically ill patients with COVID-19 with blood group A/AB are at increased risk of mortality and length of stay in critical care unit, with insignificant requirement of mechanical ventilation when compared with patients with blood group O/B. Future larger studies are needed to validate and understand the underlying mechanisms.

14.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 33: 101429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225395

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) could be a potential sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in particular in those with hypertension; however, development of PAH after the course of COVID-19 in normotensive individuals are rarely reported. Here, we report a patient who developed PAH two months post-COVID-19. The patient was a 55-year-old female and normotensive, tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), developed mild respiratory distress syndrome and necessitated continuous positive airway pressure during the treatment in the hospital. After two months discharged from the hospital with RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2, the patient presented with exertional dyspnea, dry cough, fatigue and episodes of syncope during exertion. Based on clinical presentation, electrocardiography, computed tomography, and transthoracic echocardiography assessment, PAH diagnosis was made. To our knowledge, this is a rare PAH case and this highlights the possible of PAH as sequala that might present in post COVID-19 patients.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018510, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221677

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disproportionately affects individuals with hypertension and health disparities. Methods and Results We assessed the experiences and beliefs of low-income and minority patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N=587) from the IMPACTS-BP (Implementation of Multifaceted Patient-Centered Treatment Strategies for Intensive Blood Pressure Control) study completed a telephone survey in May and June of 2020. Participants were 65.1% Black and 59.7% female, and 57.7% reported an income below the federal poverty level. Overall, 2.7% tested positive and 15.3% had lost a family member or friend to COVID-19. These experiences were significantly more common in Black (3.9% and 19.4%, respectively) than in non-Black participants (0.5% and 7.8%, respectively). In addition, 14.5% lost a job and 15.9% reported food shortages during the pandemic. Most participants complied with stay-at-home orders (98.3%), social distancing (97.8%), and always wearing a mask outside their home (74.6%). Participants also reported high access to needed health care (94.7%) and prescription medications (97.6%). Furthermore, 95.7% of respondents reported that they continued to take their regular dosage of antihypertensive medications. Among the 44.5% of participants receiving a healthcare appointment by telehealth, 96.6% got the help they needed, and 80.8% reported that the appointment quality was as good as or better than in-person visits. Finally, 88.9% were willing to return to their primary care clinic. Conclusions These data suggest that low-income patients, especially Black patients, were negatively impacted by COVID-19. However, most patients were able to access needed healthcare services and were willing to return to their primary care clinic for hypertension management. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03483662.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Hypertension/epidemiology , Income , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Comorbidity , Culture , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mississippi/epidemiology , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 588692, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206264

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease causes almost one third of deaths worldwide, and more than half are related to primary arterial hypertension (PAH). The occurrence of several deleterious events, such as hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and oxidative and inflammatory stress, contributes to the development of small vessel disease in PAH. Small resistance arteries are found at various points through the arterial tree, act as the major site of vascular resistance, and actively regulate local tissue perfusion. Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that alterations in small resistance artery properties are important features of PAH pathophysiology. Diseased small vessels in PAH show decreased lumens, thicker walls, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress and inflammation. These events may lead to altered blood flow supply to tissues and organs, and can increase the risk of thrombosis. Notably, PAH is prevalent among patients diagnosed with COVID-19, in whom evidence of small vessel disease leading to cardiovascular pathology is reported. The SARS-Cov2 virus, responsible for COVID-19, achieves cell entry through an S (spike) high-affinity protein binding to the catalytic domain of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the RAS pathway. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the relationship between small resistance artery disease, ACE2, and PAH, to understand COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The scope of the present review is to briefly summarize available knowledge on the role of small resistance artery disease and ACE2 in PAH, and critically discuss their clinical relevance in the context of cardiovascular pathology associated to COVID-19.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197391

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The ongoing pandemic of the novel Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented challenge to global health, never experienced before. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Mercy Hospitals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective, observational cohort study designed to include every COVID-19 subject aged 18 years or older admitted to Mercy Saint (St) Vincent, Mercy St Charles, and Mercy St Anne's hospital in Toledo, Ohio from January 1, 2020 through June 15th, 2020. Primary Outcome Measure was mortality in the emergency department or as an in-patient. RESULTS: 470 subjects including 224 males and 246 females met the inclusion criteria for the study. Subjects with the following characteristics had higher odds (OR) of death: Older age [OR 8.3 (95% CI 1.1-63.1, p = 0.04)] for subjects age 70 or more compared to subjects age 18-29); Hypertension [OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6-7.8, p = 0.001)]; Diabetes [OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.7-5.6, p<0.001)]; COPD [OR 3.4 (95% CI 1.8-6.3, p<0.001)] and CKD stage 2 or greater [OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9, p = 0.006)]. Combining all age groups, subjects with hypertension had significantly greater odds of the following adverse outcomes: requiring hospital admission (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4, p<0.001); needing respiratory support in 24 hours (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.7, p<0.001); ICU admission (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.4, p<0.001); and death (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8, p = 0.001). Hypertension was not associated with needing vent in 24 hours (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Age and hypertension were associated with significant comorbidity and mortality in Covid-19 Positive patients. Furthermore, people who were older than 70, and had hypertension, diabetes, COPD, or CKD had higher odds of dying from the disease as compared to patients who hadn't. Subjects with hypertension also had significantly greater odds of other adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6615787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186380

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus causes infection which led to a global pandemic in 2020 with the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining its possible role in predicting severity and intrahospital mortality of COVID-19, alongside with other laboratory and biochemical procedures, clinical signs, symptoms, and comorbidity. This study, approved by the Ethical Committee of Clinical Center Kragujevac, was designed as an observational prospective cross-sectional clinical study which was conducted on 127 patients with diagnosed respiratory COVID-19 viral infection from April to August 2020. The primary goals were to determine the predictors of COVID-19 severity and to determine the predictors of the negative outcome of COVID-19 infection. All patients were divided into three categories: patients with a mild form, moderate form, and severe form of COVID-19 infection. All biochemical and laboratory procedures were done on the first day of the hospital admission. Respiratory (p < 0.001) and heart (p = 0.002) rates at admission were significantly higher in patients with a severe form of COVID-19. From all observed hematological and inflammatory markers, only white blood cell count (9.43 ± 4.62, p = 0.001) and LDH (643.13 ± 313.3, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the severe COVID-19 group. We have observed that in the severe form of SARS-CoV-2, the levels of superoxide anion radicals were substantially higher than those in two other groups (11.3 ± 5.66, p < 0.001) and the nitric oxide level was significantly lower in patients with the severe disease (2.66 ± 0.45, p < 0.001). Using a linear regression model, TA, anosmia, ageusia, O2 -, and the duration at the ICU are estimated as predictors of severity of SARS-CoV-2 disease. The presence of dyspnea and a higher heart rate were confirmed as predictors of a negative, fatal outcome. Results from our study show that presence of hypertension, anosmia, and ageusia, as well as the duration of ICU stay, and serum levels of O2 - are predictors of COVID-19 severity, while the presence of dyspnea and an increased heart rate on admission were predictors of COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Adult , Aged , Antioxidants/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidants/blood , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serbia/epidemiology
19.
J Glaucoma ; 30(3): e50-e53, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183056

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma associated with hyponatremia in the setting of chlorthalidone use and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to demonstrate the challenges of managing this patient given her infectious status. METHODS: This was a case report. CASE: A 65-year-old woman taking chlorthalidone for hypertension presented to the emergency room with headache, pain, and blurry vision in both eyes and was found to be in bilateral acute angle closure. On laboratory investigation, she was severely hyponatremic and also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. B-scan ultrasound demonstrated an apparent supraciliary effusion in the right eye. Following stabilization of her intraocular pressures with medical management, she ultimately underwent cataract extraction with iridectomies and goniosynechiolysis in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare case of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma associated with hyponatremia. Chlorthalidone use and perhaps SARS-CoV-2 infection may have contributed to this electrolyte abnormality and unique clinical presentation. In addition, we discuss the challenges of managing this complex patient with active SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/surgery , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Iridectomy/methods , Acute Disease , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/epidemiology , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(8): 783-790, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176398

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate CT patterns of COVID-19 pneumonia associated with respiratory failure (RF) focused on the distribution of lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were reviewed. CT findings were classified as follows: Type A; patchy ground glass attenuation (GGA) with/without air-space consolidation, Type B; non-segmental GGA with/without air-space consolidation in both the central and peripheral lung portions especially with subpleural spare, and Type C; non-segmental GGA with/without air-space consolidation predominantly distributed in the peripheral lung portion without subpleural spare. We analyzed CT patterns and clinical factors associated with RF, including age categories. RESULTS: The number of patients with Type A, B and C was 31 (37%), 24 (28%) and 30 (35%), respectively. Type C and hypertension were independently associated with RF. On comparing between Types B and C, the frequency of traction bronchiectasis was higher in Type C than in Type B (P < 0.001). The ratio of Type C in patients ≥ 65 years old (66%) was higher than in patients < 40 years old (P < 0.001) and 40-49 years old (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Type C, increasing with age, was associated with RF. Traction bronchiectasis in the lesion was more frequent in Type C than in Type B. Secondary abstract A lesion adjacent to the pleura and hypertension is associated with respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. The frequency of a lesion adjacent to the pleura increased with age. The distribution of lesions is a useful parameter to predict respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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